Kataputi

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Kataputi
[ˌka.tɐˈpu.tʲɪ]
Period c. 0 YP
Spoken in Hazāka
Total speakers c. 120,000
Writing system unknown
Classification Dumic languages
  Kataputi
Typology
Basic word order SOV
Morphology fusional/agglutinating
Alignment ERG-ABS
Credits
Created by Thedukeofnuke

Kataputi was spoken at the beginning of the first millennium in the Hazāka, the coastal plains south of the Great Bay of eastern Tuysáfa. The name is derived from a compound meaning "town language" and refers prototypically to the language spoken in the small city-states that clustered around the southern end of the Bay; more broadly it refers to the closely related group of dialects spoken in the wider Hazāka region and the nearby foothills. The speakers of Kataputi referred to themselves as the Katapaki.

The Great Bay region was one of the most advanced regions of mainland Tuysáfa at the time. The area had been agricultural for millennia, and had developed intensive rice cultivation and animal husbandry along with the beginnings of urban culture. The time of this sketch coincides with the start of the Tuysáfan Iron Age; the Anatolionesian peoples of Kyosshin and Ōshin had been exploiting iron since the middle of the first millennium BP, and by -200 YP the technology had begun to spread on the continent.

Phonology

Consonants

Labial Coronal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p · b t · d k · ɡ
Fricative s · z h
Tap ɾ
Approximant w

/ɾ/ is transcribed r (and often written /r/ in phonemic analysis). All other consonants are transcribed as in IPA or the Latin-text equivalent.

[b] does not contrast with /p/ in native words (it only appears in the cluster /zb/), but is distinguished in transcription.

Vowels

 front   back 
high i · iː u · uː
mid
low a · aː

Long vowels are transcribed with a macron.

Phonotactics

Syllable structure is C(C)V. Allowable onset clusters are /ps ts ks dz gz pr tr kr dr gr pw tw kw dw gw sp st sk zb zd zg sw zw/. The onset clusters /sr zr/ may also occur underlyingly, but surface as /sw zw/.

Prosody

Kataputi has a predictable dynamic stress based on morae. Syllables with short vowels are monomoraic, while those with long vowels are bimoraic; a strong dynamic stress falls on the penultimate mora, with the effect that the final syllable is stressed if it contains a long vowel, and the penultimate syllable is stressed otherwise. Secondary stress is applied to alternating morae before the primary stress, so long vowels always carry either primary or secondary stress. (If a long vowel is stressed, it is pronounced the same whether the stress is underlyingly on the first or second mora.)

Inflectional affixes usually change the location of stress, although there are some exceptions, which are noted in the grammar. Function words and particles are usually unstressed.

Dialects and phonetic detail

The Kataputi dialect continuum consists of four main groups: Core (Kataputi proper), Western, Inland, and Eastern. All of these are quite similar and mutually intelligible. Nonetheless there are some significant variations in phonetic detail between dialects; the Eastern dialects in particular are somewhat divergent.

Changes common to most dialects

  • Mid vowels become short when adjacent to a (primary) stressed syllable. However, this generally does not affect secondary stress distribution.
  • Mid vowels also tend to become lax [ɛ(ː) ɔ(ː)] before consonant clusters.
  • Short /a i u/, when carrying neither primary nor secondary stress, become lax [ɐ ɪ ʊ].

Core dialects

  • Coronals are slightly palatalised before front vowels: /n t d s z ɾ/ become [nʲ tʲ dʲ sʲ zʲ ɾʲ]. Some speakers palatalise all obstruents in this environment.
  • /ɾ/ is pronounced as a trilled [r] initially.

Western dialects

  • /n t d/ are dental [n̪ t̪ d̪].
  • /s z/ are commonly in free variation with [θ ð]. This pronunciation is particularly prevalent adjacent to front vowels.
  • /w/ is pronounced as a purely bilabial [β̞].
  • Many speakers shorten all long vowels adjacent to a (primary) stressed syllable, thus making vowel tenseness phonemic.
  • Short vowels often become nasalised before a nasal consonant. Some speakers also nasalise long vowels in this environment.

Inland dialects

  • /n t d/ are dental [n̪ t̪ d̪].
  • /h/ is a breathy-voiced [ɦ].
  • /w/ is pronounced as a fricative [β]; some speakers also pronounce it as [b] initially. It also tends to undergo voicing assimilation in clusters.
  • The pronunciation of short /u/ is relatively unstable; it is often lowered or centralised, and some speakers pronounce it as [o], especially when unstressed.

Eastern dialects

  • Underlying /sr zr/ are realised as such, rather than surfacing as /sw zw/.
  • /b d g/ are pronounced as fricatives [v ð ʝ~ɣ].
  • /w/ is pronounced as [v].
  • /ɾ/ is pronounced as an approximant [ɹ] in clusters, and sometimes in other environments.
  • Vowels become nasalised before a nasal consonant.
  • The mid vowels /eː oː/ do not undergo laxing or shortening, but are pronounced as diphthongs [eɪ oʊ].
  • Some speakers elide final short vowels after a single consonant.

Example words

Word Gloss Core Western Inland Eastern
'omen' (abs. sg.) [ruː] [ɾuː] [ɾuː] [ɾuː]
tragi 'quiet' (ipfv. ind.) [ˈtɾa.ɡɪ] [ˈt̪ɾa.ɡɪ] [ˈt̪ɾa.ɡɪ] [ˈtɹa.ʝɪ]
hira 'bird' (abs. sg.) [ˈhi.ɾɐ] [ˈhi.ɾɐ] [ˈɦi.ɾɐ] [ˈhi.ɾɐ]
hirāmuga 'birds' (erg. pl.) [hɪˌɾaːˈmu.ɡɐ] [hɪˌɾãˈmu.ɡɐ] [ɦɪˌɾaːˈmu.ɡɐ] [hɪˌɾãːˈmu.ɣɐ]
tukōzu 'kiln' (abs. sg.) [ˌtuˈkoː.zʊ] [ˌt̪uˈkoː.zʊ] [ˌt̪ʊˈkoː.zo] [ˌtuˈkoʊ.zʊ]
tukōzūni 'kiln' (obl. sg.) [ˌtuˌko.ˈzuː.nʲɪ] [ˌt̪uˌko.ˈzuː.n̪ɪ] [ˌt̪ʊˌko.ˈzuː.n̪ɪ] [ˌtuˌkoʊ.ˈzũː.nɪ]
kwinu 'snail' (abs. sg.) [ˈkwi.nʊ] [ˈkβ̞ĩ.n̪ʊ] [ˈkɸi.n̪o] [ˈkvĩ.nʊ]
susinari 'cows' (abs. pa.) [ˌsu.sʲɪˈna.ɾʲɪ] [ˌsu.θɪ̃ˈn̪a.ɾɪ] [ˌsʊ.sɪˈn̪a.ɾɪ] [ˌsu.sɪ̃ˈna.ɾɪ]
kūgā 'eighty' [ˌkuːˈɡaː] [ˌkuˈɡaː] [ˌkuːˈɡaː] [ˌkuːˈɣaː]

Morphology

Kataputi morphology is fusional and mostly suffixing. A common feature is stem gradation – different forms of a root word used with different inflections.

Morphophonology

Three morphophonological processes are important in Kataputi: stem gradation, assimilation, and mutation. Stem gradation of nouns and verbs is a common process linked to declension and conjugation, and is dealt with in the appropriate sections; assimilation and mutation occur less frequently, and are both due to a number of unrelated causes.

Assimilation

Kataputi permits only a limited number of consonant cluster forms, and only in syllable onsets, but clusters can occur due to elision in morphological processes such as in noun declension.

Clusters in Kataputi can all be grouped into the following types:

  • A stop followed by a sibilant.
  • A stop followed by /r/ or /w/.
  • A sibilant followed by a stop.
  • A sibilant followed by /w/ or underlying /r/.

The following assimilation rules are then applied:

  • If the cluster comprises two obstruents, the second assimilates in voicing to the first.
  • /r/ following a sibilant surfaces as /w/ (except in Eastern dialects).

Mutation

Prefixes and compounding can trigger one of three types of consonant mutation. This is a process that involves the lenition (for Mutation I) or fortition (Mutations II and III) of the initial consonant of a word.

The changes that occur are listed in the following table. If a consonant is unchanged by a given mutation, the space is left blank. The triangular colon ː signifies the lengthening of the final vowel of the prefix or preceding root.

Radical Mutation I Mutation II Mutation III
m ːm ːm
n ːn ːn
t d
k g
s z t p
z t t
h k k
r t p
w ːn ːm

Mutation I affects consonants even if they are the first element of a cluster; the second element then assimilates in voicing if it is a stop or sibilant. However, neither Mutation II nor III affects consonants in an initial cluster.

Nominal morphology

Declension

Nouns are inflected for three cases (absolutive, ergative, and oblique) and three numbers (singular, paucal, and plural).

Many commonly used nouns have two distinct stem “grades”, and a few have three (known as strong, intermediate, and weak grades). These are indicated in the tables below by the letters S, I, and W. A noun with no intermediate grade uses the strong grade instead, and a noun with only one grade uses this for all forms.

There are three declension classes, conventionally numbered I, II, and III (sometimes R, T, and P are used instead, based on the form of the paucal suffix). Declension I is the most common, accounting for about two thirds of nouns. The triangular colon ː signifies the lengthening of a final vowel when a suffix is added.

Declension I

Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular S W-ga W-ni
Paucal W-ri I-riga I-rini
Plural W-mu I-muga I-muni
  • Any final short vowel in a strong or intermediate grade is deleted when a suffix is added, unless this would create an illegal cluster. This only applies to Declension I.

Declension II

Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular S W-ka W-ːni
Paucal W-ti I-tiga I-tini
Plural W-ːmu S-ːmuga S-ːmuni

Declension III

Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular S W-ka W-ːni
Paucal W-pi I-piga I-pini
Plural W-ːmu S-ːmuga S-ːmuni

Example declensions

hazi 'finger' (Declension I)
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular hazi haziga hazini
Paucal haziri hazwiga hazwini
Plural hazimu hazimuga hazimuni
zwaha, zwā, zūwa 'beetle' (Declension I)
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular zwaha zūwaga zūwani
Paucal zūwari zwāriga zwārini
Plural zūwamu zwāmuga zwāmuni
nadi 'flower' (Declension II)
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular nadi nadika nadīni
Paucal naditi naditiga naditini
Plural nadīmu nadīmuga nadīmuni
tuzu, tsu 'mosquito' (Declension II)
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular tuzu tsuka tsūni
Paucal tsuti tuzutiga tuzutini
Plural tsūmu tuzūmuga tuzūmuni
tinaza 'spider' (Declension III)
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular tinaza tinazaka tinazāmi
Paucal tinazapi tinazapiga tinazapini
Plural tinazāmu tinazāmuga tinazāmuni
waha, , wa 'net' (Declension III)
Absolutive Ergative Oblique
Singular waha waka wāmi
Paucal wapi wāpiga wāpini
Plural wāmu wahāmuga wahāmuni

Possession

Possession in Kataputi is indicated by prefixes. Many nouns are inalienably possessed; these may not occur without a possessive prefix. A few nouns have more than one meaning, distinguished by whether they are inalienably possessed.

All possessive prefixes trigger consonant mutation. The third person masculine singular triggers Mutation II, the third person feminine singular triggers Mutation III, and all other possessive prefixes trigger Mutation I.

The distinctions made in possessive prefixes are the same as those made in pronouns. The prefixes are as follows:

Mutation
1st person exclusive Singular ti- I
Paucal tri- I
Plural timu- I
1st person inclusive Dual kuda- I
Paucal kri- I
Plural kumu- I
2nd person Singular ma- I
Paucal mari- I
Plural mamu- I
3rd person masculine Singular ka- II
Paucal kati- I
Plural kāmu- I
3rd person feminine Singular tu- III
Paucal tupi- I
Plural tūmu- I

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

Kataputi has personal pronouns for the first, second, and third person, and also distinguishes inclusivity in the first person and gender in the third. All of these have a full set of pronouns distinguishing the three cases (absolutive, ergative, oblique) and three numbers (singular, paucal, plural - except for the 1st person inclusive, which has a dual rather than a singular).

Absolutive Ergative Oblique
1st person exclusive Singular ti tiga tini
Paucal tiri triga trini
Plural timu timuga timuni
1st person inclusive Dual kuda kudaga kudani
Paucal kuri kriga krini
Plural kumu kumuga kumuni
2nd person Singular ma maga mani
Paucal mari mariga marini
Plural mamu mamuga mamuni
3rd person masculine Singular ka kaka kāni
Paucal kati katiga katini
Plural kānu kānuga kānuni
3rd person feminine Singular tu tuka tūmi
Paucal tupi tupiga tupini
Plural tūnu tūnuga tūnuni

Correlatives

Kataputi has a small number of correlatives; most of these are not actually pronouns, but they are included here for completeness.

Morphology Gloss
ra III 'what?' (pronoun or attributive)
wi II 'who?' (pronoun)
rāmi 'how?' (pro-adverb)
rāzigi 'which? what kind of?' (attributive)
kizigi 'no, none (of)' (attributive)
mumi 'thus, like that' (pro-adverb)
muzigi 'such, like that, that kind of' (attributive)

Verbal morphology

Conjugation

Verbs are inflected for five moods (indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative, and conditional) and distinguish imperfective from perfective aspect. There is also an attributive: a subordinated form used as an adjective.

Like some nouns, many common verbs have two or three stem grades, indicated as S, I, W in the tables below. A verb with no intermediate grade uses the strong grade instead, and a verb with only one grade uses this for all forms.

The citation form for a verb is the imperfective indicative (which is always the same as the strong stem).

There are three conjugations, numbered I, II, and III; most verbs belong to Conjugation I, and only these can have an intermediate stem grade. The triangular colon ː signifies the lengthening of a final vowel when a suffix is added.

Conjugation I

Imperfective Perfective
Indicative S W-wa
Subjunctive W-za I-waza
Optative W-zi I-wazi
Imperative W-gi I-wagi
Conditional W-mu I-wamu
Attributive W-gi
  • Any final short vowel in a strong or intermediate grade is deleted when a suffix is added, unless this would create an illegal cluster. This only applies to Conjugation I.

Conjugation II

Imperfective Perfective
Indicative S W-ːna
Subjunctive W-ta S-ːnaza
Optative W-ti S-ːnazi
Imperative W-ki S-ːnagi
Conditional W-ːmu S-ːnamu
Attributive W-ki

Conjugation III

Imperfective Perfective
Indicative S W-ːma
Subjunctive W-pa S-ːmaza
Optative W-ti S-ːmazi
Imperative W-ki S-ːmagi
Conditional W-ːmu S-ːmamu
Attributive W-ki

Other verbal forms

Kataputi has three inflectional affixes that can be attached to any verb form.

One is a prefix:

  • The reflexive prefix ha-. This prefix triggers Mutation III.

The other two are suffixes. (The allomorphs after the slashes are used after the imperative, or after the imperfective indicative of a Declension II or III verb. These affixes do not affect the stress position.)

  • The antipassive suffix -zda/-tata
  • The relativiser -gi/-ki

Both of the antipassive and relativising suffixes may occur on the same verb, but the relativiser, where present, must always be the last affix.

Example conjugations

katu 'to be black' (Conjugation I)
Imperfective Perfective
Indicative katu katuwa
Subjunctive katuza katwaza
Optative katuzi katwazi
Imperative katugi katwagi
Conditional katumu katwamu
Attributive katugi
hihi, , hi 'to boil' (Conjugation I)
Imperfective Perfective
Indicative hihi hiwa
Subjunctive hiza hīwaza
Optative hizi hīwazi
Imperative higi hīwagi
Conditional himu hīwamu
Attributive higi
hiku 'to jump' (Conjugation II)
Imperfective Perfective
Indicative hiku hikūna
Subjunctive hikuta hikūnaza
Optative hikuti hikūnazi
Imperative hikuki hikūnagi
Conditional hikūmu hikūnamu
Attributive hikuki
suzi, si 'to give' (Conjugation II)
Imperfective Perfective
Indicative suzi sīna
Subjunctive sita suzīnaza
Optative siti suzīnazi
Imperative siki suzīnagi
Conditional sīmu suzīnamu
Attributive siki
muzō 'to be sacred' (Conjugation III)
Imperfective Perfective
Indicative muzō muzōma
Subjunctive muzōpa muzōmaza
Optative muzōti muzōmazi
Imperative muzōki muzōmagi
Conditional muzōmu muzōmamu
Attributive muzōki
taha, ta 'to walk' (Conjugation III)
Imperfective Perfective
Indicative taha tāma
Subjunctive tapa tahāmaza
Optative tati tahāmazi
Imperative taki tahāmagi
Conditional tāmu tahāmamu
Attributive taki

Numbers

Kataputi has a base-10 number system:

1 kaza 11 kākaza
2 migi 12 kāmigi 20 mīgā
3 hira 13 kānira 30 hiragā
4 zada 14 kātada 40 zadagā
5 15 kānī 50 hīgā
6 sima 16 kātima 60 simagā
7 tadu 17 kātadu 70 tadugā
8 kuhu 18 kākuhu 80 kūgā
9 nuti 19 kānuti 90 nutigā
10 100 tigi
1000 tigiwu

Larger numbers are formed analytically:

mīgā
mīgā
20
hira
hira
3
23
simagā
simagā
60
zada
zada
4
64
tigi
tigi
100
kākuhu
kākuhu
18
118
5
tigi
tigi
100
mīgā
mīgā
20
hira
hira
3
523

The word ru 'on' comes between digits in the hundreds and higher:

tigiwu
tigiwu
1000
ru
ru
on
hira
hira
3
tigi
tigi
100
hiragā
hiragā
30
tadu
tadu
7
1337

Numerals are indeclinable, but ordinals can be formed by adding the genitive postposition zi.

Derivational morphology

Derivational affixes

A range of suffixes are used to derive new words in Kataputi. These are sensitive to the stem alternations of noun and verb roots, with each affix taking a particular grade; however, newly derived nouns themselves tend not to undergo alternations as this would be likely to create ambiguity.

In the following tables, each suffix is listed with its allomorphs for different declensions/conjugations and the stem grade that it takes, its own declension/conjugation class, and its meaning. As with inflectional suffixes, any final short vowel in the strong or intermediate grade of an Declension I noun or Conjugation I verb is deleted when a derivational suffix is added, unless this would create an illegal cluster.

Noun to noun

Affix forms Declension Gloss Example
I II III
W-gi W-ki W-ki II general diminutive "sea" >
mīgi "lagoon, bay"
W-da W-ta W-ta III diminutive, with connotations of youth or daintiness "dog" >
tūda "puppy"
I-dagu I-tagu I-tagu I augmentative hu "spirit" >
hutagu "god"
I-niri S-ːniri S-ːniri I a distinguishing feature or quality of X titu "citizen" >
tituniri "rank, social class"

Syntax

Basic word order

The default word order in Kataputi is SOV, although case marking allows some flexibility.

Tuzutiga
tuzu-tiga
mosquito-ERG.PA
ru
ru-Ø
man-ABS.SG
kāma.
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
Some mosquitoes have bitten the man.

Indirect objects usually come immediately before the direct object.

Tuka
tuka
3F.ERG.SG
timudūni
ti-mudu-ːni
1EX.SG-son-OBL.SG
ra
ra
DAT
wigimu
wigi-mu
apple-ABS.PL
siti.
si-ti
give-IPFV.OPT
I hope she gives apples to my son.

Adverbs and adverbial phrases, however, immediately precede the verb.

Miwa
miwa-Ø
boat-ABS.SG
kamini
kami-ni
axe-OBL.SG
ki
ki
INS
nagadawa.
nagada-wa
damage-PFV.IND
The boat was damaged (by someone) with an axe.

Nouns and noun phrases

Noun phrases comprise a head noun and any number of modifiers; all modifiers precede the head noun. Verbs used as adjectives take the attributive suffix.

mazigi
mazi-gi
white-ATTR
tsari
tsa-ri
cloud-ABS.PA
some white clouds

Quantifiers tend to precede other modifiers with the exception of genitive constructions.

10
zgugi
zgu-gi
healthy-ATTR
zimigi
zimi-gi
young-ATTR
rūmu
ru-ːmu
man-ABS.PL
ten healthy young men

Case usage

The absolutive case is the most unmarked, and is used for the subject of an intransitive sentence or the object of a transitive one.

The ergative case is used for the subject of a transitive sentence.

The oblique case is used for the indirect object of a sentence, governs postpositions, and forms appositives.

Genitives and possession

Possession can be expressed in two ways: using the possessive prefixes, or the genitive postposition zi. A genitive construction precedes all other modifiers in a noun phrase.

kudawāmu
kuda-wāmu-Ø
1IN.DU-house-ABS.SG
our house (belonging to the two of us)
rūmi
ru-ːmi
man-OBL.SG
zi
zi
GEN
kāzugi
kāzugi-Ø
trousers-ABS.SG
a man's trousers

However, for inalienably possessed nouns, the prefix must be used even where there is also a genitive.

rūmi
ru-ːmi
man-OBL.SG
zi
zi
GEN
kaksida
ka-ksida-Ø
3M.SG-legs-ABS.SG
a man's legs

When the possessor is a pronoun, a genitive expression can be used (with a possessive prefix where required) to emphasise it:

kāni
kāni
3M.OBL.SG
zi
zi
GEN
kāzugi
kāzugi-Ø
trousers-ABS.SG
his own trousers
kāni
kāni
3M.OBL.SG
zi
zi
GEN
kaksida
ka-ksida-Ø
3M.SG-legs-ABS.SG
his own legs

Appositives

Appositive expressions use the oblique case, and precede their head noun:

kumuhigadani
kumu-higada-ni
1IN.PL-city-OBL.SG
Skōkana
Skōkana-Ø
Skōkana-ABS.SG
our city, Skōkana

Verbs

Aspect and mood

These are the two main categories of inflection for Kataputi verbs.

Aspect marks whether an action is ongoing (imperfective) or completed (perfective), but says nothing about tense:

Kiki
ki-ki
come-ATTR
riwini
riwi-ni
year-OBL.SG
hi,
hi
with
mamuga
mamuga
2.ERG.PL
katatagu
kata-tagu-Ø
hall-AUG-ABS.SG
hizi.
hizi-Ø
build-IPFV.IND
Next year you all will be building a grand hall.
Kiki
ki-ki
come-ATTR
riwini
riwi-ni
year-OBL.SG
hi,
hi
with
mamuga
mamuga
2.ERG.PL
katatagu
kata-tagu-Ø
hall-AUG-ABS.SG
hīziwa.
hīzi-wa
build-PFV.IND
Next year you will have built a grand hall.

The use of the moods is less straightforward. There are five main moods plus the attributive; this section gives an overview of how they work.

The indicative is the least marked form, and is used in main clauses where the action is well-established to have occurred.

Tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
hīmu.
hīmu-Ø
own-IPFV.IND
I have a cloak.

The subjunctive is also common, but does not occur in main clauses; it occurs in nominalised verb phrases and a number of other environments.

Maga
Maga
2.ERG.SG
tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
hīmuza
hīmu-za
own-IPFV.SJV
hukawa.
huka-wa
find-PFV.IND
You've found out that I have a cloak.

The optative expresses a wish or desire.

Tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
hīmuzi.
hīmu-zi
own-IPFV.OPT
I wish I had a cloak.

The imperative is used to give orders or, more generally, to say to the listener that they should bring about the action. As such, the subject is always in the second person and can be safely omitted where the number distinction is not important. The imperative is polite enough that it can be safely used with social peers, though not superiors.
To some degree the choice of aspect used with the imperative depends on the verb: general states are mostly used with the imperfective, whereas specific actions are more usually used with the perfective.

Saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
hīmugi.
hīmu-gi
own-IPFV.IMP
You should have a cloak.
Saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
niriwagi.
niri-wagi
get-PFV.IMP
You should get a cloak.

The conditional is used to express possibility; unsusprisingly, though, it is mainly used for the consequent of conditional expressions, which are discussed in the Transformations section.

Tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
hīmumu.
hīmu-mu
own-IPFV.COND
I could have a cloak.
Hi
hi
if
tēputani
tēputa-ni
noble-OBL.SG
ti
ti
1EX.SG.ABS
ziza,
zi-za
be-IPFV.SJV
hi
hi
then
tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
hīmumu.
hīmu-mu
own-IPFV.COND
If I were noble, I would have a cloak.

Negation

There are two negatives in Kataputi: the ordinary negative ta and the emphatic negative kimi. These are particles that can be used with any form of verb, and which immediately precede it:

Tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
ta
ta
NEG
hīmu.
hīmu-Ø
own-IPFV.IND
I don't have a cloak.
Tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
saduki
saduki-Ø
cloak-ABS.SG
kimi
kimi
NEG.EMPH
hīmumu.
hīmu-mu
own-IPFV.COND
It's impossible that I could have a cloak.

Though it does not strictly negate a sentence, the determiner or attributive kizigi 'none (of)' is used to indicate the negation or absence of a nominal (which is always declined in the singular):

Kizigi
kizigi
none
nāgika
nāgi-ka
law-ERG.SG
tipanaha
tipanaha-Ø
govern-IPFV.IND
Gōki.
Gōki-Ø
Jouki-ABS.SG
Jouki is not governed by the law.

Similarly, kūma means both 'neither' and 'nor':

Kūma
kūma
neither
nāgika
nāgi-ka
law-ERG.SG
kūma
kūma
nor
nagruka
nagru-ka
lord-ERG.SG
tipanaha
tipanaha-Ø
govern-IPFV.IND
Tētu.
Tētu-Ø
Tɛnto-ABS.SG
The Tɛnto are governed by neither law nor lord.

Derived verb forms

The antipassive, in -zda/-tata, promotes the single absolutive argument of a verb to become an ergative "subject", and also serves in coordinating sentences; the relativiser -gi/-ki is used solely for relative clauses. Both are discussed in the Transformations section.

Postpositional phrases

Kataputi postpositions govern the oblique case. The postposition comes last, immediately preceded by the noun, itself preceded by any modifiers.

sadukīni
saduki-ːni
cloak-OBL.SG
ki
ki
INS
using a cloak
mazigi
mazi-gi
white-ATTR
tīwumuni
tīwu-muni
star-OBL.PL
hama
hama
towards
towards the white stars

There are no postpositions that apply specifically to time, and spatial equivalents are used instead. The guiding metaphor is that events move forward through time, through their circumstances; the most common examples are given below:

Postp. Gloss
Space Time
tama to before
mima into at the start of, just before
hi with in, during
mirima through for, throughout, during
zu beside while, at the same time as
miri out of at the end of, just after
tari from after

Transformations

In this section, following the style of Zompist, transformations are described in a simplified notation with examples.

AB means "whenever A is a legal structure, so is B".

Symbols used:
S = subject
V = verb
O = direct object
I = indirect object
N = noun
Vi = intransitive verb
Vt = transitive verb
VP = verb phrase
NP = noun phrase
Pr = pronoun
PP = postpositional phrase
Adv = adverbial information
Adj = adjectival information
SEN = sentence
- = morpheme boundary

Passive sentences

S O VtO Vt

The passive in Kataputi works somewhat differently to that of accusative languages. A transitive sentence can be turned into a passive simply by deleting the subject:

Rīmuka
rīmu-ka
lion-ERG.SG
tiha
tiha-Ø
horse-ABS.SG
nūna.
nūna-Ø
eat-IPFV.IND
A lion is eating a horse.

Tiha
tiha-Ø
horse-ABS.SG
nūna.
nūna-Ø
eat-IPFV.IND
A horse is eaten.

Antipassive sentences

S O VtS-ABS Vt-AP

Deleting the object of a verb while retaining the role of the agent is slightly more complicated - the subject is retained in the absolutive case, and the verb takes the antipassive suffix -zda/-tata (see the verbal morphology section for more on this suffix). This transformation is important for coordinating sentences, which is discussed below.

Tihaka
tiha-ka
horse-ERG.SG
wigi
wigi-Ø
apple-ABS.SG
nūna.
nūna-Ø
eat-IPFV.IND
A horse is eating an apple.

Tiha
tiha-Ø
horse-ABS.SG
nūnatata.
nūna-Ø-tata
eat-IPFV.IND-AP
A horse is eating.

The conditional

SEN1, SEN2hi SEN1-SJV hi SEN2-COND

The condition of a conditional expression is put in the subjunctive mood, and the consequent in the conditional mood; either of these can be negated with either ta or kimi. The conjunction hi precedes each of these (it essentially does the work of both English "if" and "then").

Hi
hi
if
ma
ma
2.SG.ABS
rādirīnaza,
rādiri-ːnaza
return-PFV.SJV
hi
hi
then
triga
triga
1EX.PA.ERG
ma
ma
2.SG.ABS
kūwamu.
kū-wamu
kill-PFV.COND
If you come back, we'll kill you.

Relative clauses

Relative clauses follow SOV word order in the same way as main clauses, although one argument of the verb is always deleted. A relative clause immediately precedes its head noun, which is itself declined as appropriate for its syntactic role:

Suki
suki-Ø
fish-ABS.SG
niriwagi
niri-wa-gi
catch-PFV.IND-REL
ruguga
rugu-ga
hook-ERG.SG
himaru
himaru-Ø
turtle-ABS.SG
mūma
mūma
also
niriwa.
niri-wa
catch-PFV.IND
The hook that caught a fish also caught a turtle.

Absolutive as referent

(S1 O V1) S2 O V2S2 S1 V1-REL O V2

Relative clauses where the absolutive is the referent are formed by deleting the absolutive argument and adding the relativising suffix -gi/-ki to the verb (see the verbal morphology section for more on this suffix).

kīmikumīmuga
kīmikumi-ːmuga
peasant-ERG.PL
hizwazigi
hizi-wazi-gi
build-PFV.OPT-REL
zwūmamu
zwūma-mu
road-ABS.PL
the roads that the peasants should have built

(S Vi) S O V2Vi-ATTR S O V2

If the relative clause is intransitive, the attributive may be used instead of a full relativised form. In many cases, attributives are better translated into English as adjectives, but not always:

naraki
nara-ki
burn-ATTR
kati
ka-ti
tree-ABS.PA
some burning trees

Ergative as referent

(S O1 V1) S O2 V2O1 V1-REL S O2 V2

Relative clauses where the ergative subject is the referent are equally simple - they are formed by deleting the subject and adding -gi/-ki to the verb.

suki
suki-Ø
fish-ABS.SG
niriwagi
niri-wa-gi
catch-PFV.IND-REL
rugu
rugu-Ø
hook-ABS.SG
the hook that caught a fish

Nominal subordination

(S1 O1 V1) O2 V2S1 O1 V1-SJV O2 V2
S2 (S1 O1 V1) V2S2 S1 O1 V1-SJV V2

Nominal subordination makes use of the subjunctive mood. A full sentence can be made to behave as a noun phrase, including as subject or object of another verb.

Manāgiru
ma-nāgiru-Ø
2.SG-lord-ABS.SG
tūmaza
tu-ːmaza
dead-PFV.SJV
hata.
hata-Ø
true-IPFV.IND
It's true that your lord has died.
Kriga
kriga
1IN.ERG.PA
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
rīniza
rīni-za
laugh-IPFV.SJV
nāmawa.
nāma-wa
hear-PFV.IND
We've all heard him laughing.

Quotation

While indirect quotations use the subjunctive, directly quoted speech uses a special quotative particle simi. In this type of construction the quotation generally comes first in the sentence, and is always followed directly by simi; it is considered an intransitive sentence and so the speaker takes the absolutive case.

Tuka
tuka
3F.ERG.SG
tu
tu
3F.ABS.SG
staza
sta-za
happy-IPFV.SJV
tini
tini
1EX.OBL.SG
stiwa.
sti-wa
say-PFV.IND
She said to me that she was happy.
“Ti
ti
1EX.ABS.SG
sita”
sita-Ø
happy-IPFV.IND
simi,
simi
QUOT
tu
tu
3F.ABS.SG
tini
tini
1EX.OBL.SG
stiwa.
sti-wa
say-PFV.IND
“I'm happy,” she said to me.

Questions

Yes/no questions

The simplest way of asking a question in Katapaki is with the particle ga, which is placed after the verb. Formations with ga generally presuppose a positive answer.

Tiga
tiga
1.ERG.SG
mariwāmu
mari-wāmu-Ø
2.PA-house-ABS.SG
kataguwa
katagu-wa
save-PFV.IND
ga?
ga
Q
Didn't I save your house?

To form a question that presupposes a negative, the same construction is used but with the negating particle ta preceding the verb. (The emphatic negative kimi can be used instead to express a mere trace of doubt, or to ask for support.)

Ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
ta
ta
NEG
tudu
tudu-Ø
ill-IPFV.IND
ga?
ga
Q
He's not ill, is he?
Pinuka
Pinuka-Ø
Pinuka-ABS.SG
Gōkini
Gōki-ni
Jouki-OBL.SG
ki
ki
INS
kimi
kimi
NEG.EMPH
zgawa
zga-wa
lose-PFV.IND
ga?
ga
Q
Surely Pinuka wasn't defeated by Jouki?

It is possible to ask a yes/no question without a presumed answer. This works in the same way as the first construction but with the addition of the phrase wō ta ('or not') immediately after the verb.

hā-Ø
sky-ABS.SG
kupi
kupi-Ø
blue-IPFV.IND
or
ta
ta
NEG
ga?
ga
Q
Is the sky blue or not?

To answer a yes/no question in the affirmative, it is usual to reply with the main verb from the question, or tugū '(it) is correct'; to answer in the negative, the negative ta may be used, analogously to English 'no' (but kimi may be used instead for emphasis, especially when the question expects an affirmative). Where the answer is uncertain, it is possible to reply using the subjunctive mood of the verb from the question.

Kupi.
kupi-Ø
blue-IPFV.IND
Ta.
ta
NEG
Kimi.
kimi
NEG.EMPH
Kupimu.
kupi-mu
blue-IPFV.COND
Yes, it's blue. No, it isn't. Of course it isn't. It could be blue.

Question forming with pronouns

Kataputi has two key interrogative pronouns, ra 'what' (declension III) and wi 'who' (declension II), along with the pro-adverb rāmi 'how' and the attributive rāzigi 'which, what kind'. These do not move around in the sentence; they simply take the place of the referent, declining as appropriate.

Sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
tidē
ti-tē-Ø
1.SG-face-ABS.SG
kāma.
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
A shark bit my face.
Raka
ra-ka
what-ERG.SG
tidē
ti-tē-Ø
1.SG-face-ABS.SG
kāma?
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
What bit my face?
Sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
wi
wi-Ø
who-ABS.SG
kāma?
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
Whom did the shark bite? - The shark bit who?
Sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
wīni
wi-ːni
who-OBL.SG
zi
zi
GEN
katē
ka-tē-Ø
3M.SG-face-ABS.SG
kāma?
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
Whose face did the shark bite? - The shark bit whose face?
Sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
tira
ti-ra-Ø
1.SG-what-ABS.SG
kāma?
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
What thing of mine did the shark bite? - The shark bit my what?
Sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
tidē
ti-tē-Ø
1.SG-face-ABS.SG
rāni
ra-ːni
what-OBL.SG
ta
ta
LOC
kāma.
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
Where did the shark bite my face? - The shark bit my face where?
Sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
tidē
ti-tē-Ø
1.SG-face-ABS.SG
rāmi
rāmi
how
kāma?
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
How did the shark bite my face? - The shark bit my face how?
Rāzigi
rāzigi
what_kind
sika
si-ka
shark-ERG.SG
tidē
ti-tē-Ø
1.SG-face-ABS.SG
kāma?
ka-ːma
bite-PFV.IND
What sort of shark bit my face?

(These examples also serve to illustrate two points on the use of possession in Kataputi. Firstly, possessive prefixes can attach to the interrogative pronouns. Secondly, the third person masculine singular prefix is the default for an inalienably possessed noun where the possessor is uncertain or indefinite - the exceptions are female body parts, where the feminine equivalent is used.)

Sample texts

The chief and the mouse

Nāgiru wu tihi
Waziki tamuni hi, timirigi nāgiru kānatsiramuga wazani wu tizumīmani kīmi wāmugīni mi zdaguwa, ka hizwaza ra.
Ka kihāni ru hiwāmi mōza hi, kaka zēgi tihi wāmugīni mirima kakita sīni. Kaka kataga miniwa, wu stiwa “Ti kimi hizwagi, hi tiga tihi nūnazi!” simi. Ha hiriza tari, kaka kataga kīmuwa, wu stiwa “Tiga tihi rāni ra kūwamu? Ti zidagi suruni hi mūma hizwamu” simi.
Tika nāgiru tēkuwa, kāni satwaza “Nēgi nāgiru! Maga ti kuraza kataguwa, wu tiga ma kuraza mūma katagwazi” simi ki.
Tihi kihāni mi mīmani mima kakīna, wu sururini tari, ka mīgā wō hiragā tihīmuni hi kiprīna. Mumuga magāmu hi mugugīmu zūma.
Mumuga ka mumi hī kigamuni mirima nūnadaga, hi sima zi kigani ta, nagrūni zdagziramuga wāmugi razīma. Kānuga kuragi zgugi ka hukaza kānu tēku.
“Siga nagruka ksagi midi kitami mini!” simi, kānu stiwa. “Ka ta nūnagi ta ziki kuraza hukawa!”
Mumi kānuga ka minūmiwa, wu ka kānazini rinumi rādirīnaza siwa.

A famous chief was once imprisoned by his enemies in a hut without any door or roof-opening, and left to die of starvation.
As he sat gloomily on the ground, the chief saw a little mouse running across the hut. He seized his knife, exclaiming: “Rather than die of hunger, I will eat this mouse!” But on second thoughts he put away his knife, saying: “Why should I kill the mouse? I shall starve later on, just the same.”
To his surprise the mouse said to him: “Noble Chief! You have spared my life, and in return I will spare yours.”
The mouse then disappeared into a hole in the ground, and returned some time afterwards followed by twenty or thirty other mice, all bearing grains and small fruits.
For five days they fed him in this manner, and on the sixth day the hut was opened by the chief’s captors, who were astonished to find him still alive and in good health.
“This chief must have a powerful charm!” they declared. “It appears that he can live without eating or drinking!”
So they released him and let him return in freedom to his own country.

Gloss

Waziki
wazi-ki
old-ATTR
tamuni
tamu-ni
past-OBL.SG
hi,
hi
with
timirigi
timiri-gi
famous-ATTR
nāgiru
nāgiru-Ø
lord-ABS.SG
kānatsiramuga
ka-natsira-muga
3M.SG-enemy-ERG.PL
wazani
waza-ni
door-OBL.SG
wu
wu
and
tizumīmani
tizu-mīma-ni
roof-hole-OBL.SG
kīmi
kīmi
without
wāmugīni
wāmu-gi-ːni
house-DIM-OBL.SG
mi
mi
inside
zdaguwa,
zdagu-wa
imprison-PFV.IND
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
hizwaza
hizi-waza
starve-PFV.SJV
ra.
ra
DAT
In the old days, a famous lord had been imprisoned by his enemies in a hut without door and roof-opening, so he would starve.
Ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
kihāni
kiha-ːni
earth-OBL.SG
ru
ru
on
hiwāmi
hiwa-ːmi
gloomy-ADV
mōza
mō-za
sit-IPFV.SJV
hi,
hi
with
kaka
kaka
3M.ERG.SG
zēgi
zē-gi
little-ATTR
tihi
tihi-Ø
mouse-ABS.SG
wāmugīni
wāmu-gi-ːni
house-DIM-OBL.SG
mirima
mirima
through
kakita
kaki-ta
run-IPFV.SJV
sīni.
sīni-Ø
see-IPFV.IND
While sitting gloomily on the ground, he saw a little mouse running through the hut.
Kaka
kaka
3M.ERG.SG
kataga
ka-taga
3M.SG-knife-ABS.SG
miniwa,
mini-wa
hold-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
stiwa
sti-wa
say-PFV.IND
“Ti
ti
1EX.SG.ABS
kimi
kimi
NEG.EMPH
hizwagi,
hizi-wagi
starve-PFV.OPT
ha
ha
however
tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
tihi
tihi-Ø
mouse-ABS.SG
nūnazi!”
nūna-zi
eat-IPFV.OPT
simi.
simi
QUOT
He took hold of his knife, and said “I certainly don’t want to starve – I will eat this mouse instead!”
Ha
ha
but
hiriza
hiri-za
think-IPFV.SJV
tari,
tari
from
kaka
kaka
3M.ERG.SG
kataga
ka-taga
3M.SG-knife-ABS.SG
kīmuwa,
kīmu-wa
keep-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
stiwa
sti-wa
say-PFV.IND
“Tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
tihi
tihi-Ø
mouse.ABS.SG
rāni
ra-ːni
what-OBL.SG
ra
ra
DAT
kūwamu?
kū-wamu
kill-PFV.COND
Ti
ti
1EX.SG.ABS
zidagi
zida-gi
late-ATTR
suruni
suru-ni
time-OBL.SG
hi
hi
with
mūma
mūma
also
hizwamu”
hizi-wamu
starve-PFV.COND
simi.
simi
QUOT
But after thinking he put away his knife, and said “Why would I kill the mouse? I would starve later anyway.”
Tika
ti-ka
mouse-ERG.SG
nāgiru
nāgiru-Ø
lord-ABS.SG
tēkuwa,
tēku-wa
surprise-PFV.IND
kāni
kāni
3M.OBL.SG
satwaza
sati-waza
say-PFV.SJV
“Nēgi
nē-gi
radiant-ATTR
nāgiru!
nāgiru-Ø
lord-ABS.SG
Maga
maga
2.SG.ERG
ti
ti
1EX.SG.ABS
kuraza
kura-za
live-IPFV.SJV
kataguwa,
katagu-wa
save-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
tiga
tiga
1EX.SG.ERG
ma
ma
2.SG.ABS
kuraza
kura-za
live-IPFV.SJV
mūma
mūma
also
katagwazi”
katagu-wazi
save-PFV.OPT
simi
simi
QUOT
ki.
ki
INS
The mouse surprised the chief by saying to him: “Radiant Chief! You have saved my life, and I will also spare yours.”
Tihi
tihi-Ø
mouse-ABS.SG
kihāni
kiha-ːni
earth-OBL.SG
mi
mi
in
mīmani
mīma-ni
hole-OBL.SG
mima
mima
into
kakīna,
kaki-ːna
run-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
sururini
suru-rini
time-OBL.PAU
tari,
tari
from
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
mīgā
mīgā
20
or
hiragā
hiragā
30
tihīmuni
tihi-ːmuni
mouse-OBL.PL
hi
hi
with
kiprīna.
kipri-ːna
return-PFV.IND
The mouse ran into a hole in the ground, and returned after a short while with twenty or thirty other mice.
Mumuga
mu-muga
that-ERG.PL
magāmu
maga-ːmu
grain-ABS.PL
hi
hi
with
mugugīmu
mugu-gi-ːmu
fruit-DIM-ABS.PL
zūma.
zūma-Ø
carry-IPFV.IND
They were carrying grains and small fruits.
Mumuga
mu-muga
that-ERG.PL
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
mumi
mumi
thus
5
kigamuni
kiga-muni
day-OBL.PL
mirima
mirima
through
nūnadaga,
nūnadaga-Ø
feed-IPFV.IND
wu
wu
and
sima
sima
6
zi
zi
GEN
kigani
kiga-ni
day-OBL.SG
ta,
ta
at
nagrūni
nagru-ːni
lord-OBL.SG
zdagziramuga
zdagu-zira-muga
imprison-AG-ERG.PL
wāmugi
wāmu-gi-Ø
house-DIM-ABS.SG
razīma.
razi-ːma
open-PFV.IND
For five days they fed him in this manner, and on the sixth day the chief’s captors opened the hut.
Kānuga
kānuga
3M.ERG.PL
kuragi
kura-gi
live-ATTR
zgugi
zgu-gi
healthy-ATTR
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
hukaza
huka-za
find-IPFV.SJV
kānu
kānu
3M.ABS.PL
tēku.
tēku-Ø
shock-IPFV.IND
Finding him alive and healthy shocked them.
“Siga
si-ga
this-ERG.SG
nagruka
nagru-ka
lord-ERG.SG
ksagi
ksa-gi
big-ATTR
midi
midi-Ø
favour-ABS.SG
kitami
kita-mi
sure-ADV
mini!”
mini-Ø
have-IPFV.IND
simi,
simi
QUOT
kānu
kānu
3M.ABS.PL
stiwa.
sti-wa
say-PFV.IND
“This chief surely holds much favour!” they said.
“Ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
ta
ta
NEG
nūnagi
nūna-gi
eat-ATTR
ta
ta
NEG
ziki
zi-ki
drink-ATTR
kuraza
kura-za
live-IPFV.SJV
hukawa!”
huka-wa
discover-PFV.IND
“We see he lives without eating or drinking!”
Mumi
mumi
thus
kānuga
kānuga
3M.ERG.PL
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
minūmiwa,
minūmi-wa
release-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
kānazini
ka-nazi-ni
3M.SG-land-OBL.SG
rinumi
rinu-mi
free-ADV
rādirīnaza
rādiri-ːnaza
return-PFV.SJV
siwa.
si-wa
give-PFV.IND
So they released him and let him return freely to his country.

The legend of Lake Hazaza

Hazaza Mīgi
Kudi mazimi nēza zu, miruki rapa Hazaza Mīgīni zu kuhāmuni mira kīma. Tu mīgīni tama tāma wu hāniwa. Tipsagi rapamuni ksagi mita tūmi hi radāna mīgīni mima.
Tūnu satini, ha tūnu wizwini mi humuza nāmamu. Sururini tari, tūnu mīgīni miri kīma wu kuhāmuni mima rādirīna, hi tūnu saduki nakagi mazigi hugimuga.
Hi ruka tūnu sīniwaza hi ka mīgīni mima tiriwamu, wu ka wizwini ki hawāmaza miri katiha sāriniwamu wu ka kwamu.

When the moon shines white, a beautiful woman comes out of the trees next to Lake Hazaza. She walks to the lake and bathes herself. A large number of servant women enter the lake with her.
Then they disappear, but they can still be heard playing in the water. After a while they come out of the lake and return to the woods, covered by long white veils.
If a man sees them he will be pulled into the lake, and as soon as he touches the water his strength will fail and he will be killed.

Kudi
kudi-Ø
moon-ABS.SG
mazimi
mazi-mi
white-ADV
nēza
nē-za
radiant-IPFV.SJV
zu,
zu
beside
miruki
miru-ki
beautiful-ATTR
rapa
rapa-Ø
woman-ABS.SG
Hazaza
Hazaza
Hazaza
Mīgīni
mīgi-ːni
lagoon-OBL.SG
zu
zu
beside
kuhāmuni
kuha-ːmuni
tree-OBL.PL
miri
miri
out_of
kīma.
ki-ːma
come-PFV.IND
When the moon shines white, a beautiful woman comes out of the trees next to Lake Hazaza.
Tu
tu
3F.ABS.SG
mīgīni
mīgi-ːni
lagoon-OBL.SG
tama
tama
to
tāma
ta-ːma
walk-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
hāniwa.
ha-niwa-Ø
REFL-wash-IPFV.IND
She walks to the lake and washes herself.
Tipsagi
tipsa-gi
serve-ATTR
rapamuni
rapa-muni
woman-OBL.PL
ksagi
ksa-gi
big-ATTR
mita
mita-Ø
group-ABS.SG
tūmi
tūmi
3F.OBL.SG
hi
hi
with
radāna
rada-ːna
go-PFV.IND
mīgīni
mīgi-ːni
lagoon-OBL.SG
mima.
mima
into
A large group of servant women enter the lake with her.
Tūnu
tūnu
3F.ABS.PL
satini,
satini-Ø
hide-IPFV.IND
ha
ha
but
tūnu
tūnu
3F.ABS.PL
wizwini
wizi-rini
water-OBL.PA
mi
mi
in
humuza
humu-za
play-IPFV.SJV
nāmamu.
nāma-mu
hear-IPFV.COND
They hide, but they can still be heard playing in the waters.
Sururini
suru-rini
time-OBL.PAU
tari,
tari
from
tūnu
tūnu
3F.ABS.PL
mīgīni
mīgi-ːni
lagoon-OBL.SG
miri
miri
out_of
kīma
ki-ːma
come-PFV.IND
wu
wu
and
kuhāmuni
kuha-ːmuni
tree-OBL.PL
mima
mima
into
rādirīna,
rādiri-ːna
return-PFV.IND
hi
hi
with
tūnu
tūnu
3F.ABS.PL
saduki
sadu-Ø-ki
cover-IPFV.IND-REL
nakagi
naka-gi
long-ATTR
mazigi
mazi-gi
white-ATTR
hugimuga.
hugi-muga
cloth-ERG.PL
After a while they come out of the lake and return to the woods, with long white veils that cover them.
Hi
hi
if
ruka
ru-ka
man-ERG.SG
tūnu
tūnu
3F.ABS.PL
sīniwaza
sīni-waza
see-PFV.SJV
hi
hi
then
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
mīgīni
mīgi-ːni
lagoon-OBL.SG
mima
mima
into
tiriwamu,
tiri-wamu
pull-PFV.COND
wu
wu
and
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
wizwini
wizi-rini
water-OBL.PA
ki
ki
INS
hawāmaza
hawa-ːmaza
wet-PFV.SJV
miri
miri
out_of
katiha
ka-riha-Ø
3M.SG-strength-ABS.SG
sāriniwamu
sārini-wamu
perish-PFV.COND
wu
wu
and
ka
ka
3M.ABS.SG
kwamu.
ki-wamu
perish-PFV.COND
If a man sees them then he will be pulled into the lake, and right after he is wet by the waters his strength will fail and he will be killed.

Adapted from the legend of Hertha Lake.

Lexicon

Kataputi/Lexicon