Arósen tayīgan

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Arósen tayīgan
[əˌɾɑsen təˈjiːɡən]
Period -200 ÷ 200 YP
Spoken in Western Tuysáfa
Total speakers c. 200.000
Writing system unknown
Classification Leic
Basic word order SOV or SVO
Morphology fusional
Alignment neutral (nouns), accusative (verbs)
Created by Pole, the

Arósen tayīgan is one of the Leic languages.

See also: the lexicon.


Internal history

This language is spoken in western mainland Tuysáfa, in an area neighbouring two related languages, Wihəs and Endayin. Details of its internal history are a subject of the reconstruction relay.

External history

Arósen tayīgan was created and published in May 2014 as the third member of the Leic language family, after Wihəs and Deraighaw. In 2015 the language was attempted to be reworked several times. The final effect was the creation of Endayin.



Consonants labial dental alveolar palatal velar
stop /p/ /t~d/ [ts~dz] «c~z» /k~g/
fricative /β/ «b» /s/
nasal stop /m/ /n/ /ŋ/
glide /w/
/w̃/ «ŵ»
/j/ «y»
/j̃/ «ŷ»
tap /ɾ/ «r»


  • /p t k/ and [ts] are realized [β d ɡ dz] between vowels.
  • [ts dz] are variants of /k g/ before /i iː e eː/.
  • /w/ and /j/ are in complementary distribution: /w/ appears before back and /j/ before front vowels. They can be also though of as one phoneme /w/ with a palatalized allophone [j].
  • In western dialects /w̃ j̃/ are pronounced [mw ɲ~ɲj], probably because of a Wihəs influence. In many eastern dialects these are merged with their oral counterparts and pronounced [w j].


Vowels front central back
close /i iː/ «i ī» /u uː/ «u ū»
mid /e eː/ «e ē» [ə~ʌ] [o]
open /a aː/ «a ā» /ɑ ɑː/ «o ō»


  • [ə o] are unstressed allophones of /a ɑ/. In neighbourhood of labial consonants [ə] becomes [ʌ].
  • Stressed vowels are marked with an acute. By default, initial syllables are stressed, what is unmarked. Long vowels are always stressed.


The word stress is fixed.

The syllable structure is (C)V-, -VCV-, -V(C). No consonant clusters are permitted. Hiatuses are common.


Several morphophonological processes can be observed in Endayin.

Obligatory sandhi

These changes are applied automatically and will not be mentioned in further sections.


  • p t k become b d g between vowels.


  • k g w become c z y before front vowels.

Vowel lowering:

  • unstressed i u e o become e o a a in closed syllables and preceding ŵ r ŷ.

Virtual consonants

Virtual consonants are elements that are present morphologically, but do not surface in some environments.

Virtual B:

  • sequences «aB oB uB» are transformed to «ō ō ū» («o o u» when stressed);
  • in sequences «eBo eBu iBo iBu» the virtual consonant is deleted;
  • elsewhere, it surfaces as «b».

Virtual S:

  • sequences «aS eS iS» are transformed to «ē ē ī» («e e i» when unstressed);
  • elsewhere, it surfaces as «s».

Virtual Y:

  • before front vowels it surfaces as «y»;
  • before back vowels it surfaces as «w»;
  • elsewhere it is deleted.


There are two types of vocalic epenthesis.

Epenthetic high vowel is marked «I» and:

  • after «m b ŵ B» it surfaces as «u»;
  • after «n d r S» it surfaces as «i» and causes vowel fronting:
    • preceding a o u are changed to e e i;
  • after «ŋ g ŷ Y» it surfaces as «i».

Epenthetic mid vowel is marked «E» and:

  • after «m b ŵ B» it surfaces as «o»;
  • after «n d r S» it surfaces as «e»;
  • after «ŋ g ŷ Y» it surfaces as «e».

Soft and hard consonant mutation

These two processes work in opposite directions.

Soft mutation is marked as «S»:

  • ŵ r ŷ are changed to m n ŋ;
    • preceding e o are changed to i u;
  • b d g are changed to B S Y (virtual consonants).

Hard mutation is marked as «H»:

  • m n ŋ are changed to ŵ r ŷ;
    • preceding e o i u are changed to a a e o;
  • B S Y are changed to b d g.



Personal pronouns

There are separate pronouns for three persons in singular and plural.

In the third person singular there is additional distinction between po used for humans, used for non-human animates and tam used in inanimates.

singular plural
1. i iŷat
2. muŋ muŋeŷat
3. po h
tam i

They are inflected as follows:

Direct i iŷat muŋ muŋeŷat po tam na
Possessive iŵan iŷan muŋeŵan muŋeŷan pon ān ten nan
Genitive iŵanan iŷanan muŋeŵanan muŋeŷanan ponan ānan tanan
Dative iŵana iŷana muŋeŵana muŋeŷana pona āna tana nana
Locative iŵu iŷaŵu muŋeŵu muŋeŷaŵu poŵu yīŵu tamoŵu naŵu
Ablative iban iŷoan muŋan muŋeŷoan pōan yīban taman nōan
Allative īa iŷea muŋa muŋeŷea posa yīa tama nēa


Most correlative pronouns are used as determiners as well and retain the animacy and number distinction.


  • yeŵó this person, yerám this thing, yiná these people/things;
  • yīn here, yiniwō now;
  • beŵó that person, bidám that thing, biná those people/things;
  • bi there, biye then;
  • ceneŵó that person away, cenidám that thing away, ceniná that people/things away;
  • ceni away.


  • ceŵó who, what person, cidám what, what thing, ciná what people/things;
  • ceŵédi who else, cidi what else, cinédi what people/things else;
  • neni where, ta when, kom how.

Existential indefinites:

  • poyi some, somebody, taŵi some, something, nayi some people/things;
  • taŷí somebody/something else, other;
  • neniyi somewhere, tayi somewhen, once, koŵi somehow.

Universal indefinites:

  • samá all, everybody, everything;
  • teám everybody/everything else;
  • sami everywhere, cin always.

Negative indefinites:

  • muná nobody, nothing;
  • moreám nobody/nothing else;
  • miámi nowhere, muzín never.

Noun morphology

Nouns are inflected for seven cases (direct, possessive, genitive, dative, locative, ablative, allative). There are separate forms for singular definite, singular indefinite and plural.

Singular definite direct is the citation form. However, for mixed and consonant stems the form changes when an affix is added and the final fragment of the stem needs to be given as well.

Nouns can be divided into several inflectional patterns:

  • vowel stems — the citation form is the same as the stem;
  • mixed stems — the citation form ends with a vowel, b or s, the stem ends with a “virtual” consonant: B, S or Y.
  • consonant stems — the citation form ends with any of m n ŋ p t k, the stem ends with any of m n ŋ ŵ r ŷ b d g.
Inflection of vowel stems
sg pl
def. anim. def. inan. indef. anim. indef. inan.
Di. -mu -na
P. -ŵan -dan -ŵeri -deri -nan
G. -ŵanan -danan -ŵeran -deran
D. -ŵana -dana -ŵera -dera -nana
L. -ŵu -moŵu -naŵu
Ab. -Ban -muan -noan
Al. -Sa -musa -nea
Inflection of mixed and consonant stems
sg pl
def. anim. def. inan. indef. anim. indef. inan.
Di. -Imu -Ina
P. -Eŵan H-an -Eŵeri H-eri -Inan
G. -Eŵanan H-anan -Eŵeran H-eran
D. -Eŵana H-ana -Eŵera H-era -Inana
L. -Eŵu -Imoŵu -Inaŵu
Ab. S-an -Imuan -Inoan
Al. S-a -Imusa -Inea


Exact location or movement can be expressed using a closed set of adpositions with a noun in possessive.

There are following prepositions:

  • mīem at, on;
  • pūm by, near;
  • pirem in, pin to, into, piŋa from, out from;
  • womús on, on the top, pin womús onto, to the top, womúsa off of;
  • nobūs on the surface, pin nobūs onto the surface, nobūa from the surface;
  • bobín through, tim against;
  • boadí across, tuma along, around;
  • beyīnam on the left, berínam on the right;
  • up, tōom above;
  • sire down, siram below.

Verb morphology

The canonical form of the verb is the imperative.

The root of the verb can be the same as the canonical form (vowel stems, stems ending with a nasal stop) or slightly different (most consonant stems).


The copula is inflected in a suppletive way.

sg pl
anim. inan.
Present tagam tazi tagat
Past pōem pōu pōat
Future mibem miu mibat
Conditional miboem mibou miboat

Finite forms

The inflection pattern depends on the final phoneme of the stem.

Active Passive
sg pl sg pl
anim. inan. anim. inan.
m b ŵ B -em -u -at -i -em -it
n d r S -i
ŋ g ŷ Y -am -am
e i -m -yi -t -m
a o u -bu
consonant H-oem H-ou H-oat H-oi H-oem H-oit
vowel -oem -ou -oat -oi -oem -oit
consonant -Iibem -Iiu -Iibat -Iibi -Iibem -Iibit
vowel -ibem -iu -ibat -ibi -ibem -ibit
consonant -Iiboem -Iibou -Iiboat -Iiboi -Iiboem -Iiboit
vowel -iboem -ibou -iboat -iboi -iboem -iboit


Table covering cardinal and ordinal numerals:

1. moyi/mē • naním
2. yē • tedam 20. yezím • yezínem
3. pen • penen 30. paŷím • paŷínem
4. tayi/tē • teniyi 40. tazím • tazínem
5. tomo • tenimo 50. tomozím • tomozínem
6. taye • teniye 60. tayezím • tayezínem
7. toban • tobenen 70. tobaŷím • tobaŷínem
8. ará • aréni 80. arazím • arazínem
9. arómo • arénimo 90. aromozím • aromozínem
10. ciŵe • cineŵe 100. iyen • iyinen

This system can be extended up to 9,999 aromozím arómo iyen aromozím arómo (literally: ninety-nine hundred and ninety-nine).

mē tē are shortened variants of moyi tayi.