Tari

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Not to be confused with the Ewe language.
Tari
/tɛːɹiː/
Period c. 0 YP
Spoken in East Tuysafa
Total speakers unknown
Writing system unknown
Classification T1 languages
Typology
Basic word order AuxSOV
Morphology fusional
Alignment erg.-sec. (nouns)
acc.-sec. (verbs)
Credits
Created by Pole, the

Tari (our way of saying) is a language sketch created on Christmas Eve 2012 for the Akana Second Reconstruction Relay. It belongs to the T1 language family.

The people speaking Tari are known as õPianaomõ /ɔ̃piãnãumɔ̃ː/ (sg. Pianaomõ /piãnãumɔ̃ː/) or collectively as Taritiar /tɛːɹiːtiɛɹ/.

See also: the lexicon.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonants labial dental palatal velar
nasal m n
stop p t (tɕ) k
fricative ʋ s ɕ h
fluid ɹ j
  • [tɕ] is present in several dialects, though it is a minor feature; /ɕ/ pronounced as [tɕ] in those dialects is sometimes transcribed as ‹ć›.
  • /ɕ ʋ ɹ j/ are romanized as ‹c v r y›.
  • /ʋ h/ behave as obstruents morphophonologically.
  • /n/ can be realized as [ɲ] near /i/ and [ŋ] near /ɯ/.
  • /j/ can be realized as [ɥ] near /o/ and [ɰ] near /ɯ/.

Vowels

Monophthongs front back
high i ẽ iː ẽː
i ĩ ii ĩĩ
ɯ ɤ̃ ɯː ɤ̃ː
u ũ uu ũũ
mid o ɔ̃ oː ɔ̃ː
o õ oo õõ
low ɛ ã ɛː ãː
a ã aa ãã
  • Monophthongs adjacent to a nasal or fluid consonant are always long – they are romanized as short for the brevity sake, e.g. uyu /ɯːjɯː/.
  • The same applies to word-final nasals, e.g. kipã /kipãː/.
  • Vowels preceding a nasal are nasalized by default, what is not written, e.g. ranã /ɹãːnãː/.


Diphthongs -i -u -o -a
i- iɯ iɤ̃
iu iũ
io iɔ̃
io iõ
iɛ iã
ia iã
u- ɯi ɤ̃i
ui ũi
ɯo ɯɔ̃
uo uõ
ɯɛ ɯã
ua uã
o- oi ɔ̃i
oi õi
oɯ ɔ̃ɯ
ou õu
uɛ uã
oa oã
a- ɛi ãi
ai ãi
ɛɯ ãɯ
au ãu
ɛu ãu
ao ão


In the Comistaa dialect the monophthongization occurs:

  • iu iũ and ui ũi merge as [iː ẽː]
  • io iõ and oi õi merge as [yː ø̃ː]
  • uo uõ and ou õu merge as [uː õː]
  • ia iã and ai ãi merge as [eː ɛ̃ː]
  • ua uã and au ãu merge as [ɤː ʌ̃ː]
  • oa oã and ao ão merge as [oː ɔ̃ː]
  • also all short vowels in Comistaa are reduced and merged to [ə ə̃].

Phonotactics

The onset can be either zero, any consonant or one of the following consonant clusters:

Onsets -p -t -k -v -s -c -h
p- pt pv ps pc ph
t- tv ts tc th
k- kp kt kv ks kc kh
v- vt vk vs vc
s- sp st sk sv ss sh
c- cp ct cv cc
h- hp ht hv hs


The coda can be either zero, any consonant or one of the following consonant clusters:

Codas -p -t -k -s -c
p- ps
t- ts
k- ks
v- vp vt vk vc
s- sp st sk ss
c- cp ct ck cc
h- hp ht hk

Morphophonology

There are three major processes.

Colouring

Some words have additional vowels that appear only when some affixes are attached. (The vowels are listed in the dictionary.)

  • ranã (col. a-) with prefix tV- becomes taranã

Diphthongization

When two vowels meet at a morpheme boundary, they can together form a diphthong (or a long vowel if both vowels are the same). When at least one vowel is nasal, the resulting diphthong or long vowel is nasal as well.

  • omoanã with prefix nã- becomes naomoanã (with [ã] + [ɔ̃] creatinɡ a nasal diphthong [ãu])

Elision

A phoneme (consonant or vowel) can be also deleted from the root when an affix is added.

  • ranã with prefix uy- becomes uyanã
  • ikpciit with prefix nã- becomes nãkpciit

Noun morphology

Number-person prefixes

There are no personal pronouns in Tari. However, nouns are inflected for the person and number – they can substitute suitable personal pronouns when needed.

1sg

  • to-
    • before long vowels (diphthongization), e.g. inĩtoinĩ
    • before short oral vowels (diphthongization), e.g. optoop
    • before obstruents and clusters, e.g. katatokata
  • t-
    • before short nasal vowels (the vowel is lengthened), e.g. ãtutããtu
  • tV-
    • before sonorants (colouring), e.g. noc (col. ũ-) → tunoc

2sg

  • yu-
    • before long vowels (diphthongization), e.g. inĩyuinĩ
    • before short oral vowels (elision), e.g. opyup
  • uu-
    • before short nasal vowels (elision), e.g. ãtuuutu
    • before obstruents and clusters, e.g. katauukata
  • uy-
    • before sonorants (elision), e.g. nocuyoc

3sg

The 3sg forms are irregular and have to be checked in the dictionary.

1pl

  • s-
    • before long vowels, e.g. inĩsinĩ
    • before short oral vowels, e.g. opsop
    • before obstruents, e.g. kataskata
      • initial c assimilates to s, e.g. ciãkassiãka
    • before sonorants (elision), e.g. nocsooc
  • is-
    • before short nasal vowels, e.g. ãtuisãtu
    • before clusters, e.g. tsitistsit

2pl

  • ĩc-
    • before long vowel, e.g. inĩĩcinĩ
    • before short oral vowels, e.g. opĩcop
    • before short nasal vowels (the vowel becomes long), e.g. ãtuĩcããtu
  • ĩci-
    • before obstruents and clusters, e.g. kataĩcikata
  • ĩcV-
    • before sonorants (colouring), e.g. noc (col. ũ-) → ĩcunoc

3pl

  • nã-
    • before long vowel (diphthongization), e.g. inĩnainĩ
    • before short oral vowels (elision), e.g. opnãp
    • before short nasal vowels (diphthongization)
      • the following consonant is changed to m (if labial) or n (otherwise), e.g. õpoonaomo
      • if the consequent vowel is short, it is changed to long and takes the value of the root initial vowel, e.g. ũkoknaunũk
  • V-
    • before obstruents and clusters
      • õ- before p and v, e.g. vsiõvsi
      • ã- before t and s, e.g. taãta
      • ĩ- before c, e.g. cooĩcoo
      • ũ- before k and h, e.g. kataũkata
  • nãV-
    • before sonorants (colouring), e.g. noc (col. ũ-) → naunoc

Cases

There is a Kalaallisut-like three core case system in Tari:

  • Absolutive – the basic case; expresses intransitive subject or transitive patient;
  • Ergative – used for transitive agent;
  • Instrumental – marks the secondary object or patient in antipassive constructions.


Nouns with intervocalic t ts as the last consonant (can be followed by any vowels) combine:

  • with suffixes beginning with t- to -tt- -ss-, e.g. cpitacpitti, nãtsunãssi;
  • with suffixes beginning with s- to -ts- -ss-, e.g. cpitacpitsuu, nãtsunãssuu.


Abs. Erg. Ins.
Indefinite - -(i)c ¹ -suu
Definite -ti -tic -siu
¹) The ergative suffix is -c after vowels, -ic after obstruents and clusters and -Vc after sonorants (the last vowel is echoed; it is nasal only after nasals).

Possession

The possession can be marked by a set of enclitics:

Sg Pl
1. tu
2. cu
3. õpu nãu

Numerals

1. 11. nanãto
2. nĩc 12. nĩcanãto 20. nĩcã
3. sa 13. sanãto 30. sanã
4. kip 14. kipanãto 40. kipã
5. ra 15. ranãto 50. ranã
6. tok 16. tokhanãto 60. tokhã
7. mõuy 17. mõuyuanãto 70. mõuyã
8. vi 18. vianãto 80. vanã
9. uyu 19. uyuanãto 90. uyuanã
10. anãto 100. raunũ
1000. sããto

Verb morphology

Attributive forms

There is no distinct word class of adjectives. However, stative intransitive verbs can be often used to describe a noun, in which case they are uninflected and preposed:

  • hvoc "be loud, be noisy" + ããtanã "bee" → hvoc ããtanã "a noisy bee"


The same can be done with verbs with a dynamic meaning, by appending a suffix: -cu after vowels and fricatives, -su after ‹s› and elsewhere; verbs ending with a vowel or n have their last vowel (or diphthong element) changed to /ẽː/ ‹ĩĩ›:

  • nuan "get married" + õpsomõ "people" → nuinĩ õpsomõ "married people"

Gerund form

The gerund form is created by adding the ending -ta (final /m n ɹ j/ are deleted), e.g.

  • hvochvocta "being loud, being noisy"
  • nuannuãta "getting married"

Conjugated form

Conjugation is done by a set of auxiliary verbs. The auxiliary is placed at the beginning of the clause and the main verb at the end.

When a verb is conjugated, the ending -su is added. It forces elision of sonorants and nasals and assimilation of /ɕ/ ‹c›, e.g.:

  • Pcu ããtanãti hvossu. "This bee is noisy."
  • Hoyoc õpsomõti nuãsu. "These people will get married."

In many forms, the first singular and third plural persons are merged. However, the ambiguity can be resolved by adding a pluralizing particle nãc after the verb, e.g. hõõpit-nãc they did.

Past tense

Subject Object
- 1sg 1pl 2 3sg 3pl refl
1sg hõõpit - huspit hucpit homõt hanõt hucõõt
1pl õõpit inõt - ucpit omõt anõt ukõõt
2sg yiõpit yinõt yispit - yiomõt yianõt yicõõt
2pl cõõpit cinõt cuspit - comõt canõt cukõõt
3sg põõpit piõpit psõõpit pcõõpit pomõt pãopit pocõõt
3pl hõõpit hinõt hospit hocpit homõt hanõt hokõõt
relative võõpit vinõt vaspit vacpit vomõt vanot vacõõt

Present tense

Subject Object
- 1sg 1pl 2 3sg 3pl refl
1sg hucu - hussu huccu hõõcu hããcu hutcu
1pl ucu ĩĩcu - uccu õõcu ããcu utcu
2sg yicu yĩcu yissu - yiõcu yiãcu yitcu
2pl cucu cĩĩcu cussu - cõõcu cããcu cutcu
3sg pcu pĩĩcu psicu pcicu põõcu pããcu potcu
3pl hocu hĩĩcu hossu hoccu hõõcu hããcu hotcu
relative vacu vĩĩcu vassu vaccu võõcu vããcu vatcu

Future tense

Subject Object
- 1sg 1pl 2 3sg 3pl refl
1sg hoyoc - husooc hucooc homoc hanoc hukooc
1pl oyoc inoc - ucooc omoc anoc ukooc
2sg yioyoc yinoc yisooc - yiomoc yianoc yicooc
2pl coyoc cinoc cusooc - comoc canoc cukooc
3sg pooc pinoc psooc pcooc pomoc panoc pocooc
3pl hoyoc hinoc hosooc hocooc homoc hanoc hokooc
relative voyoc vinoc vasooc vacooc vomoc vanoc vakooc

Irrealis moods

Conditional mood

The same as past tense with -cii ending added.

Imperative mood

The same as present tense with -hi ending added.

Grammatical words

Several particles &c. are commonly used in Tari.

Conjunctions

tso
because
  • Hucu tavaasu, tso yiõpit ãtomõ thupssu.
    I am surprised because you were too strong.
si
and
  • Hucpit kõõpsu haraksuu, si yinõt cpũũsu.
    I hit you with a knife and you kicked me.
no
so that, in order to
  • Hucpit kõõpsu haraksuu, no hõõpitcii pticssu.
    I hit you with a knife so that I would win.
hun
however
  • Hucpit kõõpsu haraksuu, hun yiõpit pticssu.
    I hit you with a knife, but you won.

Question words

tin?
who?
  • Tin pcicu yoãsu?
    Who is your brother?
it?
what?
  • It pcu sinĩ õpaahisu?
    What is so spicy?
tĩĩcu?
where?
  • Tĩĩcu yiõcu ousu?
    Where do you live?
tiunũt?
when?
  • Tiunũt põõpit tarasu?
    When did it happen?
uc?
how?
  • Uc yiõcu tsosu?
    How can you doubt it?

Prepositions

ca
out of, out from
  • Yiõcuhi ca tsa pocosu.
    Spit it out of your mouth.
yi
on, at
  • Hucu yi kick huõsu.
    I work in the house.
yoin
of, for
  • Pĩĩcu karac yoin kara-nĩ pianãsu.
    The enemy of my enemy is my friend.

Adverbial particles

ciniãt
right now
  • Yĩcuhi ciniãt ãsĩĩcisu!
    Give it to me right now!
võuti
today
  • Hoyoc võuti ũkissiu hutsu.
    Today I will cross the pond.
cũũkact
often
  • Hããcu cũũkact ãtsaac tomõsu.
    I often eat fruits.
uyuiyi
rarely
  • Hucu uyuiyi cosso tuusu.
    I rarely swim naked.

Other

ãti
not
  • Homõt ãti ukho ranã õpukisu.
    I did not have sex with that woman.
nãc
they do (used to make 1sg and 3pl forms distinct)
  • Hõõcu ãti tsiisu, hõõcu-nãc tsiisu.
    I can't see it, they can.
ukho
that, there (general demonstrative)
  • Pcu ukho vacut õpiõsu.
    That path is ruined.

Sample text

Pããcu
pããcu
3sg»3pl
pvahutic
pvahu-tic
lion-def.erg
un
un
be.all
õvõuyuti
õ-võuyu-ti
pl-beast-def
cõusu,
coun-su
rule-fin
The lion rules all the beasts
tso
tso
because
pcu
pcu
3sg»∅
sinĩ
sinĩ
be.much
thupssu,
thups-su
be.strong-fin
nĩsiu
nĩ-siu
body-def.ins
vããtisu,
vããti-su
be.big-fin
tcaasiu
tcaa-siu
waist-def.ins
piosu,
pio-su
be.slim-fin
ãssakhusiu
ã-ssakhu-siu
pl-foot-def.ins
skosu.
sko-su
be.quick-fin
because he is very strong, large of body, slim of waist, quick of leg.