Kuyʔūn/Lexicon

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The following is a short lexicon of the variant of Kuyʔūn spoken in Mešmo.

  • The citation form of nouns was the indefinite singular. For words with a distinct possessed stem, the 1sg.anim and 3sg.anim-possessed forms of the indefinite singular are given in the morphology column.
  • The citation form of verbs was the primary stem, which was usually identical to the habitual singular indicative active with no classifier. Secondary stems are given in the morphology column for all verbs, even if they did not differ from the primary stem.
  • Verbs which took the "strong" affix -ti in the habitual plural are indicated by labels: v.NT for nasal-stemmed verbs (these also formed the perfective plural with -me), v.ST for sibilant-stemmed verbs (of which the variant v.ST+ would add -sti to the regular secondary stem), and v.WT for waw-stemmed verbs where the underlying consonant before the hab.pl affix was vocalised, combining with preceding unstressed /i ɛ ɑ o/ to o, and with stressed /i ɛ ɑ o/ to ô éu áu áu. Both stressed and unstressed /i/ were retained in the surface form after single intervocalic consonants as a palatal onglide y.
  • Verbs with more irregular formations of certain aspect/number combinations are labelled v.IRR. For such verbs, all A/N combinations are given in the following order:
    hab.sg (citation form), perf.sg, prog.sg, hab.pl, perf.pl, prog.pl (morphology column).

In contrast to the convention employed by the grammar, this dictionary marks stress whenever the accent is not morpheme-initial.

Etymology:


403 words. Next tasks:

  • compounds
  • more derivations
  • more loanwords


word morphology type meaning etymology
allayo n.in temple alizadu
allin ethn. Athalēran athalēran "of Athalē" (adj.)
allîpen n.in. remark, comment ālezē "words" + pen "with, accompanying"
alonna adj. aggressive azōnoda "thunder-hab.sg"
Ałe top. Athalē Aθ. Aθlé
Ałeyan top. the Rathedān highlands Rathedān (initial *l- reanalysed as definite article under influence of Ałe)
ammayo n.in shame Ayl. ammāyau "lose.face-hab.sg.pass"
amo n.in name R.H. amu
āmon n.an traveller; foreigner āmon "walk-hab.sg"
anî adj. ordinary, regular ānē "common"
Anicay n.an Anaitī anaitī
apaʔli apaʔli- v. to assert, to declare apākali-
apeu apeli, apelok n.an rain apelo
api apay, apyak n.in fruit (not including berries) apei
appaš appači, appačak n.an girlfriend (appo + feminine suffix -aš)
appo n.an savior; reliable friend Ayl. appu < Ad. urubu "doctor"
aqau n.an killer, murderer Ayl. aqau < Ad. ekhubu
aqôs n.in riches, wealth zekhōsu (initial *l- reanalysed as definite article)
aspon n.an tribe R.H. aspun "nation"
asse asse- v. to urge, to implore azaze- "to push"
ašši ašši- v. to put axazi-
ataʔo ataʔo- v. to rape atāxeula-
atonna adj. difficult atomata "complex"
atos atosa- v.ST to tell atūsa-
atyo adj. true atiza
au pp. after, behind; except for uza "after" & al "without"
awayki adj. necessary abīki
awi awi- v. to say abi-
auko adj. arrogant R.H. alku: < early N.A. argəw "city-dweller"
auno n.an doctor Me. unu "shaman"
āya adj. frightened adia "dark" (influenced by āya-)
āya āya- v. to fear ārida- "to be horrified"
ayat n.in language adāta "the Adāta language"
ayke adj. similar īke "equal"
ayko ayko- v. to deceive aiuko- "to lie" (influenced by ayke)
Aylato top. Aylatu (a town on the upper Eigə) Ayl. Aylatu < Ad. Eieliatus "western home"
ayli n.in north īli
ayló n.in night īzō
ayma ayma- v. to sew īma-
aymeyo n.in needle (ayma- + instrument nominaliser -eyo)
aymo adj. beautiful īmo
aynan n.in life adenan "breathe-hab.sg"
ayolo n.in market aiūlō "marketplace"
ayot n.in power, vigor, motivation adalida "energy"
aypi adj. smart, knowledgeable adapi
aʔi pp. above, on top of axē "upward"
aʔla adj. unusual azura
Aʔlolo top. Akelodo Cex. Akloro < Mav. Akeloðo
āʔo n.an nomad, barbarian āphu "country-dweller"
aʔon n.in hole zaphun "hollow" (adj.; initial *l- reanalysed as definite article)
aʔyet aʔyeta- v. to shout adēreta-
Cakoʔi top. the Tjakori valley Thiakori
cān cāna- v.NT to help, to support ithāna- "to be in favor of"
cayô adj. frequent, common dīō "usual"
ceʔa ceʔa- v. to force; to defeat tikhe- "to compel, to coerce"
ceʔo n.in stone tikhō
Ceʔotôli top. Cexotúri (a town at the Eigə-Thabīa confluence) Cex. Cexotúri < Ad. Tikhōdōzē "white stone"
cilla cilla- v. to bribe dizedela-
cilnáu cilnala- v.ST to marry tizanaza-
cīmyo n.in knowledge ithiaimul "science"
cipô adj. large diphō "fat"
ciska n.an king dizaka
ciskata ciskata- v. to reign (ciska + verbaliser -ta)
ciskaš ciskači, ciskačak n.an queen (ciska + feminine suffix -aš)
cišo adj. corrupt dizedel "bribe-hab.sg"
cīšom adj. great (honorific) thiaisum
citî citî- v. to guess ditē "possible" (adj.)
cīya n.in storage room diphaia
cocit pp. next to, outside of Y.H. cucit "near, close"
čašo adj. hopeless Ayl. čašu < Ad. kazio
čaʔa n.an council, committee khiara
čaʔas n.an member of the city council (čaʔa + singulative nominaliser -s)
čikka n.an lightning kikika
čisto n.in challenge kisethu "tricky" (adj.)
čiwi n.in rope kibē "tie-hab.sg"
čiwo čiwali, čiwok n.an bridled horse kibal "tie-hab.sg.pass"
čiʔau čiła- v.WT to complain kiphala-
čo n.in barley kil
čō čōla- v.ST to tie, to fasten kibaza-
ēk ēki, ēkka n.an cow, ox, head of cattle R.H. e:k
elîte n.an weather condition R.H. eli:te
ełoʔa ełoʔa- v. to cook ethura-
ełoʔyo n.in hearth, oven (ełoʔa- + instrument nominaliser -eyo)
ēmya ēmya- v. to walk āmoda-
enêto enêto- v. to meet, to know (of people) R.H. ene:tu
ēpe n.an moon R.H. e:pe
ēpenke ēpenke- v. to be raining R.H. e:penk
ēpento adj. fortunate, blessed R.H. e:pentu: < early N.A. ɛbbɛntəw
Esaš top. a town east of Khalanu Mav. Êzaś < Ad. Ēzāis
eseu eła- v.WT to burn esela-
eso esali, esok n.in firewood eselal "burn-hab.sg.pass"
espo espo- v. to get rid of ezopho- "to lose, to misplace"
ešalóšša ešalóšša- v. to testify (intensive prefix eša- + lošša- "to answer")
ešénta ešénta- v. to be overwhelmed (intensive prefix eša- + yanta- "to feel")
etto etto- v. to fit etutu- "to suffice"
eu qu. all, every eze
ewa ewa- v. to prosper abia- "to bloom
eya eya- v. to use, to take eia- "to use" (influenced by R.H. eyas "to take")
eyo n.in west eiel
eʔláło eʔláło- v. to mishear īraratho- "ftl-hear"
eʔnîʔan eʔnîʔana- v.NT to get lost īranēxana- "ftl-turn"
ican n.an arm itian
īk īči, īčak n.an female servant edaki "mistress"
īkimmo n.an cook ēkīnabu
Īla top. the Eigə river Ēza
Īlomo top. a town on the middle Thabīa Saw. Îlomo < Ad. Eielomo "western mother"
iła adj. happy iphetha "cheerful"
īm īwi, īwak n.an man ēab
īn pp. under ēna "downward"
īnaspa īnaspa- v. to strike ēnazapa-
iníyo inîli, inîlok n.an army aineilo < F. æŋéilo
īwo n.in rest, break ēbo "rest-hab.sg"
īyau īlan, īyeš, īyesti, īlau, īla v.IRR to need ēdaza-
īʔa n.in family zēra (initial *l- reanalysed as definite article)
iʔáu iʔâwa- v. to describe ērāba-
iʔâwin adj. descriptive (iʔâwa- + adjectiviser -in)
kałin ethn. from Tjakori kasaliran "from Xšali"
Kāłot top. a small town between Mešmo and Cexotúri Kālasōto "new borders"
kāton particle "hello" kātod "greet-hab.sg"
kāya n.in school kāia
Kāʔan top. Kasca Kāxad
kence n.an storyteller R.H. kense
keska adj. dangerous R.H. keska
keš n.in obstacle kazio "hopeless" (adj.)
kinna kinna- v. to abandon, to desert koirimana-
kīs n.in gold kātia
kīsommi adj. poor (kīs "gold" + -mmi "-less")
kiyo kila- v.WT to watch, to look at kaila-
kiʔlo n.an sheep Y.H. kiplo
kok n.an couple Y.H. koko "two"
kokô adj. affectionate, tender kukāl "tame" (under influence of kok)
koło adj. holy, sacred kuthor "bright, well-lit" (from torches burning in a temple)
kōmay kōme- v. to reprimand kōmī-
kopéu kopîła- v.ST to mean, to believe (non-religious) kupheza- "to believe" (hab) & kuphēzala- "to explain" (perf/prog)
koson n.in steppe R.H. kusun
koyʔôn n.in name of the language koia ax xōron "tongue of the steppe"
lah lasi, laska n.in land, country las
lakso n.in taxes, tribute, ransom (any forced payment) Y.H. lakso < early N.A. leksəw
lalâq adj. quiet zazāk
lało lało- v. to hear, to listen ratho-
lam n.an sun zama
lamî adj. long, far lāmē "long"
lana adj. pleasant lanax "good-smelling"
lān n.in year lād
lānyo adj. insane rāniza "be.insane-hab.sg"
laqqa laqqa- v. to worship zekhora-
Lasom top. Lasomo Lasomo
lāti līci, līcak n.in festival (religious) zāti
Lātyo n.an Midsummer zātidu
len n.in field rania
leso adj. uncomfortable lesō "cold"
leš adj. healthy lasi
leššo n.an healthy person (leš + singulative nominaliser -so)
ley leye, līk n.an son zed
leya n.in law, rule, tradition lega "law, decree", possibly also zēia "family"
līso līso- v.ST to be in love lēsu-
lōn lōne- v.NT to know the truth, to have wisdom rōne- "to own, to possess" (under influence of lōnaq)
lōnaq n.an prophet, wise man rūnak "prophet"
lospa lospa- v. to fail ruzapa- "to bork up"
lošša lošša- v. to answer, to reply lōsiza-
lotto adj. random rututu
macayô adj. exceptional (ma- "un-" + cayô "frequent, common")
māno n.an councillor; assistant mānabu "wise man"
Māsa top. a town on the upper Thabīa Saw. Mâsa < Ad. Malaza "shining place"
matonna adj. easy (ma- "un-" + atonna "difficult")
mau mali, mauka n.in ornament, decoration mala "shining" (adj.)
māyo n.an human mādu
mayōte n.an heart; soul, spirit R.H. mayu:te
mayôʔo adj. dispensable (ma- "un-" + yōʔo "venerable, traditional")
maypi maypi- v. to blame mīpi-
mayʔo n.an shepherd māiarō "pasture-man"
melos n.an daddy (meu + diminutive suffix -os)
meš ethn. Meshi mexi
Mešmo top. Mešmo (a town at the Eigə-Mešołi confluence) Meximō "Meshi-town"
Mešołi top. the Meshi river mexi ūthi
met n.an lady Me. met "woman"
meu meli, meska n.an father meze
meu meli- v.ST to read meli-
meya adj. strong, powerful, violent meia "powerful" & mada "violent"
meyen n.in death meien "journey-vn"
mi qu. none mi
mīkat mīkti, mīktak n.an brother mēkat
milako milako- v. to celebrate mizāko-
min n.an mother mina
minammi adj. orphaned (min "mother" + -mmi "-less")
minčak minčaki, minčakka n.an cattle B.H. minča:k
mipi pp. to the left of Y.H. mipi
mit mita- v. to shoot (of arrows) Pl.H. mɨta
mo adj. loose emō
moło n.an guard mothubu "overseer"
mołon adj. watchful (moło + adjectiviser -n)
mōn adj. alert; awake molan "awake"
mošin adj. busy; chaotic mosin "urban" & muobazin "anarchy"
moʔa moʔa- v. to prefer morara-
moʔen n.an baker muxādin
n.in east
nak n.an god naka
nam qu. some name
namoš adj. brown namozi
napen adj. red napen
nappa nappa- v. to grow naphepa- "to swell"
nappeyo n.in dung, mulch (nappa "to grow" + instrument nominaliser -eyo)
naʔan adj. tiny; weak naphan "small"
naʔep n.an flood naphepa "swell-hab.sg"
naʔot naʔota- v. to know about (of things or places) Pl.H. anaʔota
nema nema- v.NT to hunt R.H. nema
neya n.in leaf neia
pp. inside
nitat pp. all around, throughout Pl.H. nɨtat
nīʔan nīʔana- v.NT to turn nēxana- "to twist"
niʔî niʔéy, niʔîk n.an woman, wife nērē
nōcola n.in court, jury (nōs + collective nominaliser -la)
nommo n.an merchant nonabu "traveller"
non nona- v.NT to go nona-
nonišo n.in task, effort nonaīzō "voyage"
nōs nōcoy, nōcok n.an judge nēlithu
nōspi n.an supreme judge (nōs + augmentative suffix -pi)
nōt adj. dead R.H. nu:t "to be dead"
noynik n.an shaman, pagan priest Y.H. nolinik "high priest" < early N.A. ŋa-runok
nōyok nōyoka- v. to plan naluiuka- "to organise"
ō qu. each or
oči oči- v. to kill Y.H. uči
ōla n.in day R.H. u:la
ołay ołayʔi, ołayʔak n.an expert, specialist othī "expert" (adj.)
ōmat ōmata- v. to investigate ūmata-
omî adj. yellow ūmē
on cj. and on
ončip cj. also, furthermore on sip "and thus"
ončito ončito- v. to defeat, to destroy Y.H. unčito < early N.A. unggutɒ "to cripple"
ōnta ōnta- v. to cure (auno "doctor" + verbaliser -ta)
ōnto ōnto- v. to select ūmothu "picky" (adj.)
ōp ōpa- v. to grant ubapa- "to allow"
ōpo n.an fool rūpō "stubborn" (adj.; initial *l- reanalysed as definite article)
opâkis n.in throne ōpākātia
opičisto n.in minor problem, small task (opi- "almost" + čisto "challenge")
oppóših adj. chilly (opi- "almost" + poših "cold")
ōq ōka- v. to confront, to oppose, to resist Pl.H. ulak
ōš ōše- v.ST to sing abize-
oššowa n.an lazy person Ayl. luššuwa < Ad. rudizoba "be.daydreamy-hab.sg" (*l- reanalysed as definite article)
otanna n.an chief, headman Pl.H. otanʔa
oto n.in festival (secular); any planned event otobu "event" and/or otoza "goal"
otti otti- v. to arrive Pl.H. otɨtɨ
oyan n.in law, dogma odan
ōye ōye- v. to capture abuie-
ōyo adj. enemy abibo "evil"
oyso n.an soldier ōdasu
oʔa qu. many opha
Ōʔi n.an the Ndak mother goddess Ōphai
oʔpâło n.an lord (title) rupirāthu (initial *l- reanalysed as definite article)
pa qu. few pha
pammi n.in expertise, special knowledge pāmaphi "secret"
panáu panâla- v.ST to pray banāza-
panî n.an priest banē "pray-hab.sg"
papáu papâla- v.ST to name papāza-
paso paso- v.ST to attack paso-
pau pāloy, pālok n.in lake apālo "pond"
pāwi pāwi- v. to say again, to repeat (of utterances) bō abi- "to say again"
Pāya top. the region where Kuyʔūn is spoken pāda "valley"
paʔe paʔe- v. to hold (a position) bare- "to have, to own"
peła peła- v. to conquer petha- "to defeat"
pen pp. with (comitative) pen
peš adj. careful basi
peʔa adj. brave pera
peʔammi adj. cowardly (peʔa "brave" + -mmi "-less")
pī- v. to meet, to assemble epē- "to sit (of councils)"
piláu pilâla- v.ST to send pilāza-
pilmay pilmi-, hab.pl pilmisti v.ST+ to understand, to be in accordance pithamiza-
pilo adv. already pizel "early"
pimo n.an star Y.H. pimo
pimos n.an darling (pimo + diminutive suffix -os)
pīp pīpi- v. to torture bēpi- "to punish"
pitô adj. personal apitō "private"
pīya adj. loud pēda
piʔên piʔêna- v.NT to intend, to be eager pirēna- "to plan"
polî poléy, polîk n.in soil bōlē
poło poło- v. to stab bothu-
pōmat n.an butler, male servant baumath < F. baomast
ponci ponci- v. to attack Y.H. ponci "to stab"
ponna ponna- v. to flee pōmuna-
ponno ponnali, ponnok n.an refugee pōmunal "flee-hab.sg.pass"
pōno n.an spy būnabu
ponye n.in vegetable Mav. poňję
poših adj. cold buzis "chilly"
pot adj. same bot
pot pp. to the right of Y.H. put
pōtek pōteki, pōtekka n.an army commander bauteka < F. baoteka
poya cj. either...or boda
poye n.in injury buiae "hurt-hab.sg"
pyeyo n.in land property, piece of land bairu
Qałánta top. a legendary country across the western mountains Qtl. Qətlanttaq
qēn qēnoy, qēnok n.an light khēnu
qōnon ethn. Khalanuran khalanuran "of Khalanu" (adj.)
qōsah qōsay, qōsak n.in trade route V.Ad. *khōsax < B.Nz. xɔpsah
qoqê adj. angry V.Ad. *khokhē "be.enraged-hab.sg"
sano n.in village Me. sanu
sāt sāte- v. to begin, to start sāte-
saʔi saʔi- v. to give saphi-
seka n.in cliff Pl.H. seka
sēt pp. through, via, along R.H. si:te
sēta sēta- v. to swim R.H. se:ta "to cool off by swimming"
sīsoq sīsoki, sīsokka n.an emperor seathiauk
sōk adj. soft sōki
soło n.in sand sotho "dust"
somma somma- v. to wish somebia-
somman adj. optimistic (somma + adjectiviser -n)
sōn n.in spear selon
šayla šayla- v. to get drunk hīdaza "debauchery, orgy" (n.)
šenih šeʔni, šeʔnak n.in armor zienih "iron"
šenno n.in water barrel zīmalō
šeye šeye-, hab.pl šeyesti v.ST+ to jump V.Ad. *hidē-
šim šima- v.NT to live zima-
šimaya n.in hometown (šima- + locative suffix -ya)
šin adj. lucky (immune to bad luck) hin
šin adj. wet zin
šisen adj. sad sisen "be.depressed-hab.sg"
šiš adj. separate sikhi
šiten adj. different hiten
šiʔo šiʔo- v. to boil hiphora-
šoka šoka- v. to succeed Pl.H. šoka "to be capable, to be strong"
ta ta- v. to become; to act as ta- "to become"
tan n.in south tan
Tasot top. a town downriver from Cexotúri Cex. Tasut < Ad. Thārasōto "new Thāras"
tau talan, tešši, tasti, talau, tala v.IRR to do thaza-
tāyaq tāyaki, tāyakka n.an civilised person; native Kuyʔūn speaker dāiadak "Dāiadak"
tayne n.in tower dagane "military base"
Tāʔah top. Thāras Thāras
tāʔan ethn. Thārāran thārāran "of Thāras" (adj.)
Tāʔaspi top. the kingdom of Thāras thāraspē "Greater Thāras"
teło n.in plains tetho "wide" (adj.)
tenáu tenâla- v.ST to punish denāza-
tesoq tesoki, tesokka n.an lady dathiauk "princess"
Tewa top. the Thabīa river Thabīa < Pl.H. Tawɨʔɨya "white stone"
teya tīn, tīš, tīłi, teyau, teya v.IRR to fuck (vulgar) theda- "to have sex"
teʔi teʔey, teʔik n.an baby dephi "child"
tekim teʔma- v.NT to trade, to buy, to sell thekima-
teʔmo teʔmali, teʔmok n.in commodity thekimal "trade-hab.sg.pass"
tīkona n.in homeland R.H. ti:kuna
timo n.an child (age c. 3-12 years) Y.H. timo
tinik n.in mountain Pl.H. tɨnɨk "hill"
tīš adj. false, wrong atōiza
tīwa adv. together tēba
to cj. but dal
to to- v. to eat tu
tōli adj. white, bright dōzē
tolo n.in table tulō
ton n.an hand ton
tōna n.an girl adūnā
topa topa- v. to hold; to hug R.H. tupa
tōš tōši- v.ST to form, to shape, to forge tōsi- "to bend"
tōtin adj. divine, holy dōtin
toya toya- v. to praise duia-
toyla n.an prayer (toya- + collective nominaliser -la)
toyo n.in hymn, appraisal (toya- + patient nominaliser -o)
Tōyotin top. a town downriver from Cexotúri Tōdōtin "holy lake"
toʔât toʔâte- v. to attack, to assassinate R.H. tufa:te "to attack"
tyak adj. strange, weird, inexplicable Ayl. tyak < Ad. deka "numinous"
tyōpi n.an unity (tīwa "together" + augmentative nominaliser -pi)
wosât wosâte- v. to restart bō sāte- "to start again"
woʔláu woʔlâla- v.ST to pass on bō pilāza- "to send again"
yačan n.an cripple Ayl. yačan < Ad. eken "limp-hab.sg"
yamáyʔi particle "thank you" iamīxē "thank-hab.sg"
yanta yanta- v. to feel, to sense Ayl. yanta- < Ad. enatha-
yapło n.an thief gapathibu "criminal"
yappo yappo- v. to talk iapopu- "to socialise"
yasô adj. freezing Ayl. yasû < Ad. lesō "cold"
yātay yātiʔi, yātiyak n.an prisoner iātī
yawa adj. bad, evil iaba
yaymî n.an beggar iadēmē "be.unkempt-hab.sg"
yāʔa adj. fat, obese iāra "thick"
yaʔau yaʔlo- v.ST to be successful iarāzo-
yelam yelma- v.NT to learn rizama-
yepya adj. heavy iarioba
yesen adj. unlucky, attracting blows of fate risen "bad luck"
yeyeu yeyli, yeylok n.an town, city Cex. yeyeu < Ad. aidelu
yo pp. as, like, while iu "as"
yoło cj. so, anyway iutho "so"
yōn adj. dry, barren gorun "desert" (n.)
yono pp. before, in front of īlanu
yōnteło n.in desert (yōn + teło: "barren plains")
yōt adj. dull, boring iūt
yowa adj. alive iuba "life, survival" (n.)
yoʔa adv. not yet ioxa "backward"
yōʔo adj. venerable; traditional iōro "ancient"
ʔĀlan top. Khalanu Mav. Xalan
ʔała adj. correct, righteous hatha "legal"
ʔāmau ʔāmala- v.ST to appoint hāmaza- "to crown"
ʔapo ʔapo- v. to lift, to carry hapaba-
ʔappa ʔappa- v. to raise, to hold up V.Ad. *hapapa- "to lift" (dialectal)
ʔaqáy ʔaqáyʔi, ʔaqáska n.in mine xekhāza "mine" and/or xekhāg "ore"
ʔauna adj. public hālena
ʔecáylo adj. additional hadīlo "superficial, external"
ʔelo adj. great, mighty xezor
ʔemau ʔenni, ʔennak n.in pile, stack hemaza
ʔemen n.an heathen, heretic, infidel hemen "deny-hab.sg"
ʔEšayli top. the Fáralo coast Hazīli "Huyfárah"
ʔīkon ʔiʔna- v.NT to be hostile hēkon "hostile" (adj.)
ʔōlała n.an foreign country rūlas las
ʔomet n.an lover R.H. fumi:t
ʔonna n.in grave honida
ʔonnaq adj. mysterious, frightening honulak "unclear" (influenced by ʔonna)
ʔoqáu ʔoqâla- v.ST to break, to crush, to destroy xokhāza- "to break"
ʔoqéu ʔoqéli, ʔoqéska n.in mistake, error xokhēza "weak point, achilles' heel"
ʔoʔay ʔoʔayʔi, ʔoʔayak n.an winner, victor hophī "conquer-hab.sg"