Tsinakan text

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Tsinakan text

The Tsinakan text refers to an inscription found on a monumental stele some three miles north of the Kascan city of Momuva'e, the old capital of the Ndak Empire. The monument dates to approximately -1700 YP and recounts the deeds of the great emperor Tsinakan:

Thus speaks Tsinakan, the great king, king of the land of Kasadgad, brother to the sun and moon:
Before I sat on the throne of my father, all the foreign countries were hostile against me. The neighboring foreign countries spoke thus: "his father was a valiant king. He had conquered enemy countries. Then he became a god. But the one who now sits on the throne of his father is a child."
When I, brother to the sun and moon, sat on the throne of my father, even before I went to the foreign countries who were hostile against me, I went to the feasts of the mother goddess. I celebrated them and I lifted my hand toward the shining mother. I spoke thus:
"O my mistress, light of the stars, the neighboring countries who called me 'a child' have belittled me. Then, they have started to attack the borders of your holy land, my mistress! Strike the heathen down!"
The mother goddess heard the words of my mouth. She rose me up and strengthened my arm. I defeated those who rose against me in ten years. I have destroyed them. I captured prisoners, oxes and sheep, and I sent them back to the land of Kasadgad.

Source

The Tsinakan text is not an original creation. Rather, it is an ancient Hittite text [1] which was edited and abridged by Dewrad for use in Akana. As can be seen, some of the peculiar English usage in the text (e.g. "oxes") comes straight from the Hittite translation and is not due to any error on our part.

Comparative translation

Translation of the Tsinakan text is a customary practice in Edastean philological tradition. This section presents a comparative overview of the first two lines in all major Edastean languages.

Ndak Ta

(Proto-Edastean, Kasadgad, c. -1900 YP)

  • Mbi tsip Tsinakan, ngu lu diàka peras, ngu lu diàka âk lu lats um Kasadgad, ngu lu merkat âk Tol on Imbi: Isla raits i ob lu ospàk âk lu mebwe âki mpen, isla im as ewek lats sai, selkon.
  • [ m̩ˈbi ʦɪp ˈʦɪ̃.na.kɐ̃n | ŋu lu diˈja.ka ˈpe.rɐs | ŋu lu diˈja.ka ɐ̃k lu lɐʦ ũm ˈka.sɐd.ɡɐd | ŋu lu ˈmɛr.kɐt ɐ̃k tol õn ɪ̃m.bi ‖ ˈɪs.la rɐɪʦ i ob lu osˈpɐk ɐ̃k lu ˈme.bwe ˈɐ̃.ki m̩ˈpɛ̃n | ˈɪs.la ɪ̃m ɐs ˈe.wɛk lɐʦ sɑi | ˈsɛl.kõn ]
  • say thus Tsinakan, as DEF king valiant, as DEF king of DEF land of Kasadgad, as DEF brother of Sun and Moon: before SUB 1SG on DEF throne of DEF father of.1SG sit-PST.PFV, towards 1SG.OBL COP-PST.IMPF all-PL land foreign, hostile.


Dāiadak languages

Adāta

(Common Dāiadak, Rathedān, c. 100 YP)

  • Sinakan, dizaka xezor, dizaka ax las ax Kāxad, mēkat ax Zama on ax Thālo, ro abise sip: Īlanu i ro ape ob ōpākātia ax meze ai, eze dizakalas rūlas ro īr hēkon īla in.
  • [ ˈsi.na.kan | ˈdi.za.ka ˈxe.zor | ˈdi.za.ka ax las ax ˈkaː.xad | ˈmeː.kat ax ˈza.ma on ax ˈtʰaː.lo | ro ˈa.bi.se sip ‖ ˈiː.la.nu i ro ˈa.pe ob oːˈpaː.kaː.ti.a ax ˈme.ze aj | ˈe.ze ˈdi.za.ka.las ˈruː.las ro iːr ˈheː.kon ˈiː.la in ]
  • Sinakan, king great, king of land of Kāxad, brother of Sun and of Moon, AFF say-HAB.SG this.way: before 1SG AFF sit-HAB.SG near throne of father 1SG-POSS, all king.land foreign AFF be-FTL.HAB.SG hostile to 1SG.OBL

Northern Dāiadak

Æðadĕ (Lasomo, c. 1000 YP)

  • Ævi-n sjeb Sjenkĕn-ro, ðjesk xizor, ðjesk æx læs æx Kāxd, mēxt æx Zæm un æx Tālo: Īlnu je-ro æb-ṇ uv ōbagatjĕ æx miz-aj, iz ðjeskĕlĕs rūlzro vi hēgon īl je-n.
  • [ ˈæ.βin sjeb ˈsjen.kʰən.ɾɔ | ðjeskʰ ˈxi.zɔɾ | ðjeskʰ æx læs æx kʰaːxd | meːxtʰ æx zæm un æx ˈtʰaː.lɔ ‖ ˈiːl.nu ˈje.ɾɔ ˈæb.n̩ uβ ˈɔː.ba.ɡat.jə æx ˈmi.zaj | iz ˈðjes.kʰə.ləs ˈɾuːlz.ɾɔ βi ˈheː.ɡɔn iːl jen ]
  • speak-PAST thus Sjenken-SUB, King great, King of Land of Kaxd, brother of sun and of moon: before I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, all kingdom foreign-SUB be-PAST hostile to I-OBL.

Yād (c. 1600 YP)

  • Ēvin sheb Shenkan, dhyesk hīz, dhyesk ē les ē Kōd, mīht ē Zem un ē Tōl: Ilnu ye ēbin uv ūbach ē mīzē, iz dhyeskal rülz in hīgun il yen.
  • [ ˈeː.vin ʃeb ˈʃeŋ.kʰan | ðjesk xiːz | ðjesk eː les eː koːd | miːxt eː zem un eː tʰoːl ‖ ˈil.nu je ˈeː.bin uv ˈuː.baʧ eː ˈmiː.zeː | iz ˈðjes.kal ryːlz in ˈhiː.ɡun il jen ]
  • speak-PAST thus Shenkan, King great, King of Land of Kōd, brother of sun and of moon: before I-SUB sit-PAST on throne of father-my, all kingdom foreign be-PAST hostile to I-OBL.

Zhaj (c. 2500 YP)

  • Khanıvin sı Shengan ur xız zijsuk, ngin zijsuk et Kod, ngin mixyt et zejm un thor: İrnu wetaluhin zher uv kajrel et mıze, hax! Ryrz isuhuzijsukar wengin xireho ır zher.
  • [ ˈkʰa.nɪ.vin sɪ ˈɕɛ.ŋan uɾ xɪz ˈzɪj.suk | ŋin zɪj.suk ɛt kod | ŋin ˈmi.xʉt ɛt zɛjm un tʰoɾ ‖ ˈɪɾ.nu ˈwɛ.ta.ɺu.hin ʑɛɾ uv ˈkaj.ɾɛɺ ɛt ˈmɪ.zɛ | hax | ɾʉɾz ˌi.su.ʔuˈzɪj.su.kaɾ ˈwɛ.ŋin ˈxi.ɾɛ.ʔo ɪɾ ʑɛɾ ]
  • PRET-speak thus-OBJ Shengan great king, COPULA king of Kod, COPULA brother of sun and moon: before IMPERF-sit I-OBJ on throne of father-1sg:POS alas foreign all-PL-kingdom IMPERF-COPULA hostile to I

Aríe (c. 3700 YP)

  • Khénejin Shéŋanwur lhíphwamwur arírwu’wur, arírwu’wur Khwálha, míu’wur aréjma wón thwára, sý: Ýrnw wétalwu’in aréi wój khejrezla é’a mýrér, ‘éx! Weŋin worwyraj urwurirwukar wowire’wo ýr aréi.
  • [ ˈkʰeː.ne.jin ˈʃeː.ŋɑ.nʷuɹ ˈɮiː.pʰʷɒ.mʷuɹ ˈɑ.ɹiː.ɹʷu.ʔʷuɹ | ˈɑ.ɹiː.ɹʷu.ʔʷuɹ ˈkʰʷɒː.ɮɑ | ˈmiːɯ.ʔʷuɹ ˈɑ.ɹeːj.mɑ woːn ˈtʰʷɒ.ɹɑ | sʉː ‖ ʉːɹnʷ ˈwøː.tɑ.lʷu.ʔin ˈɑ.ɹeː.i woːj ˈkʰej.ɹe.tɬɑ ˈeː.ʔɑ ˈmɨː.ɹeːɹ | ʔeːx | ˈwø.ŋin ˈwo.ɹʷʉ.ɹɑj ˈɯ.ɹʷu.ɹi.ɹʷu.kɑɹ ˈwo.wy.ɹe.ʔʷo ɨːɹ ˈɑ.ɹeːi ]
  • PST.PERF-speak Shéŋan-NPOS.ERG mighty-NPOS.ERG king-NPOS.ERG, king-NPOS.ERG Khwálh-POS.NSP.OBL, brother-NPOS.ERG sun-POS.NSP.OBL and moon-POS.NSP.OBL, this-NPOS.OBL: before PST.IMPF-sit 1SG-OBL on throne-POS.NSP.OBL of father-POS.SP.OBL, alas! COP.PST.IMPF PL-foreign all.PL-kingdom PL-hostile to 1SG-OBL

Arie (c. 4500 YP)

  • Wùen Shehŋan arirù jurun, arirùai Kwohlh, mihùai arem won twà: ynw wetalwùin are woi keretl è my are, ehx! Wehŋ ihrarirù rwaurai xihreu y are.
  • [ ˈwṵ.ʔen ˈʃɛ.ŋɑn ˈʔɑ.ɹi.ɹṵ ˈjɯ.ɹun | ˈʔɑ.ɹi.ɹṵ.ʔɑj kʷɔɬ | ˈmi.hṵ.ʔɑj ˈʔɑ.ɹem won tʷɑ̰ ‖ ʔɨnʷ ˈwe.tɑ.lʷjn ˈʔɑ.ɹe wɔj ˈke.ɹetɬ ḛ mɨ ʔɑ.ɹe | ʔɛx | wɛŋ ˈʔɪ.ɹɑ.ɹi.ɹṵ ˈrʷɑɤ.ɹɑj ˈxɪ.ɹeɤ ʔɨ ʔɑ.ɹe ]
  • PAST-speak Shehŋan-ANP(1) king-ANP mighty king-AP Kwohlh-ANP brother-AP sun-ANP and moon-ANP: before PAST-sit I-ABS on throne-ANP of father-AP I-ABS, alas! PAST-be all-king-ANP foreign hostile to I-ABS

Central Dāiadak

Aθáta (Rathedān, c. 1000 YP)

  • Áfsian sif Síncan, θíscesor, θíscān Câθlas, méxθāx Sáma 'n Θálo: Ílnu ápin of-pacátiān mésein, ése θísclas rúlas ir écon ilín.
  • [ ˈav.ʒan ʃɪf ˈʃɪŋ.kan ˈθɪs.ce.zɔɾ ˈθɪs.kaːn ˈkaːð.las ˈmeʝ.ðaːx ˈsa.man ˈθa.lo ‖ ˈɪl.nu ˈa.pɪn ɔf.paˈka.caːn ˈme.zeɪn ˈe.ze ˈθɪs.klas ˈɾu.las ɪɾ ˈe.cɔn iˈlɪn ]
  • speak-IMP-3SG thus Síncan king=great king-3SG Cāθ=land brother-3PL Sun and Moon: before sit-HAB-1SG on throne-3SG father-1SG all country foreign be-PERF hostile to-1SG

E'át (Milīr valley, c. 1600 YP)

  • Avlavan shif Shinkan, shiscazar, shisken Kelas, mlaka’en sam an sal: Aplin iln afpakáca’en mlazhin, ejavax shisklazax azhax rulazax akan ilín.
  • [ ˈav.lə.vən ʃif ˈʃiŋ.kən | ˈʃis.cə.zər | ˈʃis.keːn ˈkeː.ləs | ˈmla.kə.ʔeːn sam an sal ‖ ˈap.lin əf.pəˈka.cə.ʔeːn ˈmla.ʒin | ˈeːja.vax ˈʃis.klə.zəx ˈa.ʒəx ˈru.lə.zəx ˈa.kən iˈlin ]
  • speak-PERF-3SG thus Shinkan, greatking, king-3SG Ke=land, brother-3SG sun and moon: sit-HAB-1SG before on-throne-3SG father-1SG, be-PERF-3PL country-PL all-PL foreign-PL hostile to-1SG-ACC

Yhát (c. 2400 YP)

  • Tsínqan, tsískazar, tsísken Qáles, maláqan sám an sál, évvon tsif: Ilálpaj vin afpaqáken maládzin, aqóna hetsísklasa ádza rúlasa sin.
  • [ ˈʦiɴ.qən | ˈʦis.kə.zaʁ | ˈʦis.ken ˈqa.les | məˈla.qən sam an sal | ˈev.von ʦif ‖ iˈlal.paj vin əf.pəˈqa.ken məˈla.ʣin | əˈqo.nə heˈʦis.klə.sə ˈa.ʣə ˈʁu.lə.sə sin ]
  • Tsínqan, greatking, king-POSS-3SG Qa=land, brother-POSS-3SG sun and moon, speak-PERF-3SG thus: SPRV-sit-INF 1SG-NOM on-throne-POS-3SG father-POSS-1SG, act.hostile-HAB-3PL PL-country-PL all-PL foreign-PL 1SG-DAT

Erhadzy (c. 3700 YP)

  • Tşíşərheaƞ û, Kálesenə tşíşeaƞ û, saƞzál-məláʻeaƞ êwoƞ Tşíƞkaƞ tşy éulëıwoƞ: Məláınə pəkákufaƞ áıbiƞ íl, áınə sŏtógunio wíƞsaƞ əkónëıo.
  • [ 'ʨi.ɕə.ɹ̥ʰɛ.ɑ̃ː ˈy | ˈkɑ.lɛ.sɛ.nə ˈʨi.ɕɛ.ɑ̃ː ˈy | sɑ̃ːˈzɑl.mə.ˈlɑ.ʔɛ.ɑ̃ː ˈewɔ̃ː ˈʨĩːkɑ̃ː ʨɨ ˈɛ.u.leː.wɔ̃ː ‖ məˈlɑː.nə pəˈkɑ.ku.ɸɑ̃ː ˈɑː.bĩː il | ˈɑː.nə səˈto.ɡu.ni.o ˈwĩː.sɑ̃ː əˈko.neː.o ]
  • great.king-ESS be-INF, Kalese-GEN king-ESS be-INF, sun.and.moon-brother-ESS be-PST-3SG Tşínkan-TOP thus say-HON-INF-HAB-PST-3SG: father-GEN throne-ADESS sit-HAB-1SG before-TOP, all-GEN foreign.country-NOM 1SG-DAT act.hostile-INF-HAB-PST-3PL

Ferahic

Adhāsth (Thāraspē, c. 1000 YP)

  • Әr àḃiḃḃ şip, Şèınaċan, àeıen aċċ şèatşeıoac ḣèzoar, ən àeıen aċċ şèıatşeıoac ah làh ah Cáḣat, ən àeıen aċċ méċat ah zàmm ən ṫáll: Éılanŭ y ər àff əḃ ōfáċāţeıə ah mèşş aıj, èşş làh ḣèıl əċ ər ḃèʒy ḣéċon éıll ìn.
  • [ əɹ ˈɑβiβː ˈʃip | ˈʃ.nɑ.xɑ̃n | ˈɑ.e.ɛ̃n ɑxː ˈʃɛ.ɑ.ʧe.ɔk ˈɦɛ.zɔɹ | ə̃n ˈɑ.e.ɛ̃n ɑxː ˈʃɛ.ɑ.ʧe.ɔk ɑh ˈlɑh ɑh ˈkɑː.ɦɑt | ə̃n ˈɑ.e.ɛ̃n ɑxː ˈmɛː.xɑt ɑh ˈzɑ̃ə̃n ˈθɑːlː ‖ ˈeː.lɑ̃.nɯ ɨ əɹ ˈɑɸː əβ oːˈɸɑː.xɑː.ɕe.ə ɑh ˈmɛʃː æj | ˈɛʃː ˈlɑh ˈɦel əx əɹ βɛ.ʒɨ ˈɦɛː.xõn eːlː ˈĩn ]
  • AFF=speak-AOR.HON thus, Sinacan, be.PST.SG-PTCP=3SG emperor great, and=be.PST.SG-PTCP-3SG emperor=POSS country=POSS Caghad, and=be.PST.SG-PTCP-3SG brother-POSS sun and moon: before 1SG=AFF=sit-HAB.SG ADESS=throne=POSS father=1SG, all country foreign 3PL=AFF=be.PST.PL-IMP hostile ALLAT=1SG

Ayāsthi (Thāraspē, c. 1600 YP)

  • Әr-àuıw şìp, Sìnacaṅ, àeıen’aċ şèatşeıoac ġèzoar, ən-àeıen’aċ şèatşeıoac’a làh’a Cáġat, ən-àeıen’aċ méċat’a zàma əṅ tsálo: Éılany àfeıen’aı əv-ōfáċāseı’a mèşş’aı, èşş làh ġèıl əċ-ər-vèʒy àfeıen’aċa ēıll-ìṅ as’-géċoṁ.
  • [ əˈɹɑ.wy.u ˈʃip | ˈʃi.nɑ.kɑ̃ | ˈɑ.e.ɛ.nɑx ˈʃɛ.ɑ.ʧe.ɔk ˈɦɛ.zɔ˞ | əˈnɑ.e.ɛ.nɑx ˈʃɛ.ɑ.ʧe.ɔ.kɑ ˈlɑ.hɑ ˈkɑː.ɦɑt | əˈnɑ.e.ɛ.nɑx ˈmɛː.xɑ.tɑ ˈzɑ.mɑ ə̃ ˈʦɑː.lo ‖ ˈeː.lɑ.nɨ ˈɑ.ɸe.ɛ.næ ə.woːˈɸɑː.xɑː.se.ɑ ˈmɛʃ.ʃæ | ˈɛʃː ˈlɑh ˈɦel ə.xəɹˈwɛ.ʒɨ ˈɑ.ɸe.ɛ.nɑ.xɑ eːlˈlĩ ɑsˈʔɛː.xɔ̃ ]
  • 3SG-AFF-speak-AOR.HON thus, Sinacan, be.PST.SG-PTCP-3SG emperor great, and=be.PST.SG-PTCP-3SG emperor-POSS country-POSS Caghad, and=be.PST.SG-PTCP-3SG brother-POSS sun and moon: before sit-PTCP-1SG ADESS=throne-POSS father-1SG, all country foreign 3PL-AFF-be.PST.PL-IMP sit-PTCP-3PL ALLAT-1SG INST-hostile

A'gɑf (Republic of Fadah, c. 2500 YP)

  • Åxø ødaɡanø xep Sinakha, dagdisakha øge gadoğ, dagdisakhahåxø øgølådåxø øgøxaxad, dagbaixåfåxok øgødåm åsø faul: åfenø øxø dødafåxø øgophakhathjahåxø øgøbaxøxø sol ailådø, ødaixodø daulåh agøxke nai.
  • [ ˈɑ.xø øˈdæ.gæ.nø xep ˈsi.næ.kʰæ | dægˈdi.sæ.kʰæ ˈø.gɛ ˈgæ.dɔɰ | dægˈdi.sæ.kʰæ.hɑ.xø ø.gøˈlɑ.dɑ.xø ø.gøˈxæ.xæd | dægˈbæɪ.xɑ.fɑ.xɔk ø.gøˈdɑm ˈɑ.sø fæʊl ‖ ˈɑ.fɛ.nø ˈø.xø døˈdæ.fɑ.xø øˈgo.pʰæ.kʰæ.tʰʲæ.hɑ.xø ø.gøˈbæ.xø.xø sɔl ˈæɪ.lɑ.dø øˈdæɪ.xɔ.dø ˈdæʊ.lɑh æˈgøx.kɛ næɪ ]
  • 3SG PRV-speak-3SG.PRF thus Sinakha, ESS-king the great, ESS-king-POSS.3SG GEN-land-POSS.3SG GEN-Kaxad, ESS-brother-POSS.3PL GEN-sun and moon: sit-1SG.PRF 1SG DAT-top-POSS.3SG GEN-throne-POSS.3SG GEN-father-POSS.1SG when before, PRV-hostile-3PL.PRF rival.country all 1SG.DAT

Yïåf (c. 3200 YP)

  • Èvön Sinhan, gierha garoï, gierha ögcahad, baïhåt öghèimènra årüö ögfaor årüö: gièzåt puöïåftün gièofhèr ögbah ngüö, råïauien aïac ögdaoråh nai.
  • [ ˈɛ.vø̃ ˈʃĩ.hæ̃ | ˈʝeʀ.ɦæ ˈɡæ.ʀoɯ | ˈʝeʀ.ɦæ øɡ.ɡæˈhæd | bæɯ.hɑt øɡ.ɦɛ̃iˈmɛ̃.ʀæ ɑˈʀy.ø øɡˈvæ.oʀ ɑˈʀy.ø ‖ ˈʝɛ.zɑt puˈø.ɰɑf.tỹ ˈʝɛ.of.hɛʀ øɡˈbæh ˈŋy.ø | ʀɑˈɰæu.jẽ æˈɰæk øɡ.dæˈo.ʀɑh næj ]
  • speak-PST-PRF-3SG Sinhan, king great, king ADJ-Cahad, brother ADJ-sun yes ADJ-moon yes: INESS-time NEG-sit-PST-PRF-1SG INESS-throne ADJ-father 1SG-ERG, foreign.country every ADJ-enemy 1SG-DAT

Ghaf (c. 3900 YP)

  • Hyep jevö Šihä, jerhä garoğ ghe, jerhä jeKähäd, baghat dühiymrä äryö, dufaor äryö: Rëzat, retähyö darsoyaftu yehyö jöfer rebähöh, räghävrefäk äghöd hïrëho nay.
  • [ çɛ́p ˈʤɛ́vœ ʃiˈhæ̂ | ʤɛˈr̻æ̂ ɡɑˈrɔ̂ɰ ɣɛ́ | ʤɛˈr̻æ̂ ʤɛ.kæˈhæ̂d | bɑˈɣɑ̂t dy.hɪjmˈræ̀ æˈrʲœ̂ | duˈfɑ́or æˈrʲœ̂ ‖ rʌˈzɑ́t | rɛ.tæˈçœ̂ dɑr.sɔˈjɑ́f.tu jɛˈçœ̂ ʤœˈfɛ̂r rɛˈbǽ.hœh | ræ.ɣævˈrɛ̀.fæk æˈɣœ́d hɯ.rʌˈhɔ̀ náj ]
  • thus SBJV-speak-3SG.PST Šihä, king[ABS] great DEF.SG, king[ABS] LOC-Kähäd, brother[ABS] DAT-sun and DAT-moon and: ABL-time ABL-REL SBJV.NEG-sit-1SG.MOD 1SG.ABS LOC-throne ABL-father=my, foreign.country[ABS]-PL all hostile 1SG.DAT

Khalanic

Mavakhalan (Khalanu, c. 1000 YP)

  • Źnaką, źmêjenaka jêv-žzakǫ xezor, ǫ-jêv-śjąžzaka aźnla akoxaðą, ǫ-jêv-śjênmêka azama ǫ-aþolǫ, rovʼ śjêś: Ilan rope jê ov-źnôpokoťja aśjênmezej, roirapê eze śjêžzakalaso rula ate-hêkǫ ila-ję.
  • [ ˈʒna.kɑ̃ | ˈʒme.jɛ.na.ka jeβˈʒ̩.za.kɔ̃ ˈxɛ.zɔɹ | ɔ̃.jeβ.ʃɑ̃ˈʑ̩.za.ka aʒ.n̩ˈla aˈkɔ.xa.ðɑ̃ | ɔ̃.jeβ.ʃenˈme.ka aˈzɑ.ma ɔ̃.aˈθɔ.lɔ̃ | rɔβʲ ʃeʃ ‖ ˈi.lɑn rɔˈpɛ je ɔβ.ʒnoˈpɔ.kɔ.ʨa a.ʃenˈmɛ.zɛj | rɔiˈra.pe ˈɛ.zɛ ʃeˈʑ̩.za.ka.la.sɔ ˈru.la a.tɛˈhe.kɔ̃ ˈi.la.jɛ̃ ]
  • Źnakan-NOM, live-PTCP-3SG ESS=king-ACC.SG great, and=ESS=DEF.ACC.SG-king-CONS GEN-DEF.ACC.SG-land-CONS GEN-Koxadh-ACC.SG, and=ESS=DEF.ACC.SG-brother-CONS GEN-sun-CONS and=GEN-moon-ACC.SG, IND-speak-HAB.SG thus: before IND-sit-HAB.SG 1SG.NOM ADESS=DEF.ACC.SG-throne-CONS GEN-DEF.ACC.SG-father-1SG ANTIBEN-sit-IMP.PL all DEF.NOM-kingdom-NOM.PL foreign INST=hostile DAT=1SG.ACC

Koyic

Kozado (Abukho/NW Khalanu, c. 1200 YP)

  • Ze Senoko, ze šerú šazu, ze ðezoklo Kahodo ze šerú ok, ze Zom pa ze Thal ze mekot oka, ro abes sep: Ilo e ro o oth ze mez oz ze pakeþe ok apeža, ez ðezoklo rylo ro ba šeko il oz.
  • [ ze ˈse.no.ko | ze ɕeˈru ˈɕa.zu | ze ˈðe.zok.lo ˈka.ho.do ze ɕeˈru ok | ze zom pa ze tʰal ze ˈme.kot oka | ro ˈa.bes sep ‖ ˈi.lo e ro o otʰ ze mez oz ze ˈpa.ke.θe ok ˈa.pe.ʑa | ez ˈðe.zok.lo ˈrɨ.lo ro ba ˈɕe.ko il oz ]
  • DEF Senoko, DEF king great, DEF land Kahod-ADJ DEF king 3SG.OBL, DEF sun and DEF moon DEF brother 3PL.OBL, AFF say-IMPF.SG so: before 1SG AFF be.PERF.SG in DEF father 1SG.OBL DEF throne 3SG.OBL be-VN, all land foreign AFF be.PERF.PL hostile to 1SG.OBL

Western Dāiadak

Mešmo Koyʔōn (Xōron Eiel, c. 1200 YP)

  • Šinnan, ececen liʔélociska, ececen licískaʔe liláh a-Kāʔan, ececen limīktakaq lilám on liyēpe, lawin ʔap: Yono ʔipáʔespiyeni onniyopākiska limeli, yapīkonti eu assaqōlała aylin.
  • [ ˈʃin.nɑn | ɛˌʦɛ.ʦɛn liˈʔɛ.loˌʦɪs.kɐ | ɛˌʦɛ.ʦɛn liˈʦɪs.kɐ.ʔɛ liˌlɑx ɐˈkɑː.ʔɑn | ɛˌʦɛ.ʦɛn liˈmiːk.tɐˌkɑq lˤɪˌlɑm ɔn liˈjɛː.pɛ | ˌlɑ.β̞in ˈʔɑp ‖ ˌjo.no ʔiˈpɑ.ʔɛs.piˌjɛ.ni ˌjɔn.ni.joˈpɑː.kɪs.kɐ liˈmɛ.li | jɐˈpiː.kɔn.ti jɛʊ ˌwɑs.sˤɑˈqɔː.lˤɑ.ɬɑ ˌɦaɪ.lin ]
  • Šinnan, INS-be.VN DEF.SG-great-king, INS-be.VN DEF.SG-king-3SG.INAN DEF.SG-land ABL-Kāʔan, INS-be.VN DEF.SG-brother-3PL.ANIM DEF.SG-sun and DEF.SG-moon, EMPH-say-PERF.SG thus: before CL(LOC)-hold-PERM-VN-1SG LOC-DEF.SG-throne-3SG.ANIM DEF.SG-father-1SG, CL(FOE)-be.hostile-HAB.PL all ABL-DEF.PL-foreign.country 1SG.DAT

Eastern Dāiadak

Pencek (Tah Ici, c. 1100 YP)

  • Si Sinkan, si tirk hazar, si tirk Kazcak, si nekat zanak o tharak, a pin sik raz: Hert aphenc asa phakacak nazi, aza tirkars runs, ak par henk then.
  • [ si ˈsiːn.kan | si ˈtiːɾk ˈhaː.ʂaɾ | si ˈtiːɾk ˈkaːʂ.ʈʂak | si ˈneː.ɡat ˈʂaː.nak ə ˈtʰaː.ɾak | a ˈpiːn sik ˈɾaːʂ ‖ ˈçeːɾt aˈˀpʰeːnʈʂ aˌsaː ˈpʰaː.ɡaːˌʈʂak ˈnaː.ʂi | aˌʂaː ˈtiːɾ.kaɾs ˈruːns | ak ˌpaɾ ˈçeːnk ˈtʰe:n ]
  • this Sinkan, this king great, this king Kazc-POSS.3P, this brother sun-POSS.3 and moon-POSS.3P, 3SG say-PRF this-PL word: up.to-1SG sit-SUP on-3P throne-POSS.3P father-POSS.1SG, all country foreign be-PRF hostile towards-1SG

Ndok languages

Ndok Aisô

(Lasomo, c. 200 YP)

  • Êtsdehad, ru dixêheu mêgeu, od ru mekeuta Aitol od Ngadagoi, od ru dixêheuxa Axôkseuhod, wisoideu ngugoi: Isleu i noi keutsa woi mege mpêd, egek lots tablik edeusas êb ê.
  • [ ɜʦ.deˈhaʔ | ɾu diˌʔɜː.hɛw ˈmɜːɣɛw | oʔ ɾu meˈkɛːw.ta ajˈtol oʔ ŋaˈðaː.ɣɔj | oʔ ɾu di.ʔɜˈhɛːw.ʔa a.ʔɞk.sɛwˈhoʔ | wiˌsɔːj.ðɛw ˈŋuː.ɣɔj ‖ ˈɪs.lɛw i nɔj ˈkɛːw.ʦa wɔj ˈmeː.ɣe m̩ˌpɜʔ | eˌɣek̚ loʦ̚ tabˌlɪk̚ e.ðɛwˈsas ɜɓ ɜ ]
  • Êtsdehad, as king mighty[NOM.SG], and as brother-ANT Sun and Moon, and as king-ANT Axôkseuhod, speak-LEG.SG thus: Before 1SG.NOM on throne-ANT 1SG.GEN father sit-PFV.SG, all land foreign-NOM.PL act.hostile-IMPF.PL to 1SG.ACC

Kascan languages

Buruya Nzaysa

(Buruya, c. 300 YP)

  • Nzɔ de’áxa Tsənaxa, ño lo sɛtsa’ɔk, ño lo de’áxa u Kasaga, ño lo mɛya ayru Tol o Əbe kwə, sa nzɔ xa mpaskale: Steyə rabɛ lu ñire lu mvunə poxe o lu pɛlɔ ah lo mɛwɛ axe, maxə ɔra latsi əbɔwə səyo.
  • [ ˌnzɔ deˈʔa.xa ˈʦʰə.na.xa | ˌɲo lo ˈsɛ.ʦaˌʔɔk | ˌɲo lo deˈʔa.xa ʔu ˈkʰa.sa.ɡa | ˌɲo lo ˈmɛ.ja ˌʔaj.ɾu ˈtʰoɫ o ˈʔə.be ˌkʷʰə | ˌsan zɔ xam ˈpas.ka.le ‖ ˌste.jə ˈra.bɛ lu ˈɲi.ɾe lum ˌvu.nə ˈpʰo.xe | ˌʔo lu ˈpʰɛ.lɔ ˌʔah ɫo ˈmɛ.wɛ ˌʔa.xe | ˌma.xə ˈʔɔ.ɾa ˌla.ʦi ˈʔə.bɔ.wə ˈsə.jo ]
  • TOP.NOM king Tsənaxa, as.3 DEF.NOM emperor, as.3 DEF.NOM king of.3 Kasaga, as.3 DEF.NOM brother of.3.ANIM Sun and Moon with.3, NULL.AUX-3SG>3 TOP.NOM this.ACC announce: PROG.AUX-3 during.3 DEF.ACC until.3 DEF.ACC hold.VN for.1 at.3 DEF.ACC chair of.3 DEF.NOM father POSS.1, NEG.AUX-3PL>1 all foreign.land CESS.AUX be.hostile.

Delta Naidda

(Kasca, c. 170 YP)

  • Stelor Cëñan, l-ja'a kåshom, l-ja'a om l-lå om Kasca, l-mïzå om l-yodol n l-cår, me gï'n: Sla pë'a kwïn l-spå om a'e mëvwë e, stewon l-or lasha si, sïlyon we.
  • [ ˈste.loɾ ˈʧɛ.ɲən | lə̆ˈʤa.ʔə ˈkɒ.ʃom | lə̆ˈʤa.ʔə om lə̆ˈlɒ om ˈkas.ʧə | lə̆ˈmɪ.ʒə om ˈljo.dol n̩ lə̆ˈʧɒɾ | me ˈgɪ.ʔn̩ || sla ˈpɛ.ʔə kwɪn lə̆ˈspɒ om a.ʔe ˈmɛv.wɛ e | ˈste.won ˈloɾ ˈla.ʃə si | ˈsɪ.ʎon we ]
  • AUX(NF-IMP)-he Cëñan, DEF-king great, DEF-king of.3 DEF-land of.3 Kasca, DEF-brother of.3 DEF-sun and DEF-moon, say thus: before.3 sit-AVN with.3 DEF-throne of.3 my father I, COP(NF-IMP)-they DEF-all country foreign, hostile for.1

Wippwo

(Kasca, c. 1475 YP)

  • Šengã, lo žah košõ om lo lo om Kaš; lo mužo om lo-šoudol ã lo šor, stei meiloa git: Sla peha γin lo spo om ahei meββe ei, steβõ oa laša hi, hullõ wei.
  • [ 'ʃɛŋ.ɡɐ | lɔ ʒaː 'kɔ.ʃɔ̃ ɔm lɔ lɔːm kaʃ | lɔ 'mu.ʒɔːm lɔ ʃo.dɔl ã lɔ ʃɔr ste 'mel.wə git || sla pɛ.hɐ ɣin spɔːm a.he mɛ.ʙɛ 'e | 'ste.ʙɔ̃ 'ɔa 'la.ʃɐ hi | hu.ʎɔ̃ we ]
  • Šengã, DEF-king great, DEF-king of DEF-land of.3 Kasca, DEF-brother of DEF-sun and DEF-moon, AUX(NF-IMP) say-he thus: Before.3 sit-AVN with.3 DEF-throne of my father I, COP(NF-IMP)-they DEF-all country foreign, hostile for.1

Fáralo languages

Fáralo

(Huyfárah, c. 100 YP)

  • Siš Siənčæn ebí, kraš lu-diágə æm lu-laš Kazəgad ouwa lu-meokát æm lu-iodol luŋ-iəboun, sip: Isə lu-epén i na epélo æm æč badew, ædešei ege lu-klaš heil iəm čosk.
  • [ siʃ ˈsi.ən.ʧæn ɛˈbi | kraʃ lu.diˈa.ɡə æm luˈlaʃ ˈka.zə.ɡad ˈo.wa lu.meɔ̯ˈkat æm luˈiɔ̯.dɔl luˈŋi.ə.bon | sip ‖ ˈi.sə lu.ɛˈpɛn i na ɛˈpɛlɔ æm æʧ ˈba.dɛw | ˈæ.dɛ.ʃe ˈɛ.ɡɛ luˈklaʃ hel ˈi.əm ʧɔsk ]
  • NULL.AUX Siənčæn speak, brave the-Edák.ruler to.it the-land Kazəgad and the-younger.brother to.them the-sun the-moon-and, thus: before the-sit-PST I in chair to.him my father, stay-PST.PL all the.PL-land foreign to.me hostile

Namɨdu

(Southern Huyfárah, c. 1100 YP)

  • Sis Sɨntsen, kros atsak yelos Akozyad, wa amekot yelɨdoł wa yeluñɨb, me bi: Isłu hyeppen i mu lepeło yebodde i epe, sed yak kasyoł ɨm uro esnek.
  • [ sis ˈsɨn.ʦɛn | kʰɾʌs ɐˈʦʰak jɛˌlʌs ɐˈkʰʌz.jad | wɐ ɐˈmɛ.kʌt jɛˈlɨ.dʌʟ wɐ jɛˈlu.ɲɨb | mɛ bi ‖ ˈis.ʟu ˈhjɛp.pɛn i mu lɛˈpʰɛ.ʟɔ jɛˈbʌd.dɛ i ˈɛ.pɛ | ˈsɛd jak kɐˈsjʌʟ ɨm ˈu.ɾɔ ˈɛs.nɛk ]
  • NULL.AUX Sɨntsen / brave APP-king DAT-land APP-Kozyad / and APP-younger.brother DAT-sun and DAT-moon / speak QUOT / before start-PAST I on throne DAT-father I sit / NULL.AUX-IMPF all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile act-PL

Farwo n-Abebbu

(Azbǽbu, c. 1100 YP)

  • Pyatta Seinthen, kras thaik yemwas na-Kažžai, wau myekat yemweidou pyan lunyei, bi dyun: Issarma heppen i noupello yembaddei yeth radda, sei yak kasyou eim thask oddek.
  • [ ˌpʰjat.tɐ ˈsɛɪn.θɛn | krʌs ˌθɑːɪk jɛˌmwɑs nʌˈkʰaʒ.ʒɑɪ | wɑʊ ˌmjɛː.kʌt jɛˌmwɛːɪ.dɔʊ pjan ˈlʊn.jɛɪ | bi ˈdjuːn ‖ ɪsˌsɑɾ.mɐ ˌhɛp.pɛn i nɔʊˈpʰɛl.lɔ jɛmˌbɑd.dɛɪ jɛθ ˈrɑd.dɐ | sɛɪ ˌjak kʌˌsjɔːʊ ɛɪm ˈθɑsk ˌɔd.dɛk ]
  • EMPH.AUX Seinthen / brave king DAT-land GEN-Kažžai / and younger.brother DAT-sun with moon / say this / before.when.REL start-PAST I GEN-throne DAT-father GEN.my hold / NULL.AUX-IMPF all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile be-IMPF.PL

Fallo na Mendia

(Mæmedéi, c. 1100 YP)

  • Piatta Sinthen, kras thak na lu las yem Kazziad, wa mekat na üdol pian ib, ebi sip: Isa sišuama hebben i lu epello na yeth badde rodda, sised ega akhial im thoš oduk.
  • [ piˌat.tɐ ˈsɪn.θɛn | kʰɾas θak nɐ lu las jɛm ˈkʰaz.zi.ɐd | wɐ ˈmɛ.kɐt nɐ ˈy.dɔɫ pi.ɐn ˈɪb | ˌɛ.bi ˈsɪp ‖ ˌi.sɐ si.ʃuˌa.mɐ ˌhɛb.bɛn i lu ɛˈpɛl.lɔ nɐ jɛθ ˈbad.dɛ ˌrɔd.dɐ | ˌsi.sɛd ˈɛ.ɡɐ a.kʰiˌaɫ ɪm ˈθɔʃ ˌɔ.dʊk ]
  • EMPH.AUX Sinthen / brave king GEN DEF land APP Kasadgad / and younger.brother GEN sun with moon / speak thus / before when.REL start-PAST I DEF throne GEN my father hold / NULL.AUX-IMPERF all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile be-PL

Woltu Falla

(Oltu valley, c. 1100 YP)

  • Sīnčen, čašum lu-jaga emblu-laš en-Kažžad ōa lu-mekat emblung-üdol ōa emblung-īb, siš-abi sip: Isa sižrūm i na-lung-epela em-až-badö habben-ape, yega hel lu-llyaš čwoš īm wodud.
  • [ ˈsiːn.ʧɛn | ˈʧa.ʃum lʊˈʤa.ɡɐ ɛm.bluˈlaʃ ɛŋˈkaʒ.ʒɐt ˈoː.ɐ luˈmɛ.kɐt ɛm.bluŋˈɡyː.dɔl ˈoː.ɐ ɛm.bluŋˈɡiːp | siˈʃa.bi sip ‖ ˈi.sɐ siʒˈɾuːm i na.luŋ.ɡɛˈpɛ.lɐ ɛ.maʒ.bɐˈdøː hɐb.bɛˈna.pe | ˈjɛ.ɡɐ hɛl luʎˈʎaʃ ʧwɔʃ iːm ˈwɔ.dʊt ]
  • Sīnčen / mighty the-Ndak.king of.the-land of-Kažžad and the-younger.brother of.the-sun and of.the-moon / NULL.AUX-speak thus / before when.REL I on-the-throne of-my-father start.PST-sit / all foreign the-country.PL.NOM hostile to.me be.IMPF

Cəssın

(eastern Isthmus, c. 1100 YP)

  • Sep Şancan, Kargaram mlava kån aksacuk, ova loyorolam å lunyamam agımlokat, oşuŋ ivişşeneş: Ellö epennälin eşperyöm löyöpelnä, eŋ herrin löglinni yam coskıvo urvı.
  • [ zɛp ˈʐɑɳ.ʈɑɳ | ˌkɑɾ.ɡɑ.ɾɑm ˌmlɑ.vɑ ˌkɒɳ ɑkˈsɑ.ʈuk | ˌo.vɑ loˈjo.ɾo.lɑm ˌɒ luˈɲɑ.mɑm ˌɑ.ɣɯmˈlo.kɑt̪ | ˌo.ʐuŋ iˈviɕ.ɕe.nɛɕ ‖ ˌel.lø eˌpɛn.næ.lin eɕˌpe.ɹœm løˈjø.pɛl.næ | eŋ ˌxɛr.rin løˌɡlin.ni jɑm ˈʈɔs.kɯ.vo ˌuɾ.vɯ ]
  • thus Şancan, Kargan-GEN famous brave 3POSS.SG-emperor, and DEF.SG-sun-GEN and DEF.SG-moon-GEN 3POSS.SG-brother, this.ACC say-AOR-EMPH-PAST.3SG>3SG / before sit-PROSP-DESID-PAST.1SG 1POSS.SG-father-GEN DEF.SG-throne-LOC, all foreign DEF.PL-country 1SG.GEN enemy PRED.PAST.PL

Komejech

(Dagæm islands, c. 100 YP)

  • Ejepe-as zef Zinega, ju teidi djege, ju djege ech lu las ech Kezakas, ju mechas ech Cou o Ibei: Ža feibi izei ta ru mepelo ech lu meibi eje, keg-adeižach-e eze ro fojach ras begor.
  • [ ˌe.je.pe.as zɛf ˈzi.ne.ɡa | ju ˌtɛɪ.di ˈdje.ɡe | ju ˌdje.ɡe ɛx lu ˌlas ɛx ˈke.za.kas | ju ˌme.xas ɛx ˈtsɔʊ o ˈi.bɛɪ ‖ ʒa ˈfɛɪ.bi ˌi.zɛɪ ta ru meˌpe.lo ɛx lu ˈmɛɪ.bi ˌe.je | ˈke.ɡaˌdɛɪ.ʒa.xe ˌe.ze ro ˈfo.jax ras ˌbe.ɡor ]
  • speak.PFV=3SG thus Zinega, as great king, as king of DEF land of Kezakas, as brother of Sun and Moon: before sit.PFV 1SG.EMPH into DAT.DEF DAT-throne of DEF father of.1SG, push.back=be.PST.IMPF.3PL=1SG.ACC all PL.DEF foreign-PL PL.land serve

Qedik

(northern coast, c. 100 YP)

  • Fe.hu.fizud xizi.d, Feke xiuf beqzi, zudiq xu Kifig'id xu fe.fizud*, fe.hu.fiqu fe.hu.zibdu xu mizkiq*: Zif hehek ke.ƒgizbi* xu hu.xik.ub ig'i mpi*, hehek ig'i ixi zukzi.q hu.zudiq hixqu.
  • [ ɸə̃huɸiʒud ʢiʒid | ɸə̃kə̃ ʢiuɸ bə̃qʒi | ʒudiq ʢu kiɸiɠid ʢu ɸə̃ɸiʒud | ɸə̃huɸiqu ɸə̃huʒibdu ʢu miʒkiq ‖ ʒiɸ hə̃hə̃k kə̃(ƒ)giʒbi ʢu huʢikub iɠi mpi | hə̃hə̃k iɠi iʢi ʒukʒiq huʒudiq hiʢqu ]
  • AGR-the-king great-AGR, Tsinakan thus spoke, land of Kasadkad of AGR-king, AGR-the-sun AGR-the-moon of brother / that I my-father GEN the-throne-on before sat, me to all foreign the-country hostile

Variant readings: *fe.fizud ~ fexizud; *mizkiq ~ humizkiq; *ke.ƒgizbi ~ kiƒgizbi; *ig'i mpi ~ mpi ig'i

See also