The young lion

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The young lion is a short text used in the comparative study of the T1 language family and, by extension, the Yalan languages.

Its actual source is: Roy S. Hagman, Nama Hottentot grammar, Bloomington/Indiana: Indiana University Press, 1977.

Text

The lion is king of all the beasts because he is very strong, thick of chest, slim of waist, and runs fast.

Every morning, the young lion would go out into the forest and compare his strength with the other beasts. And every day he would return the victor. This news was heard and known throughout the animal world: that the lion was king of the beasts. Every day that he would return victorious, his mother would praise him, "Son of mine! Thick of neck! Slim of waist! Thick of chest! He-man!"

But one morning, when having got up the young lion was stretching, she praised him, "Thick of chest! Thick of neck! Lion-armed! Slim of waist!," finished praising him and said, "I truly believe that you are strongest of all the beasts. Every day you go out into the forest and return, and show me that you are truly king of the beasts. But, my son, one day you will go out into the forest. And while you are out walking around in the forest, you will see a little thing which walks straight, its head sitting on its shoulders. And, Son of mine! Thick of chest! Thick of neck! Slim of waist!, the day you meet that little thing, on that day the sun will set while you have not returned. The name of that little thing is called 'man'."

Translations

/The first sentence./

Cednìtıt

(Potantrommo Bay, 0 YP)

Paxıco
paxı-co-Ø
lion-DEF.A.SG-NOM
ca fmùwuncumbanen
ca fmùwu-ncu-muba-ne-n
REL large_animal-DEF.A.PL-be.all-VN-ACC
onctriŋ
on-c-triŋ
3sa.NPST>3pa-beyond-rule
The lion rules all the beasts
c'odrubthık,
ca o-drubth-ık
REL 3sa.NPST-strong-INTENS
ca mupundcù
ca mupu-nudcù
REL 3sa.POS-chest
obùl,
o-bùl
3si.NPST-thick
ca trì
ca trì
REL waist
okı,
o-kı
3si.NPST-slim
ca ocınne
ca o-cın-ne-Ø
REL 3sa-run-VN-Ø
otthonethen
o-tthon-ethen
3si.NPST-POT-fast
eca
eca
because
because he is very strong, thick of chest, slim of waist, and runs fast.

Thaxarevemni

(Northeastern Bay Region, -1000 YP)

Ophaxti
o-phaxa-ti
SIN.ANI.lion.NOM.DEF
motengmöc
mo-ateng-möc
3.ANI.HAB.to_rule.PST.IND
wafmordis
o-afmolu-tis
SIN.ANI.beast.ACC.DEF
ba
ba
be_all
The lion was the ruler of all beasts
ši
ši
and
orefemnex
o-refeme-tex
SIN.ANI.ruler.GEN.DEF
nenirdis
n-nil-tis
PLU.INAM.country.ACC.DEF
fokap,
fo-kap
REL.be_four
and lord of the four countries,
tho
tho
because
ondatex
onda-tex
3.SIN.GEN
jetis
Ø-je-tis
SIN.INAM.chest.ACC.DEF
fophasak
fo-phas-ak
REL.be_thick.SUPR
ši
ši
and
fothopasak,
fo-thopas-ak
REL.be_strong.SUPR
athreti
Ø-athre-ti
SIN.INAM.waist
fokak,
fo-ka-ak
REL.be_thin.SUPR
nastakhutis
n-astakhu-tis
PLU.INAM.leg.ACC.DEF
ehȗmöc
e-ṭün-möc
3.INAM.HAB.to_run.PST.IND
eškak.
e-aška-ak
3.INAM.HAB.be_quick.SUPR
because (his) chest was thick, waist was thin, and (his) legs ran fast.

Old Yalan

(Yalne plains, -800 YP)

Mumagja
mum*-āgja
sg.an.sg.o-be
xjōphahī
xjōphahī
lion
ōčīņjamaņja
ō-čīņja-mā-aņja
sg.an-rule-er-obl
all
nuxōruhu,
nu-xōru-uhu
pl.an-animal-gen
The lion is the ruler of all animals,
thō
thō
because
[āčhigji]
ā-čhigji
sg.in-very
muhjabaga,
mu-hjabā-aga
sg.an-strong-ene
āpaxāẑaga
ā-paxāẑa-aga
sg.in-thick-ene
puxjāō,
pu-xjāō
3sg.poss-chest
ākhigi
ā-khī-igi
sg.in-thin-ene
pūhu,
p-ūhu
3sg.poss-belly
āxokogo
ā-xokō-ogo
sg.in-fast-ene
muŝiņji.
mu-ŝiņji
sg.an-run
because, certainly, he is [very] strong, his chest is thick, his stomach is thin and he runs fast.

West Yalan

(Yalne plains, 0 YP)

Momeće
mum*-aće
sg.an.sg.o-be
śâphehi
śâphehi
lion
âcińemań
â-cińe-ma-ń
sg.an-rule-er-obl
pa
pa
all
nohâruh,
no-hâru-h
pl.an-animal-gen
The lion is the ruler of all animals,
thâ
thâ
because
mośepak,
mo-śepa-k
sg.an-strong-ene
apehafak
a-pehafe-ak
sg.in-thick-ene
pośaâ,
po-śaâ
3sg.poss-chest
akhik
a-khi-k
sg.in-thin-ene
puho,
p-uho
3sg.poss-belly
ahokâk
a-hokâ-k
sg.in-fast-ene
mofiń.
mo-fiń
sg.an-run
because, certainly, he is strong, his chest is thick, his stomach is thin and he runs fast.

East Yalan

(Yalne plains, 0 YP)

Mumehe
mum*-ahe
sg.an.def-be.copula
xaupehai
xaupehai
lion
caigemege
caig-em-ege
rule-er-acc.dat
pa
pa
all
nuxauruhu,
nu-xaur-uhu
pl.an-animal-gen
The lion is the ruler of all animals,
tau
tau
because
acihi
a-cihi
sg.in-very
muheva,
mu-heva
sg.an-strong
apexaze
a-pexaze
sg.in-thick
puxamau,
pu-xamau
3sg.poss-chest
akai
a-kai
sg.in-thin
pauhu,
p-auhu
3sg.poss-belly
axukau
a-xukau
sg.in-fast
musigi.
mu-sigi
sg.an-run
because he is very strong, his chest is thick, his belly is thin and he runs fast.

Hkətl’ohnim

(western side of the Tidika mountains, 0 YP)

Kōnim
Ø-kōnim-Ø
3SG-chieftain-DIR
he-is-a-king
qa-t’ī
qa=Ø-t’ī-a
of=3SG-forest-GEN
of=it-is-a-forest
wahə,
Ø-wahə-Ø
3SG-lion-DIR
he-is-a-lion
The lion is king of the forest,
ši
ši
and
and
nerikēmu
nəm-rika-ːmōrʷ
3PL>3SG.NP-be_subordinate-obviously
they-are-obviously-subordinate-to-him
nəlīku
nə-līku-Ø
3PL-predatory_animal-DIR
they-are-beasts
nemā,
nə-ːma
3PL.NP-all
they-are-all-of-them
and all the beasts are clearly subordinate to him,
so
so
because
because
ā
ā-Ø
3SG:NH-DIR
this_one
hruskuq,
h-rusku-aq
3SG.NP-strong-EMPH
he-is-very-strong
həšamáłaq,
h-<šān>-hwał-aq
3SG.NP-<chest>-thick-EMPH
he-is-very-thick-of-chest
hčihpēħaq,
h-<čīhʷ>-pēħa-aq
3SG.NP-<waist>-slim-EMPH
he-is-very-slim-of-waist
həskaħosqoqʷ.
h-<skaħo>-sqoʷ-aq
3SG.NP-<foot>-agile-EMPH
he-is-agile-of-foot
because he is very strong, thick of chest, slim of waist, and agile of foot.

Omari

(Wohata plain, 0 YP)

Mufuomušųǫba
mu-<fųǫ‘>-mušuo-~°bê
3SG.A-<large_animal>-be_higher_in_rank-EXH
he-is-higher-in-rank-than-all-large-animals
paha
Ø-paha
3SG.A-lion
he-is-a-lion
The lion rules all the beasts
to
to
because
because
ferebak,
fê-‘reba-akˤ.
REL-strong-ENER,
he-is-very-strong
fešęįvųdek,
fê-<šeni>-°fųde-akˤ.
REL-<body>-large-ENER,
he-is-very-large-of-body
fediskapeakak,
fê-<tiska>-peaka-akˤ.
REL-<waist>-narrow-ENER,
he-is-very-narrow-of-waist
feškeakoskók.
fê-<škeako>-sko-akˤ.
REL-<leg>-quick-ENER
he-is-very-quick-of-leg
because he is very strong, large of body, slim of waist, and quick of leg.

Tari

(Wohata plain, 0 YP)

Pããcu
pããcu
3sg»3pl
pvahutic
pvahu-tic
lion-def.erg
un
un
be.all
õvõuyuti
õ-võuyu-ti
pl-beast-def
cõusu,
coun-su
rule-fin
The lion rules all the beasts
tso
tso
because
pcu
pcu
3sg»∅
sinĩ
sinĩ
be.much
thupssu,
thups-su
be.strong-fin
nĩsiu
nĩ-siu
body-def.ins
vããtisu,
vããti-su
be.big-fin
tcaasiu
tcaa-siu
waist-def.ins
piosu,
pio-su
be.slim-fin
ãssakhusiu
ã-ssakhu-siu
pl-foot-def.ins
skosu.
sko-su
be.quick-fin
because he is very strong, large of body, slim of waist, quick of leg.

See also