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- 1 Before -4000
- 2 -4000 – -3000
- 3 -3000 – -2000
- 4 -2000 – -1000
- 5 -1000 – 0 YP
- 6 0 – 1000 YP (1st millennium)
- 7 1000 – 2000 YP (2nd millennium)
- c. -8000–-7500: Second wave of migration to Tuysáfa: Arrival of the Mediundic peoples.
- c. -7000: Beginnings of agriculture in Xšalad.
- c. -7000: Domestication of the dog; development of pottery.
- c. -7000–-6000: Mediundic peoples reach the eastern end of Tuysáfa.
- c. -4300: Earliest copper artifacts (found near Buruya).
- c. -4000: Canoe Culture reaches Sumarušuxi.
- c. -4000: Domestication of cattle in the Bwimbai valley.
-4000 – -3000
- c. -3800: Invention of bronze by the Ngauro.
- c. -3500: Proto-Westerners domesticate the pig.
- c. -3500–-3000: Ultimundic peoples (presumably descended from the Canoe Culture) reach Tuysáfa.
- c. -3200: Domestication of the horse by Western peoples.
-3000 – -2000
- c. -3000: Western peoples spread northwards into the steppe.
- c. -3000–-2500: Tuysáfa Fishing Culture.
- c. -2800: Domestication of the goat in Isthmus territory.
- c. -2500: Foundation of the Old Kingdom in the Yima valley (Xšalad).
- c. -2400: Ngauro control the Aiwa valley as far as the Bwimbai, ruling over the southern Talo-Edasteans (pre-Ndak).
- c. -2300: Ngauro rule declines. Ndak kingdom of Latsomo established; several Ndak-Ngauro wars follow.
- c. -2200: Ndak conquer Kasadgad; Ndak Ta begins to replace Ngauro as the dominant spoken language of the Aiwa delta.
- c. -2200: Gezoro develop iron metallurgy.
- c. -2200–-2000: Ndak conquered once by northern hill tribes, twice by western nomads.
- c. -2100: Xšali invade the Yima valley and destroy the Old Kingdom.
-2000 – -1000
- -1942–-1915: Reign of Terakan—strong expansion of Ndak.
- c. -1900: Rise of the 1st Xšali Empire.
- c. -1800: Small "walled town" city-states develop on the Doroh-Lotoka coast, partly due to trade contacts with the Ndak.
- c. -1600: Antagg state has disintegrated.
- c. -1400: Hitatc have expanded downriver into Latsomo, and upriver into the Eiwəl Gourun.
- c. -1350–-1200: Doroh destroy most of the "walled town" city-states.
- -1310: Faraghin break into multiple baronies.
- c. -1300: 1st Xšali Empire breaks down; the "Period of Warring Kingdoms" follows.
- c. -1300–-1000: Height of the Lukpanic city-states.
- -1258: Temporary Ndak reconquest of lower Aiwa and Oltu valleys.
- c. -1230: Ndak stop maintaining their canal; it gradually fills with silt and becomes just another shallow river channel.
- -1202: Major hurricane destroys coastal Kasadgad cities, sending it into permanent decline.
- c. -1200: The native inhabitants of the High Gourun, the Habeo, have invented the saddle, and have unified into a small nomad empire.
- c. -1200: Coastal Western peoples begin invading Lukpanic territory.
- -1170: Faraghin regain control of the Oltu.
- c. -1100–-900: The Meshi, now with stirrups and saddles, and probably better horses than the Habeo, are ejected by the Habeo and travel east. They come to dominate the entire Aiwa valley.
- c. -1100: Siixtaguna Culture rises in northeastern Peilaš.
-1000 – 0 YP
- c. -900: The Yima valley is united under the 2nd Xšali Empire.
- c. -800: Truce of Deunagho between Faraghin barons enables burgeoning trade and settlement.
- -771: Coastal Westerners conquer Kpitamoa.
- c. -650: Wars with Sertek end the Truce of Deunagho; many Fáralo settle away from the fighting as far as Kasca and Oltumosou.
- -520: Barons of Ussor conquer Miədu.
- c. -500: Damak speakers throw off nomad-Mohudza shackles. Conflict with settled Mohudza to the east exhausts both peoples.
- -480: Ussor invades Kasca, and quickly conquers the delta till Påwe and Momuva'e push it back; decades of war follow, ending with Ussor controlling half the delta with nominal control over the rest. Ultimately Laspera is destroyed and Momuva'e collapses into anarchy, while Påwe recovers, and Miədu drifts in and out of Fáralo control.
- -471: Anheshnalåks conquer the Holy City of Tetsikå.
- c. -250: The large but short-lived Tjakori Empire controls most of the Xšalad plain.
- c. -200: The kingdom of Affalinnei is formed.
- -185: Huyfárah occupies the Dagæm islands, beginning its imperial period.
- -167: Huyfárah in control of Oltumosou; begins pacifying the inland Feråjin.
- -133: Miədu, seeing which way the wind is blowing, voluntarily joins to Huyfárah.
- -112: Påwe conquers Momuva'e, leading to war with Huyfárah.
- -109: Huyfárah conquers Momuva'e (though it does not hold it for long) and occupies most of the Kascan delta.
- c. -100: Rise of the 3rd Xšali Empire.
0 – 1000 YP (1st millennium)
- c. 100: Dāiadak cities expand toward the Ēza valley; missionaries carry Zārakātias' teachings to nearby regions.
- c. 140—: Renewed conflicts and battles between Thāras and Athalē.
- c. 170–180: Semōn the Elder, general and statesman, rises to power in Athalē.
- 183: Thāras is conquered by Athalē, and the royal family is taken to Athalē as hostage; the rise of the Empire of Athalē begins.
- 199: Semōn the Elder of Athalē dies; Semōn the Younger seizes power.
- c. 200—: Expansion of Athalē into the upper Ēza and Milīr valleys.
- 201: Semōn the Younger is assassinated; the Athalēran republic is restored.
- 211: Taizeu-ibauxeu II becomes king of Ngahêxôldod.
- 229–231: Itatizan War: the Empire of Athalē absorbs the lower Milīr.
- 230: Ascension of Etou I; under his rule Huyfárah expands west to the borders of Lasomo.
- 237: A treaty is concluded between Athalē and Ngahêxôldod, fixing the borders in southern Lasomo.
- 248: Etou I of Huyfárah dies; ascension of Etou II.
- 253: Tēmekas I dies; his son Mikha succeeds as monarch.
- 254: Taizeu-ibauxeu II dies; his son Roit-neheu succeeds in Ngahêxôldod.
- 255: Failed Fáralo invasion of Lasomo: Supply lines of the emperor Etou II are cut by Athalēran military at the request of Roit-neheu.
- 256: Roit-neheu is assassinated; Taizeu-mabarô takes power in Ngahêxôldod. Lasomo weakened, Athalē expands its influence.
- 257: Uremas I, son of Phanal, assassinates Mikha, and replaces him as monarch of Athalē (after restoring the zāthar); the threat of civil war forces Uremas I to marry Naiōla, sister of Mikha.
- 260: Taizeu-mabarô dies, probably assassinated; Gexoitsoi-ibauxeu seizes power in Ngahêxôldod.
- 274: Tēmekas II, son of Uremas I, becomes monarch of Athalē; he uses Huyfárah as a model for imperial reform, and is the first Athalēran ruler to use the title Emperor (seathiauk). Gexoitsoi-ibauxeu, king of Ngahêxôldod, revolts against Athalēran domination.
- 275: Tēmekas II of Athalē invades Lasomo.
- 277: First fall of Ngahêxôldod: Empire of Athalē absorbs southern Lasomo; Tēmekas proclaimed king of Ngahêxôldod.
- 278: Gexoitsoi-ibauxeu of Ngahêxôldod dies in captivity in Athalē.
- 279: Oigop'oibauxeu wards off Athalēran campaigns; northern Lasomo united under the rule of Oigop'oibauxeu.
- 294: Etou II dies; civil war in Huyfárah.
- 295: Gadein I emerges victorious and becomes emperor of Huyfárah.
- 310: Tēmekas III succeeds Tēmekas II, but soon dies of the plague; his brother Uremas II becomes the next emperor of Athalē.
- 319: Exodus of the Puoni from Huyfárah.
- 325: Uremas II of Athalē abdicates; Texozonon I becomes emperor.
- 326: Etou III of Huyfárah dies; ascension of Gadein II.
- 328: Various Kascan towns become vassal states of Huyfárah by treaty.
- 336: Texozonon I of Athalē dies. Hekhes rules as regent until 342.
- 342: Texozonon II takes the throne of Athalē.
- c. 343–405: Fáralo Silver Age.
- c. 350: Athalē absorbs the upper Milīr and the Xōron Eiel.
- 351: Huyfárah acquires Buruya.
- 363: Huyfárah absorbs more of Kasca, including (de jure anyway) Momuva'e.
- 370: Huyfárah claims rule over Fmana-hŋ-Talam.
- 375: Baodan I dies.
- 444–453: War between Huyfárah and Athalē, resulting in Fáralo control over Lasomo.
- 453–489: Fáralo recovery; Lasomo is organized as a client state of Huyfárah.
- 489–546: The peak of Athalēran power, and the beginning of Huyfárah's slow decline. Lasomo is lost again and the southern half ceded back to Athalē; the treaty states that northern half will remain independent as long as it is not dominated by Huyfárah in any way. Athalē expands along the Eigə at the expense of Huyfárah. The emperor is removed by the Senate for having lost the war, but returns two years later after his replacement is assassinated. A sense of unease and moral decay. More assassinations. Buruya is lost. The natives of Fmana-hŋ-Talam push back the Fáralo to the northern end of the island.
- 547–584: Civil war in Huyfárah, among three principal factions. In the aftermath, the Malei Dynasty is deposed. The empire shrinks further and loses the coast from Mæmedéi south, which reorganizes as a federation of city-states under the name of Lewsfárah, run by religious and political reformists (calling themselves the Kəgeiru, or "Cynics/Atheists").
- 579–584: Lewsfárah stops fighting Huyfárah, but it is mired in revolutionary chaos.
- 600's: Takuña pirates establish small footholds in areas of ineffectual rule within the disintegrating empire of Huyfárah.
- 786: The end of Huyfárah comes when its capital, Ussor, is sacked by a faction of the Doroh.
- 786-800's: Isthmus chieftains rule over the Oltu Valley. Gradually they are linguistically absorbed by Fáralo speakers.
- mid-800's: Fáralo landowners depose the Doroh rulers, and proclaim a kingdom of Woldulaš ("inheritance-land") on the Oltu.
- 971: Second fall of Ngahêxôldod: Athalē loses southern Lasomo.
1000 – 2000 YP (2nd millennium)
- c. 1000: The Empire of Athalē becomes defunct, and fragments into several successor states.
- c. 1030: Major flood creates new channel through delta in desolate Wï'makwå region.
- c. 1140: Emerging town of Wï'makwå turns channel into a stable, navigable canal.
- 1289: Printing press invented, probably in Rathedān.