| Farwo n-Abebbu |
|Period||c. 1100 YP|
|Total speakers||c. 150,000|
|Writing system|| adapted |
|Classification|| Edastean |
|Basic word order||AuxSOV|
|Created by|| Dunomapuka;|
this dialect: Cedh
- 1 Sound Changes from Fáralo
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Nominal Morphology
- 4 Verbal Morphology
- 5 Syntax
- 6 Sample
- 7 See also
Sound Changes from Fáralo
Classical Fáralo to Southern Fáralo ca. 400.
1. Coda [r] shifts to [ə].
2. Non-syllabic [ɔ̯] merges with [w].
3. Vowel breaking creates rising diphthongs: [æ] ➝ [jɛ]; [e] ➝ [jə]; [o] ➝ [wə]. If another vowel follows, then [e] ➝ [jəj]; [o]➝ [wəw].
4. Monophthongization of falling diphthongs: [iə] ➝ [iː]; [uw uə] ➝ [uː]; [aw aə] ➝ [aː]; [ɔw ɔə] ➝ [ɔː]; [ɛw ɛə] ➝ [ɛː]; [uj] ➝ [yː]; [əw əə] ➝ [əː].
5. [i] before another vowel reduces to [j], and [u] reduces to [w].
6. [j], including any new [j] from the preceding changes, is deleted when following a postalveolar.
7. Single consonants are geminated after stressed short vowels. The gemination occurs consistently in content words, but is usually blocked in functional words and auxiliaries.
8. Intervocalic single [ɡ] becomes [j], while the geminate remains [ɡɡ].
9. Intervocalic single [f] becomes [v], while the geminate remains [ff].
10. Final [h], [f] are lost.
Southern Fáralo to Farwo n-Abebbu ca. 1100.
11. Depalatalization of [ʃ ʧ ʤ] to [s ʦ ʣ].
12. [ŋ] merges with the cluster [nj] before vowels. It remains [ŋ] before all consonants other than [j]. Word-final [ŋ] is lost with compensatory lengthening of the preceding vowel, and geminated [ŋŋ] becomes [ŋɡɡ].
13. Stressed short [ɔ] merges with [a], giving [ɔ] if the following syllable contains a rounded vowel or [w], and [a] otherwise. A few words do not exhibit rounding of Fáralo a where that would have been expected etymologically; it is thought that this inconsistency is due to vowel reduction in positions susceptible to syncope (change #16).
14. [ə] and [əː] become [a] and [aː] respectively.
15. [jɛ] simplifies to [ɛ] when preceded by a consonant cluster.
16. Syncope of unstressed short vowels in medial syllables, or in some cases initial syllables if before the stress. This is blocked if it would create a cluster of three consonants, but a sequence of geminate + vowel + consonant will lose the vowel, and simplify the geminate if the second half of it cannot be part of a legit syllable onset (*mebbelo "farm" ➝ *mebblo ➝ mebbwo, but *arellibu "politician" ➝ *arelbu ➝ areubu).
17. Epenthetic [ɛ] is prefixed to most words that begin with a consonant cluster (a notable environment is the accusative plural of nouns). Perhaps in a hypercorrective response to this, many words with initial unstressed [ɛ] lose this vowel in non-prefixed forms; e.g. egól "foot" ➝ *yol ➝ you, nom.pl keyou.
18. [ʦ ʣ] lenite to [θ ð] except after a plosive or adjacent to a sibilant, where they become [s z] instead.
19. All coda [l] velarizes to [ɫ], as does [l] after a consonant and before a back vowel. Geminate [ll] is unaffected, and postconsonantal [l] before front vowels shifts to [r].
20. [sk sr rs] all become [ʃ] (but [sk] remains word-finally when preceded by a stressed vowel), and [zɡ zr rz jj] all become [ʒ]. The resulting fricatives are geminated when they occur intervocalically after a stressed short vowel.
21. Stress is moved to the penultimate syllable (however, monosyllabic lexemes with prefixes keep the accent on the root, and transparent compounds carry primary stress on the accented syllable of their first component).
22. Stressed [ɛː] breaks to [jɛ], and stressed [ɔː] breaks to [wɔ]. If the syllable already begins with an onset cluster, the onglide is subsequently deleted.
23. Clusters consisting of two voiceless plosives or two voiceless fricatives assimilate to a geminate version of the second obstruent.
24. Voiced coda obstruents that are not part of a geminate are deleted with compensatory lengthening of preceding short vowels. Unstressed word-initial vowels do not undergo lengthening.
25. Coda nasals assimilate to the place of articulation of a following obstruent.
26. Long vowels break into diphthongs: [iː yː ɛː] ➝ [ɛj]; [uː ɔː] ➝ [ɔw]; [aː] ➝ [aj].
27. [ɫ] merges into [w]. Resulting tautosyllabic [iw] becomes [ew] after complex syllable onsets, and [ju] otherwise. The sequence [wu] becomes [wɔ], and both [uw] and unstressed [aw] shift to [ɔw]. After this, all intervocalic or geminated [w] fortify to [v].
|stops||p · b||t · d||k · ɡ|
|fricatives||f · v||θ · ð||s · z||ʃ · ʒ||h|
|liquids||ɾ · l|
- All consonants except /w j/ may occur as geminates. Underlying |ww jj| surface as /vv ʒʒ/.
- /f v/ contrast with each other only in the geminates /ff/ vs. /vv/. Only /f/ can appear word-initially and in clusters with a voiceless consonant, and only /v/ can appear between vowels or after a nasal.
- /θ ð ʃ ʒ/ are written th dh š ž (geminated: tth ddh šš žž).
- /w j/ are written w y before a vowel, and u i before a consonant or word boundary.
- /ŋ/ is written ng. It occurs as a phoneme of its own only in coda position; prevocalic ng (geminated ngg) represents [ŋɡ], phonemically /nɡ/.
- /ɛ ɔ/ are written e o.
The basic syllable structure is (C)(C)V(w,y,n,s)(C). Syllable-initial clusters are mostly restricted to consonant + w y r; however, a number of other clusters do also occur in onset position. The only considerably common coda clusters that do not involve a semivowel are word-final -nk -sk, notably appearing in the plural form of some monosyllabic verbs.
- Farwo n-Abebbu has a dynamic stress accent, which generally falls on the penultimate syllable of monomorphemic lexemes. Prefixes are always unstressed, and transparent compounds carry primary stress on the accented syllable of their first component.
- p t k are lightly aspirated in the onset of stressed syllables.
- r is a trill [r] word-initially and when geminated, and a tap [ɾ] in most other environments.
- Geminate hh is often pronounced as a pharyngeal [ħː]
- The high vowels i u are lax [ɪ ʊ] in closed syllables, and tense [i u] otherwise.
- Stressed a is a front/central low vowel [a] when preceded by a palatal or velar consonant, and a back vowel [ɑ] otherwise. When unstressed, it becomes [ɐ] word-finally and [ʌ] elsewhere.
- Similarly, ai is usually [ɑɪ], but it becomes [aɪ] after palatals and velars.
- Vowels in stressed open syllables are lengthened noticeably. The same holds for vowels in stressed word-final syllables ending in a nasal or plosive.
Nominal morphology is prefixing. Nouns in Farwo n-Abebbu inflect for number and four cases; compared to standard Namɨdu, the main differences are the lack of the appositive case and the different shape of the plural prefixes. The citation form of a noun is the accusative singular.
aiba "mason, metalworker"
- The nominative singular is distinguished from the accusative singular only in a number of nouns beginning with /p t k h w/. These nouns form the nominative via the primary consonant mutation:
- /p/ ➝ /b/
- /t/ ➝ /d/
- /k/ ➝ /g/
- /h/ ➝ /s/
- /w/ ➝ /s/
- Nouns beginning in /w f ɡ/ followed by a vowel (including instances of /ɡ/ created through the primary consonant mutation) undergo a different shift in the nominative plural and in the genitive singular, called the secondary consonant mutation:
- /w/ ➝ /v/
- /f/ ➝ /v/
- /g/ ➝ /j/
- Nouns beginning in /θ ð/ change these to /s z/ in the non-nominative plural forms, giving a geminate sibilant (e.g. thaik "king" ➝ acc.pl essaik).
- Nouns beginning in /l/ are more irregular. Samples are given below:
|x||10x||x + 10|
(The x + 10 forms derive from Fáralo constructions like [ro] dou-oun "[ten]-and-five" > dwavan.)
Ordinal numerals are formed by suffixing the adjectivizer -(i)n. There are a few irregular forms: ossu "first", gwan "second", hudin "eighth", nilin "ninth", eibin "hundredth".
The Main Verb
As in Namɨdu, verb phrases generally contain both an auxiliary and a main verb. The main verb is marked only for the number of the subject. The singular is unmarked, and the plural adds -k after vowels. Consonant stems usually double the final consonant and add -ek:
- pathna "to count" ➝ pathnak "to count" (pl.)
- yedde "to stand" ➝ yeddek "to stand" (pl.)
- oswak "to forget" ➝ oswakkek "to forget" (pl.)
- pren "to design" ➝ prennek "to design" (pl.)
A few verbs ending in a nasal or sibilant simply add -k:
- nwan "to go; to leave" ➝ nwank "to go; to leave" (pl.)
- sin "to drink" ➝ sink "to drink" (pl.)
- yedas "to hesitate" ➝ yedask "to hesitate" (pl.)
Verbs ending in a diphthong often have an extended stem in the plural, which features an additional (usually geminated) consonant. The quality of this consonant is unpredictable and must be learned on a word-by-word basis.
- lai "to shut" ➝ lazzek "to shut" (pl.)
- thai "to walk" ➝ thanggek "to walk" (pl.)
- lizyou "to shiver" ➝ lizyulek "to shiver" (pl.)
A fair number of verbs historically involve the elimination of a medial vowel rather than consonant gemination. Because of subsequent cluster simplification, the result can be quite irregular:
- barrei "to reward" ➝ barryek "to reward" (pl.)
- rutthan "to slander" ➝ ruthnek "to slander" (pl.)
- wozzon "to mess up" ➝ wounek "to mess up" (pl.)
- kazzyu "to see; to look at" ➝ kažžek "to see; to look at" (pl.)
- siggyu "to urinate" ➝ seirek "to urinate" (pl.)
Auxiliaries inflect for three tenses (present, preterite, imperfect) and polarity, but not for number. Note that some auxiliaries have developed slightly idiosyncratic meanings for their negative forms.
|present||preterite||imperfect||neg. pres.||neg. pret.||neg. imperf.|
|must||sa||swan||swai||messa||messwan||messwai||neg means "is not allowed to do"|
|may||tottu||tottin||tottei||ousu||ousun||ousou||neg means "is allowed not to do"|
|would||uthis||uthen||uthei||muthis||muthen||muthei||neg means "can't imagine doing"|
|seems||ida||eiren||eirai||mida||meiren||meirai||neg means "apparently doesn't do"|
|starts||heppe||heppen||heppei||meppe||meppen||meppei||neg means "hesitates to do"|
|stops||ta||tan||tai||meta||metan||metai||neg means "keeps doing"|
|is going to do||nwa||nwan||nwannei||no dedicated neg; use meppe instead|
|is doing||yedde||yedden||yeddei||no dedicated neg; use mida or mais instead|
|causes||oum||oumen||oumei||moum||moumen||moumei||neg means "prevents, hinders"|
|emphatic||pyatta||pyattan||pyattai||no dedicated neg; use mida instead|
The copula is similar to an auxiliary, except that it also distinguishes number.
|present||preterite||imperfect||neg. pres.||neg. pret.||neg. imperf.|
- Sis Sɨntsen, kros atsak yelos Akozyad, wa amekot yelɨdoł wa yeluñɨb, me bi: Isłu hyeppen i mu lepeło yebodde i epe, sed yak kasyoł ɨm uro esnek.
- [ sis ˈsɨn.ʦɛn | kʰɾʌs ɐˌʦʰak jɛˌlʌs ɐˈkʰʌz.jad | wɐ ɐˈmɛ.kʌt jɛˈlɨ.dʌʟ wɐ jɛˈlu.ɲɨb | mɛ bi ‖ ˈis.ʟu ˈhjɛp.pɛn i mu lɛˈpʰɛ.ʟɔ jɛˈbʌd.dɛ i ˈɛ.pɛ | ˈsɛd jak kɐˈsjʌʟ ɨm ˈu.ɾɔ ˈɛs.nɛk ]
- NULL.AUX Sɨntsen / brave APP-king DAT-land APP-Kasadgad / and APP-younger.brother DAT-sun and DAT-moon / speak QUOT / before start-PAST I on throne DAT-father I sit / NULL.AUX-IMP all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile act-PL
- Pyatta Seinthen, kras thaik yemwas na-Kažžai, wau myekat yemweidou pyan lunyei, bi dyun: Issarma heppen i noupello yembaddei yeth radda, sei yak kasyou eim thask oddek.
- [ ˌpʰjat.tɐ ˈsɛɪn.θɛn | krʌs ˌθɑːɪk jɛˌmwɑs nʌˈkʰaʒ.ʒɑɪ | wɑʊ ˌmjɛː.kʌt jɛˌmwɛːɪ.dɔʊ pjan ˈlʊn.jɛɪ | bi ˈdjuːn ‖ ɪsˌsɑɾ.mɐ ˌhɛp.pɛn i nɔʊˈpʰɛl.lɔ jɛmˌbɑd.dɛɪ jɛθ ˈrɑd.dɐ | sɛɪ ˌjak kʌˌsjɔːʊ ɛɪm ˈθɑsk ˌɔd.dɛk ]
- EMPH.AUX Seinthen / brave king DAT-land GEN-Kažžai / and younger.brother DAT-sun with moon / say this / before.when.REL start-PAST I GEN-throne DAT-father GEN.my hold / NULL.AUX-IMP all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile be-IMP.PL
- pyatta: Farwo n-Abebbu prefers the emphatic auxiliary for introducing the protagonist of a narrative.
- pyan: "and, with" < F. pein (comitative preposition); used within noun phrases instead of the normal conjunction wau.
- bi: This is still a verb "to say" in Abebbu, instead of being reduced to a quotative particle as in Namɨdu.
- dyun: "this" (demonstrative, acc.sg) < F. digun "thing"
- issarma: relative particle "before" < F. isə sišo roumə "before then REL"
- radda: "to hold, to occupy" < F. roda "to have, to own"
- thask: "hostile" < F. čosk (lost in Namɨdu)
- oddek: Farwo n-Abebbu prefers to use the regular copula with adjective predicates, rather than the dynamic construction with essen "to act", which is typical of Mɨdu city.