O Ayōndui/Lexicon

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This is a basic lexicon of O Ayōndui.

The morphology column indicates whether the word has an extended stem (with or without associated morphophonological alternations) that is used before enclitics and suffixes (including derivational morphemes). Where two extended stems are given, the first one appears before consonants and the second one appears before vowels. A couple of other details are also listed in this column; in such a case the relevant category is mentioned.

word morphology type meaning etymology
abo- v. give *abu-
abōñiⁿ- v. be generous *abuiŋi- ‘give regularly’
abossə- v. get, receive, be given sth. (abo- + -^ssə-pass’)
adāyo n. a person from the eastern Lukpanic coast (a- + UB Daayóo ‘the Doayâu language’)
aduənu n. a person from Doanu *adoanu[b]
ai ai+, air- n. bean *haəl
aigə- v. announce, say publicly, promise *aigba-
aihə n. wing *haisa
aiho- v. help, support PTul. *aisu ‘good’
ainuⁿ- v. walk PTul. *haignu
aipigə- v. dream *haəpigba-
airai airai+, airar- n. buckwheat *haəlal ‘mass of small objects’ (via ‘grain’)
aīshi n. a person from Isi (a- + UB Íši)
aka adj. big, thick, wide, loose *akpa
akaru n. sea, ocean *akpa lu ‘wide ocean’
āki n. fog, mist *akpea
akken(i)- v. understand PTul. *apken ‘know’
anīm(i)- v. wear tattoos *aniəm- ‘colored, painted’
anīnda anīndau-, anīndab^- n. adult, full member of the community *aniəm tab ‘one who has been tattoed’
annə annəⁿ- n. neck *amina
anzo- v. be sacred PTul. *anso ‘spirit, god’
añaⁿ- v. exert influence on *aŋea- ‘push’
añaigə- v. urge, convince, persuade *aŋeaigba- ‘push (socially)’
añauhe- v. push, shove *aŋeausi- ‘push (physically)’
añauheō- v. get pushed (añauhe- + -ō-pass’)
añi añiⁿ- n. tooth *haŋi
āŋu āŋu-, āŋumb^- n. awl, needle *haŋmoab ‘that which pierces’
āo āo-, āob^- n. wind *ahub
apāji apāji-, apāz- n. root PTul. *aplek
appi app(i)- n. smoke PTul. *asep
āpu n. lizard *apoa
apui apuə-, apur- adj. bad, rotten, damaged, flawed, ugly, wrong *apul
arāmi arāmiⁿ- n. farmer (a- + rāmi: ‘field-person’)
āru āru-, ārup- n. carrot *aloap
atima atimau-, atīmb^- n. old person *atimab
atiu atiⁿ-, atim- adj. old *atim
atta- v. spit *adita-
aube cj. so, therefore, as a result *haubi ‘causing’
ayōndui ayōnduə-, ayōndur- n. an Ayōndui person *aeaunutul[ib]
ayu ayuⁿ-, ayum- n. night *haim
ayūi- v. stay, remain PTul. *ayo ‘stand’ + *-ai-
ayūishi- v. leave, abandon (ayūi- + -shi-: ‘do not stay’)
āza āz(a)- n. (land) animal PTul. *halak
azōu azōⁿ-, azōm- n. food, meal *hagaum ‘that which is eaten’
baibə n. snow *baəba
cj. if *bib
beho n. bug, insect *bisu ‘woodlouse’
benji n. head PTul. *benki
bēsso n. sword PCW besògù ‘sharp blade’
beta adj. green, raw, unripe *bita
biu num. zero, no, none *-biu
bohə adj. odd, strange, unusual *busa ‘crazy’
bopitu n. mead *bupitu ‘honey‹dim›’
bott(a)- v. stand out; behave weirdly; violate the traditions; make a mistake *busa t- ‘be crazy’
botu n. honey *butu
buəmēi- v. flow (of tides) *buimeai-
buəmiⁿ- v. return; continue *buimi-
n. father PTul. *dasa (irr.)
dāb(i)- v. stand *dalap-
dai dai-, daib^- n. woman *daəb
daiñə daiñaⁿ- n. tail *daəŋa
dakamo dakamoⁿ- n. spear PTul. *dakmo
dāma dāmau-, dāmb^- n. nose *damab ‘that which breathes’
damaiⁿ- v. live, be alive *damai- ‘keep breathing’
dāni dāniⁿ- adj. full, whole, complete *danisa (irr.)
dāra dāra-, dāb- n. situation, circumstances *dalap ‘stand (vn)’
dasada dasada-, dasadap- n. nonsense, joke *dakadap
daya- v. shout, call UB dáya
ord odē < *u deai ‘of twenty’ num. twenty *deai
deāt(a)- v. cook PTul. *dayat ‘cook’
dēigə- v. hear, listen PTul. *dahe + *-igba-
dendo n. fence PTul. *dendu ‘wall’
dēni dēn(i)- n. ear PTul. *dilen
detto- v. marry *disi du- ‘become a husband’
dədauhe- v. swim *dadausi-
dimiru dimī+, dimir- n. child PTul. *dimlu
dīsu- v. trade, exchange *diəku-
dīsund(a)- v. be traded, be exchanged (of goods) *diəkum t-
dīsūñiⁿ- v. trade regularly; be a merchant *diəkuiŋi-
ord odō < *u deau ‘of four’ num. four *deau (irr.)
dodo- v. appear, emerge *dudu- ‘come suddenly, spring forth’
dōni dōniⁿ- n. the world PTul. *donya
duədo- v. grow *dui du- ‘become big’
duədobo- v. raise, keep (of animals) (duədo- + -(a)bo-: ‘let grow’)
duəguniⁿ- v. be bigger than (dui + -guniⁿ-: ‘big-intens’)
Duənu Duənuⁿ- top. Doanu (a city) *Doanu
duəŋai duəŋai-, duəŋar- n. the mainland *dui ŋmal ‘big land’
dui dui-, duip- adj. big, large, important PTul. *doip
duīdi- v. be smaller than (dui + -ːdi-: ‘big-atten’)
dūmi dūmiⁿ- n. sail (of a boat) *dumea
Dunūo Dunūⁿ-, Dunūm- n. Dunūo (the god of knowledge and skill) *Dunoam
ēba ēba-, ēmb^- n. bird *hibab ‘one who can fly’
ebāob(e)- v. throw *hibahaub- ‘cause to fly’
ebedaigə- v. waver, hesitate, have no idea what to do *ibidaigba- ‘float (mentally)’
ebedə- v. float *ibida-
edeb(e)- v. be sweet *hidib-
ēfai- v. behave properly, be a kind person PTul. *aisu ‘good’ + -ai-
ēga ēg(a)- n. flour PTul. *elak ‘dust’
ēhēm(i)- v. die PTul. *aisim
eki n. crab *hikpi
embə n. idea, inspiration PTul. *emba ‘dream’
ēnd(a)- v. be mysterious, be obscure *haim t- ‘be night’
enza n. hill, mountain PTul. *henka
enzaŋai enzaŋai-, enzaŋar- n. highlands (ēnza + -(i)ŋai)
ēŋgan(i)- v. be to the west of *haimikpani ‘facing towards the night’
ēregə- v. argue in favor of *hiəligba- ‘defend (socially)’
erīre erīrai- n. toe *hil u ilai ‘child of the foot’
ērohe- v. defend, protect *hiəlusi- ‘defend (physically)’
ēru ēruⁿ-, ērum- n. wall (defensive), barrier, palisade *hiəlum
eshi n. ice PTul. *etsi
eshita- v. freeze (eshi + -ta)
ēsshimi ēsshimiⁿ- n. nest (of a bird) PTul. *eipki ‘sit’ + *-mi
ēyōnə ēyōnaⁿ- n. tip (of an arrow or spear) *eahoana
ēza ēzau-, ēzab^- n. number, amount *igab ‘count (vn)’
ēzāpi ēzāpi-, ēzāpir- n. flame, spark *hil u kapil ‘child of the fire’
ezēgaza- v. welcome, entertain, impress (with dubious intentions) UB eseegaasá ‘seat’
ezəb(e)- v. count *igab-
ədēndaⁿ- v. play a drum *adal madam- ‘hit repeatedly’
əŋūⁿ- v. stab, pierce *haŋmoa-
əŋūmi əŋūmiⁿ- n. wound *haŋmoami ‘stab-place’
əttaigə- v. curse, cuss, insult *aditaigba- ‘spit (socially)’
pron. (3rd person plural) *susu
fuəm(i)- v. be curious, investigate *susam-
gaigə- v. confront, oppose, resist *gbaigba-
gaugu gauguⁿ-, gaugum- n. member of the village council *gba u gbum ‘elder of the city’
gaugund(a)- v. take responsibility *gba u gbum t- ‘be an elder’
gāya gāyau-, gāyab^- n. fisherman *voaeab ‘one who goes fishing’
getai getai-, getar- n. forest *gbital
gīhe- v. build, make, create *gbiusi- ‘build (physically)’
giəssa- giəssau-, giəssab^- v. rebuild, repair *gbiusi kab- ‘build again’
goāri goāri-, goārib^- n. tattoo *gboaleab ‘that which is under the skin’
gōzu n. warrior UB góoju ‘head’
gōzūmuⁿ- v. fight (collectively), be at war with (gōzu + -(u)muⁿ- ‘use warriors’)
gōzushim(i)- v. be brave, show courage (gōzu + -shim(i)-: ‘be like a warrior’)
gōzushinji- v. be shy, be timid (gōzushim(i)- + -shi-: ‘have no courage’)
guŋgan(i)- v. be to the east of *gbumikpani ‘facing towards the cities’
gūonə gūonaⁿ- n. tree bark *gboa u na ‘skin of the tree’
ha pron. (3rd person singular masculine) *sa
hagai hagai-, hagaip- n. silver *savoaəp ‘white metal’
haika- v. carry, bring *saəkpa-
haikasa- haikasau-, haikasab^- v. bring back *saəkpa kab- ‘bring again’
hāji hāji-, hāz- n. ground, floor, base PTul. *salik ‘foot’
hamuⁿ- v. pull *samu-
hamuŋguniⁿ- v. pull strongly, pull tight (hamuⁿ- + -guni-: ‘pull-intens’)
hāpi hāpi-, hāpp- n. talisman *sapip ‘god‹dim›’
happūi happū+, happūr- n. stranger, foreigner *sapibuəl ‘unknown person from far away’
hashi n. lavender *saki
haudə n. shrimp, prawn PTul. *sabda
hauk(u)- v. watch, observe, control PTul. *sauk ‘see’
havo adj. white, bright *savu
hebe n. eye PTul. *sibi
hebessu- v. be blind (hebe + -^ssu-: ‘have no eyes’)
hēkkāŋgə- v. pray *[sa]saipikpanigba- ‘mentally face towards the gods’
hēm(i)- v. burn, be on fire *seam-
hēmōb(e)- v. light up, ignite (hēm(i)- + -ːob(e)-: ‘burn-caus’)
hēŋgə- v. be angry *seamigba- ‘burn (mentally)’
hēŋgəbo- v. annoy, disturb, irritate (hēŋgə- + -(a)bo-: ‘make angry’)
hēŋgəssə- v. get blamed, have anger directed at oneself (hēŋgə- + -^ssə-pass’)
hepunu hepun(u)- n. egg PTul. *sepun
heta n. sand *sita ‘beach’
həmmohe- v. bite *saŋimusi-
ho pron. (3rd person singular feminine) *su
hōi hōi-, hōr- adj. small, thin, narrow, tight *soal
homi homiⁿ- n. rain *sumi
homīhe- v. be raining (of weather) *sumiusi-
hōmu hōmuⁿ- n. stuff, things, possessions *sumoa
honda hond(a)- n. day PTul. *sumat
hōre hōrai- n. blood PTul. *sulai
hōrēgə- v. hurt (emotionally) (hōre + -igə-: ‘draw blood by communication’)
hotōgu hotōg(u)- n. horn PTul. *sotlok ‘horn’
hōvu hōvuⁿ-, hōvum- n. leaf *suvum
i cj. and PTul. *i
īde īde-, īdeb^- adj. proper, real, true, correct *il dib ‘strong and good’
īdehe n. arrow PCW jidzi
īe n. water PTul. *yihe
iədami iədamiⁿ- n. death *eadami ‘cessation of breath’
iəffa- v. spoil, sabotage *eavusoa- (irr.)
iəmə iəmaⁿ- adj. high, long, tall *eama ‘straight’
iətu n. brick *eatu
īhe īhē-, īhēp- n. spirit, god *il saip ‘great spirit (hon)’
ijīka n. politeness; urban manners UB isiiká ‘honey, sweetness’
ikīhe- v. split, separate *ikuiusi- ‘split (physically)’
īmi īm(i)- n. garden PTul. *yelem
īndi īnd(i)- n. heron PTul. *egnit
iŋgīgə- v. be headstrong, be stubborn PTul. *imbak + *-igba-: ‘be like a goat (mentally)’
īpau īpaⁿ-, īpam- n. path, trail *iəpam ‘shortcut; mountain pass’
ipiu ipiə-, ipiəb^- n. cowrie shell (used as a currency) *ipiub
īre īrai- n. foot *ilai
irūi irū+, irūr- n. sun *il uəl ‘the great sun (hon)’
īsaishi n. conflict, war *eakaikea ‘game, competition’
Īshi top. Isi (a city) UB Íši
isset(i)- v. talk to PTul. *yikket
isuəgə- v. share, divide, distribute *ikuigba- ‘split (socially)’
īta n. river *iəta
ītasai ītasai-, ītasaip- n. gold *iətakaəp ‘river metal’
itimu itimuⁿ-, itimm- n. boat (without a sail) *itimum ‘canoe’
ittoi adv. not yet PTul. *iptoi ‘be not (currently)’
Īvasu top. Iəvaku (a city) *Iəvaku
ive n. worm *ivi
jiəga n. upper-class person from a city UB jéega ‘clan, lineage’
jimbuhe- v. harvest, reap *ginipusi-
jimiⁿ- v. kill *gimi-
jimiō- v. get killed (jimi- + -ō-pass’)
kabātu n. gathering, celebration *koabatoa
kādu n. beehive *kpalutu
kai kai-, kar- n. bee *kpal
kainuⁿ- v. sleep *kpaənu-
kainūob(e)- v. put to sleep (of children) (kainu- + -ːob(e)-)
kaite kaitī-, kaitib^- n. beekeeper *kpaətib ‘bee-person’
karutt(a)- v. be busy *kpalutu t- ‘be like a beehive’
kashim(i)- v. be scary *kpakim-
katarau kataraⁿ-, kataram- n. fruit PTul. *katlam
kaubo n. rope *kpaubu
kaunau kaunaⁿ-, kaunam- n. meat PTul. *kabnam
kayo n. wood PTul. *kayo
kayōhe- v. carve (kayo + -ohe-: ‘wood-vblz’)
kēmmi kēmmiⁿ- n. bed *kpaənumi ‘sleep-place’
adj. yellow *kuea
ki pron. what, who? (interrogative) *kpi
kida n. city-dweller UB kidá ‘citizen’
kihə pron. when? *kpisa
kinai pron. how, in what manner? *kpinal
kita n. fat, grease, oil *kpita ‘butter’
kiu pron. so what, what of it? *kpim
koiri- v. come, arrive, accomplish PTul. *koile ‘come’
kōppo n. yarn, thread *kpaupibu ‘rope‹dim›’
kōppoge- v. spin (kōppo + -(i)ge-: ‘make yarn’)
koruəgə- v. decide (UB kólu ‘tie, fasten’ + -igə-)
kuboi- v. hurt, injure (physically) PTul. *kuboi ‘bite’
kugə n. liver *kpugba
kupuri kupū+, kupur- n. flower PTul. *kupli ‘flower’
ma intj. yes! indeed! *ma
māgu māguⁿ-, māgum- n. town, city *mab gbum ‘big city’
mai mai-, mar- adj. blue *mal
mainohe- v. dig *maənusi-
māmbo māmbo-, māmbob^- n. storm *mab ahub ‘big wind’
mandami adv. over and over *madami
mandau mandaⁿ-, mandam- n. habit, custom, tradition *madam ‘do repeatedly (vn)’
mānzossu- v. taste bland; be boring (mānzu + -^ssu-: ‘have no salt’)
mānzu n. salt *magoa
māra māra-, mārap- n. high tide *mab lap ‘big water’
mbeki n. lobster *mab hikpi ‘big crab’
mbeshim(i)- v. be related to *ŋimibikim- ‘be like a family’ (irr.)
mbīrə- v. tie, fasten *napila-
mbirōu mbirōⁿ-, mbirōm- n. knot *napilaum ‘that which is tied’
mbīrund(a)- v. be attached to, be restrained (mbīrə- + -und(a)-pass’)
mbūəgə- v. concentrate, focus on *nipuigba- ‘chew (mentally)’
meādo n. military commander PCW meʔludu ‘warrior (hon)’
menzu n. husband PTul. *metsu
məppiəni məppiəniⁿ- n. storehouse *mab peani ‘big basket’
mimbita n. puppie, baby dog *mipita ‘dog‹dim›’
mimeffu mimeffuⁿ-, mimeffum- n. herbal tea *mimisuvum ‘hot leaves’
mimiⁿ- v. be pleasant, be comfortable *mimi ‘warm’
minda n. dog *mita
n. mother PTul. *mau
mōndo- v. give birth *mau du- ‘become a mother’
mosu- v. sew UB mósu
mūmb(i)- v. blow, breathe *moap-
mūnzo n. sheep PCW mòğu
mūnzote mūnzotī-, mūnzotib^- n. shepherd (mūnzo + -te: ‘sheep-person’)
mūŋga n. lookout, observation point *moakpa ‘tower’
mūoru n. port, harbor *moa u lu ‘harbor of the ocean’
nai nēⁿ-, nēmb- adj. new, young *naəp
Naibu Naibuⁿ-, Naibum- top. Naəgbum (a city) UB Naibum
naigo ord unaigo < *u naəp ugbu ‘of six’ num. six *naəp ugbu ‘new hand’
naishi naishi-, naishib^- n. terrace *naib [u] kib ‘terrace of the house’
naitāmi naitāmiⁿ- n. body *naətamea ‘all the ribs’
naivo n. belly, stomach *naivu
naivoh(ə)- v. be strong, be sturdy *naivu s- ‘have a stomach’
nanzanau nanzanaⁿ-, nanzanam- n. yoghurt *naŋi ganam ‘rotten milk’
narr(i)- v. lie, recline *nalal-
navuəmmuⁿ- v. be wise; make a wise decision *navoanu umu- ‘hold knowledge’
ndaimi- ndaimiⁿ- n. spring, source (of a river) *mitaəmi ‘flow-place’
ndārai- v. flow (of rivers) *mitalai-
ndūhe- v. fall *nadulusi- ‘stumble (physically)’
nēhāgə- v. think, consider *neasaligba-
nēhai nēhai-, nēhar- n. thought, idea, notion, opinion *neasal ‘think (vn)’
nēi n. belt *neahi
nēmbai nēmbai-, nēmbar- n. baby, toddler *naəpal
nēmbaiha nēmbaihau-, nēmbaihab^- n. pregnant woman *naəpal sab ‘one who has a baby’
nēmbaih(ə)- v. be pregnant *naəpal s- ‘have a baby’
nēnda n. rib *naəta
nēndo n. headman, chief, leader PTul. *nayido
niəmə niəmaⁿ- n. ship, boat (with a sail) *neama ‘boat’
nīgə- v. feel (of emotions) *niligba-
nimbu- v. chew *nipu-
nimīm(i)- v. be soft, be smooth *nimeam-
nimīññ(e)- v. be rough, pose obstacles *nimeam ŋ- ‘be not smooth’
nīŋga- v. fear *niəkpa-
nōⁿ- v. eat PTul. *nou
nombādi- v. be less warm than (nombə + -ːdi-: ‘be warm-atten’)
nombə- v. be warm PTul. *noba ‘hot’
nombəguniⁿ- v. be hotter than (nombə- + -guni-: ‘be hot-intens’)
nōmbin(i)- v. capture, seize, conquer PTul. *naubbin ‘take (by force)’
nōnji- v. fast, abstain from eating (nōⁿ- + -shi-: ‘do not eat’)
nōub(e)- v. feed (nōⁿ- + -ːob(e)-: ‘eat-caus’)
nūniəmə nūniəmaⁿ- n. anchor *nuəp u neama ‘root of the boat’
nūŋg(e)- v. be visible, be obvious *nuigb[i] ‘touching the eyes’
nūpumuⁿ- v. anchor (a boat) *nuəp umu- ‘use an anchor’
nurai nurai-, nuraip- n. face *nu laəp ‘eyes and nose’
nzoigə- v. want, wish, desire PTul. *nakso + *-igba-
ñaihe- v. wash *ŋaisi-
ñakkə- v. be ashamed, be disgraced *ŋasigba- ‘die (socially)’
ñanaⁿ- v. say, speak *ŋana-
ñanandaⁿ- v. say again, say several times (ñana- + -ndaⁿ-)
ñaumuⁿ- v. hit *ŋau umu- ‘use a club’
ñē aux. (negative copula; stative non-past) *ŋai
ñehēsa n. attractive person *ŋeaseaka ‘gem, jewel’
ñepp(i)- v. blend, mix *ŋisap-
ñeppu ñeppuⁿ-, ñeppum- n. stew *ŋisapum ‘that which is mixed’
ñettadə- v. bathe *ŋaisidada- ‘wash and swim’
ñīme ñīme-, ñīmb^- n. family, clan *ŋimib ‘cluster of buildings’
ñoēndu n. beak *ŋuhim u toa ‘horn of a bird’
ñū ord uñū < *u nium ‘of five’ num. five *nium (irr.)
ñui aux. (negative copula; stative past) *ŋul
ñumba- v. be round *ŋunupa-
ñuru ñū+, ñur- n. onion *ŋulu
ŋa pron. (1st person singular masculine) *ŋma
ŋāgan(i)- v. be to the north of *ŋmalikpani ‘facing towards the land’
ŋai ŋai-, ŋar- n. land, region, area *ŋmal
ŋanzo pron. (1st person plural inclusive) *ŋmagu ‘me [and] you’
ŋau ŋaⁿ-, ŋam- n. dust, dirt *ŋmam ‘sand’
ŋē ord otti < *u hiti ‘of two’ < PTul. *het num. two *ŋmib
ŋgunīe- v. swell, rise (of water), increase, approach, become more important *mab gbuneai- ‘swell bigger’
ŋgunīerūi ŋgunīerū+, ŋgunīerūr- n. summer solstice *mab gbunea [u] il uəl ‘high tide of the sun’
ŋīmb(i)- v. fight (individually) *ŋmeap-
ŋiərə n. goat *ŋmiula
ŋīmbe ord uŋīmbe < *u ŋmibai ‘of ten’ num. ten *ŋmibai
ŋu pron. (1st person singular feminine) *ŋmu
ŋundo n. corpse, dead body *ŋmudu
ŋuŋgo pron. (1st person plural exclusive) *ŋmugbu (variant of *ŋmuŋmu)
o n. speech, language *hu
O Adāyo n. the Doayâu language (o + adāyo)
O Aduənu n. the U Bol language (o + aduənu)
O Aīshi n. the Ishoʻu ʻOhu language (o + aīshi)
O Ayōndui n. the O Ayōndui language *hu aeaunutul[ib]
obe- v. cut *ubi-
ōbimi ōbimiⁿ- n. sky, air *ahubimi ‘wind-place’
obiu obīⁿ-, obiəm- n. knife *ubium
ōbohe- v. be windy, be stormy (of weather) *ahubusi-
ōbuo ōbōⁿ-, ōbōm- n. fur *huəb u hum ‘hair of animals’
odau odaⁿ-, odam- n. fish PTul. *udam
odini adj. black, dark PTul. *udin
odōppət(a)- v. go fishing (odau + -^ppət(a)-: ‘take fish’)
ogo n. hand *ugbu
ogōmuⁿ- v. touch, handle, take *ugbu umu- ‘use the hand’
ogōñai ogōñai-, ogōñar- n. crew (of a ship) *ugbulaŋal ‘many hands’
ōhaigə- v. sing *huəsaigba-
ohonu ohon(u)- n. tree PTul. *hoson
ōhōu ōhōⁿ-, ōhōm- n. song, tale, legend *huəsaum ‘that which is sung’
oi ord ūi < *u hul ‘of three’ num. three *hul
oita n. cave *huita
oizo n. chest *huigu ‘lung’
omeŋgə- v. tame, train (of animals) *humigbigba- ‘touch animals (mentally)’
omuⁿ- v. be lazy *humu ‘dull’
ōmūndu n. hair *huəb u mutu ‘hair of the head’
ōŋgana ōŋganau-, ōŋgāmb^- n. stock breeder *humukpanab ‘one who is facing towards animals’
oŋu oŋuⁿ- n. captain (of a ship) *huŋmu ‘leader’
ōpada ōpadau-, ōpadab^- n. albatross *ahupadab ‘one who is above the wind’
ōre ord ūre < *u hulai ‘of fifteen’ num. fifteen *hulai
ōssu- v. be unhappy (about sth.) *huəsaku[i] ‘not singing’
pai pai-, paip- n. word *paip ‘name’
pam(i)- v. see, notice, perceive *pam-
pamīgə- v. recognize, be familiar with *pamiligba- ‘see and know (mentally)’
pānji- v. sail, navigate *pamiki- ‘see and turn’
pāŋa pāŋa-, pāmb- n. fingernail *paŋmap
pāŋaumuⁿ- v. scratch (pāŋa + -(u)mu-: ‘use the fingernails’)
papar(i)- v. squeeze, put pressure on *papal-
papata- v. shoot, throw (as a weapon) PCW phaphaʔta-
passai passai-, passaip- n. copper *pasakaəp ‘copper metal’
pata n. forehead PTul. *pata ‘roof’
paugə- v. be surprised *pauigba- (irr.)
paushim(i)- v. be loud, make noise *paukim- ‘be like an animal's cry’
pazui pazuə- n. door *pagui
pēhə n. tongue *peasa
pende n. skin PTul. *pente
pi pron. which one? (interrogative) *pi
pībaigə- v. say the truth, have a point *piəbaigba- ‘be correct (in communication)’
pida- v. be weak, be sick UB pída ‘weak, small’
piəni piəniⁿ- n. basket *peani
pimə pimaⁿ- n. laurel tree *pima
Pitomo top. Kpitamoa (a city) UB Pítomo
pōe n. mouth *poahi
pōessu- v. be silent *poahisiku[i] ‘have no mouth’
Puərubu Puərubuⁿ-, Puərubum- top. Poalugbum (a city) UB Polubum (reconnected with Puəru)
Puəru n. Puəru (the goddess of the sea) *Poalu
puhə- v. meet, gather *pusa-
puhəŋai puhəŋai-, puhəŋar- n. village square (puhə- + -(i)ŋai)
puka n. wine *pukpa
pūma pūmau-, pūmb^- n. teenager, adolescent *pumab ‘one who grows’
puŋgə- v. learn, collect experience *pumigba- ‘grow (mentally)’
pūra n. gift *pulaha
pūrauhe- v. give (as a gift) (pūra + -ohe- ‘gift-vblz’)
pūva pūvau-, pūvab^- n. star *puvab
puvo n. road *puvu
puzuə- v. clean, tidy up *pugui- ‘wipe’
rab(e)- v. crawl *lab-
raino n. arm PTul. *lagno
rairavo n. sorcerer, magician (evil) PCW łàğlawo ‘priest’
rāmi rāmi-, rāmir- n. field, arable land *lamil ‘earth, soil’
ranahēu ranahēⁿ-, ranahēm- n. concern, problem, issue *lanaseam
rāñi rāñiⁿ- n. leather *laŋea
rāñēhe n. armor *laŋeasi ‘made from leather’
raŋgə- v. imitate, pretend PTul. *lam ‘exist’ + *-igba-
rapimi rapimiⁿ- n. water well (artificial) *lapimi ‘water-place’
rapishi n. nail, peg *lapiki ‘finger‹dim›’
rappada rappadau-, rappadab^- n. bridge *lapipadab ‘that which is above the water’
rashi n. finger *laki
rashīmuⁿ- v. point at *laki umu- ‘use the finger’
ratui ratuə- n. pole, column, mast *latui ‘stick’
regə- v. be friends with sb. *ligba- ‘know (socially)’
regədo- v. get to know sb. (regə- + -(i)do-: ‘come to be friends with’)
rēhe n. horse PCW łèzi
retta rett(a)- n. beach PTul. *lisat ‘sand’
reveti revet(i)- n. link, connection PTul. *lewet ‘neck’
riəmuⁿ- v. know, remember *liumu- ‘know and hold’
rim(i)- v. be sour *lim-
riŋi riŋiⁿ- n. wall (of a house) *liŋmi
roād(a)- v. sink, dive *loali t- ‘be below the ocean’
rojimi rojimiⁿ- n. islet, rock in the water (too small to be inhabited) *lugimi
rondi rond(i)- n. hole, opening, gap PTul. *lomet ‘mouth’
n. rack, frame *loa ‘leg’
rūde n. heart PTul. *lubde
ruəka- v. rub, wipe *loakpa-
rukana rukanau-, rukāmb^- n. a person of Lukpanic ethnicity *lukpanab ‘one who is facing towards the sea’
rumi rumiⁿ- n. island *lumi
runūha runūhau-, runūhab^- n. a person of Western ethnicity *lunuəsab ‘one who is facing away from the sea’
sa ord oppu < *u supu ‘of one’ num. one *ka ‘each one’
sabe adv. again (once) *kabi
sañēŋgə- v. travel *kaŋaigba-
sāpi sāpi-, sāpir- n. fire *kapil
sāpihe sāpiQ°- n. ashes (sāpi + -^(e)he: ‘made from fire’)
sapīdu n. hearth, oven *kapilutu ‘fire womb’
sapp(i)- v. scream, cry *kasap- ‘growl’
sasa- v. drink *kaka-
sasau sasauⁿ-, sasaum- n. litter (of animals) *kakaəm
sau sauⁿ-, saum- n. baby animal *kaəm
sāwa sāwau-, sāwab^- n. neighbor *kaoab ‘one who is near’
seda- v. show, guide, explain UB sída ‘teach’
sedaigə- v. teach, explain (knowledge) (seda- + -igə-: ‘show (mentally)’)
sedauhe- v. teach, show (how to do sth.) (seda- + -ohe-: ‘show (physically)’)
sēhə adj. sharp, hard, solid *keasa ‘sharp’
sendou sendōⁿ-, sendom- n. village PTul. *kentom
sembu semb(u)- n. edge, corner PTul. *kenop ‘knee’
seti n. grape PTul. *ketye
seyēgi- v. be broken, be useless, be unwanted UB seyeegí ‘junk, rubbish’
shī dem. this *kib ‘house; here’
shidə n. man *kida
shigə- v. change one's mind *kigba- ‘turn (mentally)’
shīhe- v. turn around, shift one's position *kiusi- ‘turn (physically)’
shiəno shiənoⁿ- n. seed PTul. *kedno
shiəto n. shovel UB šéto
shīgāza- v. claim (as a possession); establish UB síigaasa ‘stick in the ground’
Shimeshita top. Siŋmeasita (a city) UB Šiméšita
shindaⁿ- v. dance *kimadam- ‘turn repeatedly’
shinēⁿ- v. be dry, be barren PTul. *kinai
shippada shippadau-, shippadab^- n. roof *kibipadab ‘that which is above the house’
shīrə n. year PTul. *kikla
shizo- v. go, move, be in motion *kigu- ‘wave, wag’
sō- v. be there, be present *kau ‘near’
sūhe aux. (negative; eventive non-past) *[tu]kusip ‘does not do at all (physically)’
sui suə-, sur- adj. small, short *kul ‘short’
sūmbu sūmbuⁿ-, sūmbum- n. shrine, sacred place *kumupum
Sūmi Sūmiⁿ- n. Sūmi (the god of fate and of the weather) *Kulami
summi summiⁿ- n. shoulder *kuŋimi ‘arm-place’
sūnde sūndī-, sūndib^- n. priest *kumutib ‘consecrate-person’
suñāwi suñaō+, suñaur- n. octopus *kuŋi [u]eahul ‘eight arms’
suñi suñiⁿ- n. oar (of a boat); handle (of a tool); branch (of a tree) *kuŋi ‘arm’
sūshi aux. (negative; eventive past) *[tu]kuəki ‘did not do’
tābe tābe-, tamb^- n. throat *tabib
Tāgabuŋai Tāgabuŋai-, Tāgabuŋar- top. the Western steppe (UB taagábue + -ŋai: ‘grassland area’)
taihə n. back (of the body) *taəsa
taira taira-, tairap- n. wave (of water) *taəl [u] lap ‘hill of water’
tambega tambegau-, tambegab^- n. collar, leash *tabibigbab ‘that which is touching the throat’
tamuⁿ- v. be heavy, weigh (as much as) *tamu-
tamūŋgə- v. be worried *tamuigba- ‘be heavy (mentally)’
tanarə tanā+, tanar- n. lake PTul. *tanla
tañño taññoⁿ- n. club (weapon) *tamu ŋau ‘heavy club’
tapa dem. other *tapa
Tarīnə Tarīnaⁿ- n. Tarīnə (the goddess of fire and emotion) *Taliəlina
tatto n. sign, symbol PTul. *takto
tau taⁿ-, tam- n. parsley *tam
tauhe- v. sit *tausi-
tazai tazai-, tazar- n. shirt PCW tagala ‘cloth’
tazēppət(a)- v. get dressed (tazai + -^ppət(a)-: ‘take the shirt’)
tē- pst tui (t-); irr/vol ta- v. (copula) *t-copula’ + *ta- ‘sit’
Tēdai Tēdai+, Tedair- n. Tēdai (the god of fertility and agriculture) *Taəlitaəl
tēi n. cow, cattle PTul. *tehi
tēŋau tēŋaⁿ-, tēŋam- n. dune *taəl u ŋmam ‘hill of sand’
teppo n. leg PTul. *teppo
tī-, tib^- n. person *tib
tibe- v. play *tibi-
tibiu tibīⁿ-, tibiəm- n. toy *tibium ‘that which is played with’
tige- v. be located at *tigbi- ‘live’ (by association with *-igbi- ‘touching’)
tigīe- v. dwell at *tigbeai- ‘live (permanently)’
tihe- v. draw, sketch *tisi- ‘scratch’
tikkə- v. invent, come up with, design *tisigba- ‘draw (mentally)’
tīzai tīzai-, tīzaip- n. tin *tilakaəp ‘tin metal’
tō- v. be cold *tau-
tu n. bone *tu
tuəbə n. cloud *toaba
tuədo n. stone, rock PTul. *togdu
tuədumi tuədumiⁿ- n. cliff PTul. *togdu + *-mi: ‘rock-place’
tuəp(i)- v. hunt *tuip-
tuəpīñi tuəpiñī-, tuəpiñīmb^- n. hunter *tuipiŋeab ‘one who hunts regularly’
tuəpu tuəpuⁿ-, tuəpum- n. game animal, prey *tuipum ‘that which is hunted’
tuəru- v. laugh *tuilu-
tuərūdi- v. smile (just a little bit) (tuəru- + -ːdi-: ‘laugh-atten’)
tūmmui tūmmuə-, tūmmur- n. porridge *tuəm u mul ‘porridge of buckwheat’
tuku- v. kiss *tukpu- ‘suck’
turai- v. shine, glow PTul. *tula ‘sun’ + -ai-: ‘do as the sun does’
tusu- v. do *tuku-
tusubo- v. allow, permit (tusu- + -(a)bo-: ‘let do’)
tusuboshi- v. deny, forbid (tusubo- + -shi-: ‘let not do’)
tusuəgə- v. perform (of rituals) *tukuigba-
tuve n. feather *tuvi
tuyōn(u)- v. fly PTul. *tuyon
ūdo n. peak PTul. *ugdo ‘mountain’
uəbe- v. be wet *oabi-
ūgan(i)- v. be to the south of *uəlikpani ‘facing towards the sun’
ūgai- v. smell (emit scent) *uəvoai-
ūma ūma-, ūmb^- adj. middle-sized *ub mab ‘small and big’
umuⁿ- v. use, hold, be equipped with *umu-
ūnda n. wife PTul. *wenta ‘woman’
undiəbe- v. ebb away, recede, decrease, become less important *ub deabai- ‘ebb smaller’
undiəbirūi undiəbirū+, undiəbirūr- n. winter solstice *ub deab [u] il uəl ‘low tide of the sun’
uñə cj. and then, next *uŋa
ūo ūo-, ūob^- n. grass *uhub
ūra ūra-, ūrap- n. ebb, low tide *ub lap ‘small water’
utu n. womb *utu
ūvohe- v. smell (perceive scent) *uəvusi-
ūze ūzai- n. thing, item, piece *ub gai ‘small piece’
uzubui uzubuə- n. breast UB usubúi
vai vai-, var- adj. empty, hungry, clean, lacking usual conditions *val ‘dry’
vañi vañiⁿ- adj. red, brown *vaŋi
vañīhe- v. paint sth. red *vaŋiusi-
vasu n. house, building *vaku
vasuəga vasuəgau-, vasuəgab^- n. inhabitant (of a house) *vakuigb[e]ab ‘one who is in the house’
vau vaⁿ-, vam- n. moon *vam
veri vē+, ver- adj. good, nice, beautiful, valuable, useful *vili
vēyai vēyai-, vēyaip- n. bronze *vileaəp ‘fine metal’
viəsa n. task, duty *veaka
viəsassu- v. have fun, enjoy oneself (viəsa + -^ssu-: ‘have no duties’)
vīhe- v. cultivate (of crops) *viusi-
viñar(i) v. collect, gather *viŋal-
vinda n. ritual, ceremony *vinita
viŋə viŋaⁿ- n. hibiscus *viŋma
vīu vīⁿ-, viəm- n. seedling (of plants) *vium ‘that which is planted’
n. snake *vau
vōhe vōhai- n. fig *vusai
voraigə- v. gesture, make a sign *vulaigba-
vove- v. be drunk, be intoxicated (back-formed from vovēhe-; reanalysed as containing -ohe-)
vovēhe- v. drink alcohol, take drugs *vuveasi- (back-formed from *vuveasum)
vovēho vovēhoⁿ-, vovēhom- n. liquor *vuveasum
yādo ord uyādo < *u [u]eadu ‘of nine’ num. nine *[u]eadu
yāŋe ord uyāŋe < *u [u]eaŋmib ‘of seven’ num. seven *[u]eaŋmib
yassau yassaⁿ-, yassam- n. people, ethnic group PTul. *yatkam ‘tribe’
yatādai n. captive, hostage UB iataadáya ‘slave’
yauhe- v. stop, cease, halt *eausi-
yaunuⁿ- v. rest, relax PTul. *yabnu ‘sleep’
adv. finally *eai ‘stopping’
yēzaigə- v. threaten, force, oblige (UB ieesá ‘push’ + -igə-: ‘push (socially)’)
yēzauhe- v. attack, strike (UB ieesá ‘push’ + -ohe-: ‘push (physically)’)
yōi ord uyōi < *u [u]eahul ‘of eight’ num. eight *[u]eahul
Yōndui Yōnduə-, Yōndur- n. the Yōndui islands *eaunutul < PTul. *yabnu-tula ‘bed of the sun’
yoti- v. lift, raise PTul. *yotye ‘hold’
yūga n. pig UB iúuga
yuru yū+, yur- n. name PTul. *yulu
zai zai+, zair- n. knee *gaəl
zabau ord ombau < *u gabam ‘of twenty-five’ num. twenty-five *gabam
zanāŋge- v. milk *ganam gbi- ‘make milk’
zanau zanaⁿ-, zanam- n. milk *ganam
ze pron. (2nd person singular masculine) *gi
zēdo- v. ride PCW ğeľudu- ‘mount (of horses)’
zēhēmi zēhēmiⁿ- n. torch *gai seami ‘burning thing’
zēte zētī-, zētib^- n. whale *gitib
zo pron. (2nd person singular feminine) *gu
zorehe n. millet PCW ğulzi
zozo pron. (2nd person plural) *gugu
dem. that *goa ‘origin; there’
zūnzo n. eagle PCW ğogugu
zūru- v. be dirty, be unordered *guəlu-

582 words.