Fallo na Mendia

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Fallo na Mendia
[ˌfal.lɔ nɐ ˈmɛn.di.ɐ]
Period c. 1100 YP
Spoken in Mendia
Total speakers c. 150,000
Writing system adapted
Fáralo alphabet
Classification Edastean
   Southern Fáralo
    Fallo na Mendia
Basic word order AuxSOV
Morphology fusional
Alignment NOM-ACC
Created by Dunomapuka;
this dialect: Thedukeofnuke

Fallo na Mendia is the local language of the city of Mendia and the surrounding province of Suhhua c. 1100 YP, descended from a southern variety of Fáralo. It is usually considered a dialect of the more widely used Namɨdu language.

Sound Changes from Fáralo

Classical Fáralo to Southern Fáralo ca. 400.
1. Coda [r] shifts to [ə].
2. Non-syllabic [ɔ̯] merges with [w].
3. Vowel breaking creates rising diphthongs: [æ] ➝ [jɛ]; [e] ➝ [jə]; [o] ➝ [wə]. If another vowel follows, then [e] ➝ [jəj]; [o]➝ [wəw].
4. Monophthongization of falling diphthongs: [ij iə] ➝ [iː]; [uw uə] ➝ [uː]; [aw aə] ➝ [aː]; [ɔw ɔə] ➝ [ɔː]; [ɛw ɛə] ➝ [ɛː]; [iw uj] ➝ [yː]; [əw əə] ➝ [əː].
5. [i] before another vowel reduces to [j], and [u] reduces to [w].
6. [j], including any new [j] from the preceding changes, is deleted when following a postalveolar.
7. Single consonants are geminated after stressed short vowels. The gemination occurs consistently in content words, but is usually blocked in functional words and auxiliaries.
8. Intervocalic single [ɡ] becomes [j], while the geminate remains [ɡɡ].
9. Intervocalic single [f] becomes [v], while the geminate remains [ff].
10. Final [h], [f] are lost.

Southern Fáralo to Fallo na Mendia ca. 1100.
11. Depalatalization of [ʃ ʧ ʤ] to [s ʦ ʣ].
12. [ŋ] merges with the cluster [nj] before vowels. It remains [ŋ] word-finally and before all consonants other than [j w]. Geminated [ŋŋ] becomes [ŋɡɡ].
13. [jɛ] simplifies to [ɛ] when preceded by a consonant.
14. Short unstressed [ɛ ɔ] merge with [ə] after a vowel.
15. Syncope of unstressed short vowels in medial syllables, or in some cases initial syllables if before the stress. This is blocked if it would create a cluster of three consonants, but a sequence of geminate + vowel + consonant will lose the vowel, and simplify the geminate if the second half of it cannot be part of a legitimate syllable onset.
16. [ʦ ʣ] lenite to [θ ð] except after a plosive, where they become [s z] instead.
17. [sk ks sr rs] all become [ʃ], [zɡ ɡz zr rz jj] all become [ʒ], [kn ɡn] become [ɲ], and [kl ɡl lk lɡ] all become [ʎ]. The resulting palatals are geminated when they occur directly after a stressed short vowel.
18. Intervocalic obstruent-nasal clusters undergo metathesis (some exceptions occur).
19. [ə əː] merge with [a aː] respectively.
20. Stress moves to the penultimate syllable of the root, although if the root morpheme of a word is monosyllabic it retains stress.
21. Clusters of two plosives, two fricatives, or two approximants assimilate to a geminate version of the second consonant. [jj] formed by this change merges with [ʒ].
22. Word-final clusters simplify: obstruents adjacent to [s] are deleted.
23. Geminated [ww] merges with [v].
24. Coda nasals assimilate to the place of articulation of a following obstruent.
25. Consonant clusters assimilate in voicing to the last obstruent.
26. If a nasal precedes a liquid, a voiced stop agreeing in place of articulation with the nasal is inserted between the two. Geminate nasals in this environment become single.
27. [j] becomes [i] after a consonant except before [i iː yː], where it is elided, and [w] becomes [u], except before [u uː yː], where it is elided.
28. Two identical vowels become a single long vowel. Long vowels simplify: [aː] ➝ [a]; [ɛː] ➝ [ɛ]; [iː] ➝ [i]; [ɔː] ➝ [ɔ]; [uː yː] ➝ [y].



 labial   dental   alveolar   palatal   velar   glottal 
stops p · b t · d k · ɡ
fricatives f · v θ · ð s · z ʃ · ʒ h
nasals m n ɲ ŋ
liquids r · l ʎ
  semivowels w j
  • All consonants except /w j/ may occur as geminates. Underlying |ww jj| surface as /v ʒ/.
  • /f v/ contrast only in a limited number of environments - mainly initially or when geminated.
  • /θ ð ʃ ʒ ɲ ʎ/ are written th dh š ž ñ ly (geminated: tth ddh šš žž ññ lly).
  • /w j/ are written w y before a vowel or after /i y u/, and u i otherwise.
  • /ŋ/ is written ng. It is only phonemic word-finally; medial ng (geminated ngg) represents [ŋɡ], phonemically /nɡ/.


 front   back 
high i · y u
mid ɛ ɔ
low a
  • /y ɛ ɔ/ are written ü e o.


The basic syllable structure is (C)(C)V(C)(C). Onset clusters are mostly consonant + r l w y, but some other clusters can occur in onset. Coda clusters are restricted word-finally to l m n + consonant; other coda clusters may occur in non-final syllables.

Consonant clusters must agree in voicing with the last obstruent. If two stops, two fricatives, or two approximants occur together, the first also assimilates in place of articulation to the second.

Phonetic Detail

  • Fallo na Mendia has a dynamic stress accent, which falls on the penultimate syllable of the root, not counting minor syllables (see below) and grammatical affixes. Compound words take the stress on the penult of the first element.
  • A notable feature of Fallo na Mendia is the presence of minor syllables, which have the form C(C) + i, u and only occur before vowels; these are derived from former [j w] between a consonant and a vowel. They do not count as syllables when assigning stress. If one of i u between a consonant and a vowel carries stress, it is marked with an acute accent.
  • p t k are lightly aspirated in the onset of stressed syllables.
  • r is a trill [r] word-initially and when geminated, and a tap [ɾ] elsewhere.
  • l is velarised to [ɫ] in coda (intervocalic geminate ll is immune). Speakers from the coast south of the city often merge coda l with w.
  • Geminate hh is often pronounced as a pharyngeal [ħː].
  • A stop + h cluster coalesces into an aspirated stop.
  • The high vowels i ü u are lax [ɪ ʏ ʊ] in closed syllables, and open [i y u] otherwise.
  • Speakers in rural areas north of the city often pronounce e o as [e o] word-finally.
  • Unstressed a becomes [ɐ] in closed syllables or morpheme-finally.

Nominal Morphology

Although Fallo na Mendia is a Southern Fáralo dialect, it has been strongly influenced by Woltu Falla, the Central dialect spoken in Ussor and the Oltu valley. As a result its morphology has retained some features of Classical Fáralo that have been preserved in Central Fáralo but were lost in most Southern dialects.


Nominal morphology is prefixing. Nouns in Fallo na Mendia inflect for number and just two cases; unlike other Southern dialects (including its close relative Farwo n-Abebbu) synthetic genitive and dative cases are lacking.

The citation form is the accusative singular.

buas "ox"

singular plural
accusative buas azbuas
nominative buas kabuas

toba "horn"

singular plural
accusative toba astoba
nominative doba attoba

follyo "workshop"

singular plural
accusative follyo affollyo
nominative follyo akfollyo

aba "mason, metalworker"

singular plural
accusative aba zaba
nominative aba gaba
  • The nominative singular is distinguished from the accusative singular only in a number of nouns beginning with /p t k h w/. These nouns form the nominative via the consonant mutation:
    • /p/ ➝ /b/
    • /t/ ➝ /d/
    • /k/ ➝ /ɡ/
    • /h/ ➝ /s/
    • /w/ ➝ /s/
  • The accusative plural is formed by adding the prefix z- before vowels and approximants, az- before voiced obstruents and nasals, and as- before unvoiced obstruents. However, some other changes also apply:
    • The semivowels y w change to i u (forming a minor syllable) with the addition of the prefix z-.
    • The fricative of the prefix assimilates in place of articulation to a following fricative.
    • k g palatalise to š ž instead of adding the prefix.
  • The nominative plural is formed by adding the prefix g- before vowels and approximants, ka- before voiced obstruents and nasals, and ak- before unvoiced obstruents. Again, some other changes also apply:
    • The semivowels y w change to i u (forming a minor syllable) with the addition of the prefix g-.
    • g lenits to y with the addition of the prefix ka-.
    • The k of the prefix assimilates in place of articulation to a following unvoiced stop.
    • s z l palatalise to š ž ly instead of adding the prefix.
  • Nouns beginning in a + a consonant cluster, along with a handful of other nouns, form irregular plurals:

abža "star"

singular plural
accusative abža azbža
nominative abža kabža

Personal Pronouns


nom acc gen dat
1 sg. i ibu yeth im
2 sg. leku lekung yellyu lekum
3 sg. a yebu yeya yem
1 pl. luki luzis yethi lütam
2 pl. do duang yengu duam
3 pl. ak abu yeya yem
interrogative dheya dheyung yedhia dheyum


Unlike other Southern dialects, Fallo na Mendia has retained the combined pronouns of Classical Fáralo. They are used when both the subject and direct object are pronouns.

subj. object
 1 sg.   2 sg.   3 sg.   1 pl.   2 pl.   3 pl. 
1 sg. ing isa iyis ius isas
2 sg. doi doya dois duas doyas
3 sg. ai aung asi as aus ayas
1 pl. ithi iddung itha iddus iyas
2 pl. dothi doddung dotha dothis doyas
3 pl. athi addung atha athis addus asis

Verbal Morphology

The Main Verb

As in Namɨdu, verb phrases generally include an auxiliary and a main verb. The main verb is marked only for the number of the subject.

The singular is unmarked. The plural form is suffixing:

  • Verbs ending in a vowel or n ng generally add the suffix -k.
  • Verbs ending in s z l generally palatalise these to š ž ly.
  • Verbs ending in all other consonants generally add the suffix -ek.

rettu "to hear" ➝ rettuk "to hear" (pl.)
sin "to drink" ➝ sink "to drink" (pl.)
núas "to cheat" ➝ núaš "to cheat" (pl.)
woddel "to carry" ➝ woddely "to carry" (pl.)
tazbem "to imply" ➝ tazbemek "to imply" (pl.)

There are complications, however:

  • Monosyllabic verbs (and some polysyllabic verbs) double a final consonant before adding -ek.

tüd "to control" ➝ tüddek "to control" (pl.)
apam "to cry" ➝ apammek "to cry" (pl.)

  • Many polysyllabic verbs undergo vowel syncope when forming plurals.

thenniz "to humiliate" ➝ thenzek "to humiliate" (pl.)
diammit "to support" ➝ diantek "to support" (pl.)

Due to these and other irregularities, the plural must be learned individually for the majority of verbs.


Auxiliaries inflect for three tenses (present, preterite, imperfect) and polarity, but not for number.

present preterite imperfect negative
does (null) sis sisen sised masis massen massed
can bua buen buad ebua ebuen ebuad
must yeda yedan yedad meda medan medad
should is isen ised mis misen mised
will we wen wed me men med
might uppe uppen upped
would uthis uthisen uthised muthis muthisen muthised
seems ida idren idred mida midren midred
wants so suan sod eso esuan esod
starts hebbe hebben hebbed mebbe mebben mebbed
stops eta etan etad meta metan metad
causes üm ümen ümed müm mümen mümed
is going to nuan nuanen nuaned manuan manuanen manuaned
is doing yedde yedden yedded
just did ta ten tad mata maten matad
emphatic piatta piattan piattad epiatta epiattan epiattad
imperative e emma

The Copula

The copula is similar to an auxiliary; however, since it is often used without an auxiliary of its own, it also distinguishes number.

present preterite imperfect negative
singular odu odun odud modu modun modud
plural oduk odüa odud moduk modüa modud


Standard Namɨdu

  • Sis Sɨntsen, kros atsak yelos Akozyad, wa amekot yelɨdoł wa yeluñɨb, me bi: Isłu hyeppen i mu lepeło yebodde i epe, sed yak kasyoł ɨm uro esnek.
  • [ sis ˈsɨn.ʦɛn | kʰɾʌs ɐˌʦʰak jɛˌlʌs ɐˈkʰʌz.jad | wɐ ɐˈmɛ.kʌt jɛˈlɨ.dʌʟ wɐ jɛˈlu.ɲɨb | mɛ bi ‖ ˈis.ʟu ˈhjɛp.pɛn i mu lɛˈpʰɛ.ʟɔ jɛˈbʌd.dɛ i ˈɛ.pɛ | ˈsɛd jak kɐˈsjʌʟ ɨm ˈu.ɾɔ ˈɛs.nɛk ]
  • NULL.AUX Sɨntsen / brave APP-king DAT-land APP-Kasadgad / and APP-younger.brother DAT-sun and DAT-moon / speak QUOT / before start-PAST I on throne DAT-father I sit / NULL.AUX-IMPERF all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile act-PL

Fallo na Mendia

  • Piatta Sinthen, kras thak na lu las yem Kazziad, wa mekat na üdol pian ib, ebi sip: Isa sišuama hebben i lu epello na yeth badde rodda, sised ega akhial im thoš oduk.
  • [ piˌat.tɐ ˈsɪn.θɛn | kʰɾas θak nɐ lu las jɛm ˈkʰaz.zi.ɐd | wɐ ˈmɛ.kɐt nɐ ˈy.dɔɫ pi.ɐn ˈɪb | ˌɛ.bi ˈsɪp ‖ ˌi.sɐ si.ʃuˌa.mɐ ˌhɛb.bɛn i lu ɛˈpɛl.lɔ nɐ jɛθ ˈbad.dɛ ˌrɔd.dɐ | ˌsi.sɛd ˈɛ.ɡɐ a.kʰiˌaɫ ɪm ˈθɔʃ ˌɔ.dʊk ]
  • EMPH.AUX Sinthen / brave king GEN DEF land APP Kasadgad / and younger.brother GEN sun with moon / speak thus / before when.REL start-PAST I DEF throne GEN my father hold / NULL.AUX-IMPERF all NOM.PL-foreign.country DAT.me hostile be-PL

See also