Agriculture

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Agriculture in Peilaš

Aiwa Valley System

One of the earliest and most successful forms of agriculture in Peilaš, the Aiwa Valley system originated with the Ngauro and neighboring peoples in the general vicinity of the Aiwa delta. The system ultimately spread northeast into Huyfárah, southern Siixtaguna, and the valleys of the Šišin mountains, south into Hitatc and Miwan-speaking regions in and around the Ici forest, and west as far as Rathedān and the Xōron Eiel. The relatively narrow range of cultivated species somewhat limits the areas where the system can be successfully employed, but it has proven very successful in the river valleys of eastern Peilaš, where it long supported the growth of towns and cities. The introduction of new legume crops from Tuysáfa by Isles-speakers would in later years significantly enrich the Aiwa valley system and allow for improved forms of crop rotation.

The primary staple crops of the Aiwa Valley were wheat and barley. By the rise of the Ndak Empire, alluvial land was mostly reserved for irrigated fields of grain, but oxen were kept as beasts of burden and some cattle and sheep were raised. Goats were introduced from the Isthmus region, and horses from the west. Cultivated foods were supplemented with fishing where possible, and with hunting in the hinterlands away from the coast and the river.

(Note: Ndak Ta has no known word for "beer," but it is believed that the earliest grain agriculturalists in Peilaš must have used part of their crop to make alcohol. Somewhat later, their selection of intoxicants expanded to include wine and rice alcohol, and probably cider and millet beer as well.)

Lukpanic Coast System

The Lukpanic city-states (and likely peoples farther to the northwest) relied on buckwheat as their primary staple, supplemented with figs, Peilaš beans (useful for their nitrogen-fixing ability), and root vegetables like carrots and onions. They also raised cattle (mainly for milk), goats (probably introduced from the east), and bees, whose honey they used as a sweetener and to make mead. Grapes were cultivated for making wine, which was likely an important trade good in the region, and herbs like parsley and hibiscus were grown for their flavor. In addition to cultivated foods, they ate a great deal of fish and gathered insects and other wild foods.

The conquest of the Lukpanic coast by Western speakers didn't drastically change the agricultural system of the region, though it did introduce several important new domestic species, including horses, millet, pigs, and sheep.

(Note: It's possible that Aiwa Valley grains might eventually be introduced to the region, possibly partly displacing the cultivation of buckwheat and millet.)

Northeast Coast Subsistence Strategies

The northern coasts of Siixtaguna and the Isthmus are difficult places for agricultural societies to survive, but the expansion of the Kennan demonstrates that this harsh land can support complex societies. This area was one of the first centers of goat domestication, and herding goats and sheep is a major subsistence strategy in the more temperate reaches of the northeast coast. Fishing and hunting marine mammals is another important component, particularly in the relatively barren Kennan homeland and on Tymytỳs and surrounding islands. The Kennan and other peoples in the far north have also taken to herding reindeer, which is better suited to the environment compared to goats and sheep.

Peilaš Steppe Pastoralism

Generally similar forms of nomadic pastoralism are practiced in the great Western steppe and in much of the Xōron Eiel. These lifestyles emerged out of the earlier Aiwa Valley and western mixed agricultural systems, specializing in order to adapt to marginal regions not well suited to crop cultivation. Steppe pastoralists rely heavily on meat and dairy products, and keep mixed herds consisting mostly of cattle, goats, horses, and sheep. Mobility is essential to the success of the system, as forage is sparse in the semi-arid regions where it is practiced.

Western Mixed Agriculture

Although the expansion of the Western-speaking peoples was driven in large part by their domestication of the horse and, to a lesser extent, the pig, within much of their range they practice a form of mixed agriculture which places roughly equal emphasis on farming and animal husbandry. Versions of this system remain the dominant form of agriculture in parts of the Coastal Corridor, Kipceʔ desert, Wañelín, and the Tjakori and Western plateaus many thousands of years later, although new crops from the east did eventually enter the region. The Western system also had a significant influence on the forms of agriculture practiced in the neighboring steppe regions and the Lukpanic coast.

The primary staple crop in the Western system is millet, supplemented with Peilaš beans. By -2000 YP at the latest, some Western-speaking peoples were cultivating grapes for wine, and it appears to have been the Gezoro who introduced winemaking to the Edastean cultural sphere. As far as livestock, this system incorporated horses, pigs, and sheep, and later adopted cattle and goats as well. Where possible, agriculture was supplemented with hunting, fishing and, at times, widespread cannibalism.

Xšali Wet Rice Agriculture

Originating in tropical southern Xšalad, this system spread throughout the well-watered lands of the Xšali Empire and eastward along the coast as far as Mrisaŋfa. In the peninsula, rice cultivation was supplemented with fruit orchards, including both citrus fruits and apple, and in Xšalad spices were cultivated for cooking and trade. The Peninsular peoples would later carry this system to the islands of Fmana-hŋ-Talam and to the Lotoka region of the Isthmus. Rice cultivation had also spread at least as far as Buruya by 400 YP, and in later years it thrived on the lower Aiwa and in the Milīr valley, co-existing with the Aiwa valley system throughout much of the Edastean cultural sphere.

Agriculture in Tuysáfa

To Be Continued...
This section is not finished yet. If you can contribute to its content, feel free to do so!

The Hazāka

The main crop of the Hazāka is rice, grown in large paddies for which space has been cleared from the forest. These rice paddies are also home to semi-domesticated varieties of fish, with the fish keeping the rice pest-free while fertilising the rice with their droppings. At the coast large salts pans are found, with the salt being an important trading good with inland regions.

The Northwest Coast/the Ronquian Zone

Agriculture was not begun natively on the Tuysáfan Northwest coast, and most of the domesticates used in farming are not native to this region, including the main staples, varieties of oats, peas and beans. These would be grown in specially made plots made through either the draining of swampland or the clearing of a patch of forest. Similar clearing processes are required in order to produce suitable pasture land for their domesticated animals, however once that land has been cleared their it requires relatively little maintenance due to the grazing action of the animals in question, most notably including domesticated varieties of sheep. Settled hunter-gathering is still important as a source of food, and wild deer, river-fish and nuts and berries remain important sources of food. There is a marked geographical gradiation of the relative dominance of these types, with the cultivation of crops being more disfavoured nearer the coast due to the harsher oceanic weather.

Agriculture in Zeluzhia

To Be Continued...
This section is not finished yet. If you can contribute to its content, feel free to do so!