Empotle7á/Lexicon

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Abbreviations used in this lexicon:

  • mt: monotransitive verb
  • it: intransitive verb
  • dt ditransitive verb
  • n nominal
  • ip inalienably possessed nominal
  • coll collective nominal
  • adv adverb
  • pre adjectival prefix
  • pp postposition
  • par particle

Tm.: Tmaśareʔ

PL: Proto-Lukpanic

PW: Proto-Western

PCW: Proto-Coastal-Western

Iŋ.: Iŋomœ́

PTul.: Proto-Tulameya or an unknown Tulameyan language

Sub.: Unknown substrate influence; possibly Wellawi

Lexicon

Etymologies without a citation are directly from Proto-Western. Following the practice in the Tmaśareʔ lexicon, grey indicates an uncertain Proto-Western etymon.

619 words

morpheme part of speech gloss etyma
7akam n wind, gust cf. PTul. anken
7allá n anger, rage *ʔałpa
7allatla mt; it anger; become angry *ʔałpa-dza
7áló mt; n smell *ʔału
7ámá pp with *ʔama
7ámena n deck (of a ship), floor PL amina 'neck'
7ane dt respond, answer Tm. hani
7áŋé mt row PL aŋea 'push'
7aŋom n color Tm. ahńǫ
7áopó n weapon PL aəp 'metal'
7ápé n fog, trickery, bad fortune PL akpea 'fog'
7áposú n lizard PL apoasu 'one lizard'
7ásem n; ip woman; wife *ʔašẽ
7áso n sea wind PL ahub
7atono n Lukpani person PL adoanub 'person from Doanu'
7atlakho n epilepsy [taboo inversion of khatla 'shake']
7ayé- pre frightening [often said as éya7-, its taboo inverse] *ʔadya
7áyé mt fear *ʔadya
7ayétú n fear *ʔadya-tu
7awo n; it rain *ʔakʷa
pp if *ʔey
7ea pre slow *ʔida-
7el par because *ʔel
7ellá ip hand (archaic) *ʔilsa
7ellal #; n 2(10₈); dozen, *ʔilsa-ł 'two hands' (dual)
7emmá n lack, absence *ʔiłma-tu
7empakam n a winter month that brings the rains cf. PTul. enanken 'the wind'
7ená n feather *ʔẽta
7ena dt give *ʔẽda
7étshá mt fish *ʔičʰa
7imé ip name *ʔĩye
7otla n five *ʔudza
7óná ip tooth *ʔũta
7ónallá mt bite *ʔũta-łpa
7wé n pain *ʔuya
7wetla mt cause pain *ʔuya-dza
7wo n vomit *ʔuwa
7wollá it vomit *ʔuwa-łpa
ánesi n;mt secret, ritual hymns; do id. [taboo inversion of sená 'sing']
awo dt bestow, grant, give PL abu
awokhá n tribute, homage, gifts (awo-khá 'give-thing')
é- n [anaphoric stem] *ya-
é par not [dated] *ye
é7atlo it leave *yeʔadzu
e7ellá it come *yeʔiłca
é7ellatla mt pull *yeʔiłca-dza
é7óná n tip (of an arrow or spear) (é-7óná 'its tooth')
ea pre old *yada
ealo n parent (ea-lo)
éká it play *yaka
ékáyé n game (éka-yé)
eko par but not *yekʷe
ékú mt celebrate, eat meat *yeku
élú n other *yelu
éma it; mt repeat something without seeing the point of the activity; repeat *yema 'row'
émá n sun *yama
émáomá n east, sunrise, dawn (émá-7ú-má 'sun-place')
emé7á n human *yama-yaʔa 'son of the sun'
emo7atlo it gossip emu- 'mouth' + -7atlo 'away from'
emollá mt suck *yãbu-łpa 'do with the mouth'
empetá n gentleness, kindness Tm. ęʔta 'feathers'
emu ip mouth *yãbu
emuwu n gossip 'little mouth'
éná n meat *yãsa
énao n sacrifice, offering *yãsa-du 'meat' (honorific)
enaná pre wealthy *yãšãsa < *yãši-yãsa 'own meat'
énatla vt butcher, prepare meat *yãsa-dza
éní mt hold, own, marry *yãši
eolá ip brother, cousin, relative (éo7ú lá 'his man')
éŋí n stream, creek *yãki
ephákhá n custom, tradition *yupʰa-kʰa (cf. Tm. yoha 'remain, survive')
éphé n ice, snow, winter cf. PTul. yepe
éthá mt tend, garden *yatʰa
ethápá n garden *yatʰapa
ethé n wandering star, planet cf. PTul. inte 'star'
etla mt push, encourage *ye-dza
etlakhá n encouragement (etla-khá 'push-thing')
etlamo n grizzly, largest bear species [taboo inversion of matle + -o (honorific)]
étsá par and not *yeca
étsí n arrow *yeči
étsílo n archer *yeči-lawa 'arrow-person'
éso par nor *yesaw
éyotla mt, dt debate Iŋ. éiusata
ewi n eel PL ivi 'worm'
éwotlo iv ruin a party *yekʷadzu < *yeku-ʔadzu 'away from celebrating'
íphó pp without cf. PT. ip 'none'
pp on behalf of *ka
kámam it; mt tremble (< 'hide'), fear *kamã
kámaŋem n pit, den, nest, haunt (kámam-yem 'hiding-place')
kampé pp towards *kãʔči
kanellá mt join a tribe one was not born into *kana-ʔilca 'towards the group'
Kapelu n brightest planet in the Akanaran sky PL kapil 'fire' + -u 'honorific'
katsá it, mt join, volunteer Tm. kahca 'shake, stir'
katsallá it k. 7áma gather together (katsá-llá)
kátshá mt soil, make dirty *kačʰa
kátshá7é it act immorally (kátshá-7é 'always make dirty')
kátshé pre dirty, bad, morally suspect *kačʰi-
katshellú n vice, dishonor *kačʰi-słu 'made by being dirty'
káthá pre correct, right, true *katʰa-
kathéo n soothsayer, shaman, mage *katʰayawa 'he is true' < *katʰa-ʔaya-wa
kawa n team, crew, (of a ship) command staff, directors PL gbagba 'elders'
kaya n bulk, mass PL gai 'large piece'
pp to *ke
ke7á adv continuously *kiʔka
kekulú n saddle Iŋ. cegujú
kemó n village Tm. kmo < PL gbum
kénem n morning *kyanẽ (cf. Tm. ćanę)
kéŋem coll tears *kyañĩ (cf. Tm. ćeńę)
kinípho n abundance PL ginip 'the harvest'
kítiwo n whale PL kitib
kiwo n cabin, cell, bunk PL kib 'house'
ko par; conj. no, not; but [archaic] *kʷe 'but'
ko ip tail *kʷadu
koko ip cock, dick [reduplication of ko 'tail']
koa it sleep *kuda
koakáthallé n a drug *kuda-katʰa-łki 'sleep-truth-stuff'
koapá n bed (koa-pá 'sleep-place')
kolá n; ip nephew, orphan (lit. a child not one's own); child (one's own) *kʷela
konú ip; n head; wit, wisdom, knowledge *kʷẽdu
kopo n NC2: steer, NC5: cattle, wealth PL goap
kopokim n cow (kopo-kim)
kophum coll roe *kʷapʰũ
kosá mt squeeze, press *kʷisa
kosalláŋé it work with animal skin *kʷisa-kłãke 'press the skin'
kotsú ip virtue, strength, manliness *kʷacu
kotsútú ip ritual purity, value, worth *kʷacu-tu
kotsúlo ip penis *kʷacu-lawa
kowu mt cook *kʷekʷu
kowukoa it to enter a trance (kowu-koa 'cook sleep')
kowuwu it to get high, stoned kowu- 'cook' + -wu diminutive
ku- n [cataphoric stem] *kʷi-
kulú n wolf *kʷułu
kulóká it seek enlightenment, self-actualization kulú- + -ká 'seek to become a wolf'
kulólaŋ pre wolfish, crafty, sly (kulú-laŋ 'wolf-manner')
kulótlená n bear *kʷułuʔu-džĩʔĩ-ta 'honey-wolf'
kum n city PL gbum
kúpe n container Iŋ. cɯ́pœ: 'flasks of water'
kutsú pp after, behind *kʷicu
kuyem n vagina *kʷiyĩ (cf. Tm. kwiyę 'cave')
kwo ip leg *kluwa
khákhá n grain alcohol, beer PL kaka 'drink'
khákháme n area for communal drinking, salon, tavern PL kakami
kháló mt, it tie, fasten *kʰalu
khalotlé n vulture *kʰalu-dudže-ʔaye 'sky-hanging'
khálotlum n rope *kʰalu-dzũ 'tie-tool'
khampá pre black *kʰãʔa-
khampákhéé n arable soil (khampá-khéé 'black soil')
khampátó n night (khampá-tú 'blackness')
khápá n tree *kʰapa
khápátsom n forest *kʰapacũ
khatla it, mt; n shake, stir; earthquake *kʰadza
khatlalló n cheese, butter (khatla-llú 'made by stirring')
kháwó it laugh *kʰakʷʰa
kháwotlá mt mock *kʰakʷʰa-dza
khé n fire *kʰaya
khéoasem n woman who tends the communal fire, matron, matriarch *kʰaya-ʔu ʔašẽ 'woman of the fire'
khewu n worm *kʰeybu
khéé coll soil *kʰeya
khééwu coll sand *kʰeya-kʷi
khééllom n wall, rampart *kʰeya-słũ
khélátsom n ashes *kʰayała-cũ
khéllá mt burn *kʰaya-łpa
khellá coll stone *kʰełka
khená n horn *kʰelna
khéŋá pre together *kʰiña-
khéŋam pre thin *kʰiñã-
kheŋáthá mt build, put together, create *kʰiñatʰa
kheŋanó pre cowardly, unmanly *kʰiñã-tluwa 'thin blood'
kheoyem n spring, source of water *kʰiγʷa-yẽ cf. Tm. kiho 'drop of liquid'
khetla pre dry *kʰibła-
Khetlatle7á n the Kipceʔ desert *kʰibła-dłeʔa 'dry land'
khésá n dung *kʰesa
khesallá it defecate *kʰesa-łpa
khétsí par instead *kʰeči
khétotla mt place, organize, order *kʰetu-dza 'cause to lie down'
khétú it lie down *kʰetu
kho pre narrow *kʰawa
khollá mt hunt *kʰulpa
khollátlo it go on a quest *kʰulpa-ʔadzu 'hunt away'
khotla n boat *kʰułda
khótsá n womb *kʷʰeyta (cf. Tm. kwihca 'vagina')
khowolé n pass (kho-wolé 'narrow mountain')
khúlú n anus *kʰulu
khúmú n; mt holiness, sanctity; sanctify, make holy PL kumu, nominal influenced by Emp. sumu
khúmúlo n Lukpanic-style priest khúmú + -lo 'agentive'
khumópá n built temple, Lukpanic-style temple khúmú + - 'place'
la7 pp under *lat
la7 n, ip men, husbands *lak 'men'
la7á mt steal *laʔpa
la7áe n thief *laʔpa-daya 'stealer'
n; ip man; husband (plural la7 < *lak) *la
láké n mast PL laki 'finger'
laláŋá mt dig *lalaña < *laña
lallá ip ear *lałka
lálawo mt approach *łałakʷa < *łakʷa 'near'
laloné mt seize, control, own, enthrall, dominate *lalawne redup. of *lawne
lamá- pre warm *lãma-
lamawótsá pre; n good-hearted, kind; kindness *lãma-kʷʰeyta 'warm womb'
lamno n priest, shaman *łãγlawa
laná n egg *lãca
laná pre many *lãca-
lané n horse *łãši
lanéyetle it; mt gallop, run away; flee (lané-yetle 'horse-run')
lanéwu n pony *łãši-kʷi
lanó ip; n back; side, aspect *lãsu
laŋa n; ip spirit; soul, core, essence *łãγa
láŋá it; mt; pre be empty, hollow (by association with láláŋá 'dig'); scratch [dated]; empty, hollow, shallow (of a person), vain *laña
laŋáolawo n a smoked psychedelic used by shamans (laŋa-7ú lawo 'smoke of the spirit')
láola n palm [contraction of 7ellá7ola7 < *ʔilsa-ʔu lat 'under the hand']
lápékí n bond, restraint, attachment PL lapiki 'nail'
latlom par what, why *la-dzũ
latlonú par how *la-dzũ-cu
latséká mt ride, mount *łãši-čeka 'horse-sit'
lawae n eye *łaγa-daya
lawallá it; mt see *łaγa-łpa 'do with the eye'
láwo- pre near *łakʷa-
lawo n smoke *laγʷa
lawokhá pre hidden (lawo-khá)
lawokhallá mt to hide (lawokhá-llá)
le7á n valley *łiʔna
léá par who *la-yaʔa
n snake *łiya
Lé7úlawo n The Smoke Snake (a constellation) (lé-7ú lawo 'smoke of the snake')
léná n lake *łina
léllá mt heal *łiya-łpa
léphá mt wipe *leypʰa
lésá mt clean, purify Tm. liha
it;mt navigate, steer PL li 'know'
li pre upper *łiγi-
limpu it dislike, be angry *łĩʔsu cf. Tm. hęʔso
linimpu mt hate, intensely dislike, despise *łĩłĩʔsu
lipí n crab PL hikpi
litla mt watch, observe, guard (lí-tla)
lomá mt grind, mill *lũma
lomná dt share, exchange *lũkla (cf. Tm. lǫća)
lótsó it ingratiate, cosy up to Tm. loćo 'charm, court, persuade'
n ocean PL lu
lu7ómá n west, sunset (lú-7ú má 'ocean-place')
lúkhú mt bribe, persuade *lukʰiw (cf. Tm. loćo)
lulomá mt seduce, enchant *lulũpa < *lũpa (cf. Tm. lǫpa 'kiss')
lúmem n right, east *lumẽ
n place, location *ma
mallá- pre sharp *małka-
mallalló n blade (mallá-llú 'sharp thing')
malláoméná n iron (mallá-7ú méná 'mother of sharp')
manam ip nose *mãdzã
maŋésa n paint PL maəŋisap
manó pre wide *mãsu-
maŋo pre; n sick, ill; sickness, deficit *makʷa-
manóm n lie, untruth [contraction of manómélí < *mãsu-mełi 'wide tongue']
manoná it lie, be untrue (manóm-llá)
másé it shine *maše
Máseyem n moon *Mašeγẽ
matam it struggle PL madam 'do repeatedly'
matle n bear [archaic] *madłi
matle n sea [archaic] *madže
matlekim n she-bear (matle-kim)
mayem par where *ma-γẽ
mawa n salt PL magoa
mawatla mt salt, preserve (mawa-tla)
me7 pp by means of *mek
me7ú mt sew *meʔšu
pre rotten *maye-
mená n four *mẽca-
mélam pp along *melã
mélí n; ip language; tongue *mełi
meŋu n sheep *mẽγu
memno pre wet *mĩkʷa-
méná ip mother, aunt *mina
méŋá adv the day before yesterday *miña
metlao n dog (in the sense of 'hunting dog' or 'hound') *medza-du 'dog' (honorific)
mílé iv, pre be absent, be alone; alone, solitary, single, first *mile
mimílé mt quit, abandon, reject *mimile redup. of *mile 'be absent'
mompá n peak Tm. mǫʔpa
adv completely *mu
n I *na
na7 pp above *nat
ná7ó pp up *naʔu
ná7otla vt ascend upwards eg. jump, climb *naʔu-dza
nálo n ally *na-lawa 'my man'
nalló n three *nałtu-
namo it think *nãbu
naŋo ip foot *nãγu
naom n left, evening, sunset, west, ocean *nadũ
natle adv rarely *nadže
nátsé pre tame, submissive, defeated *nače-
nátséwo ip a slave captured in battle (nátsé-wu 'little defeated one')
nawonu n intelligence, smarts, wit *na-kʷẽdu
néphá n fog *nipʰa
newa pre white *neγla-
newawo pre pale (newa-wu 'little white')
par a term of address for listener(s) by the speaker [contraction of ná7ó]
nóló n onion Tm. nolo < PL ŋulu
nóké par [emphasis; surprise, incredulity (when by itself)] [contraction of ná7ó ké 'to me']
nopitlum n tent Tm. nopi 'lean on' + -tlum
nuné n evening [archaic] *nũčʰe (cf. Tm. nǫće)
nunúkhé n bonfire (nuné-7ú khé 'evening-fire')
ŋallo pre dull, blunt, stupid *ñałdu-
ŋé adv frequently, always *ñaye
ŋésí pre smooth *ñeši-
ŋésíutle n summer, dry season *ñeši-dudže 'smooth sky'
ŋesékhá n gem, jewel *ñeši-kʰa 'smooth thing'
ŋesíkhótsá n fertile woman *ñeši-kʷʰeyta 'smooth womb'
ŋúwinú n ivory PL ŋuhim 'horn' + -llú 'substance'
o7am n year *weʔnã
oku n lieutenant, right-hand man PL ugbu 'hand'
Olewasi n The Warrior (a constellation) [taboo inversion of sawelo 'warrior']
ollá mt hit *walca
olláŋé mt beat, lick, discipline (ollá-ŋé 'hit always')
om mt,it coo, comfort *wã cf. Tm. eńo 'again, repeatedly'
ompatlo mt rock, sway (i.e. a baby) *wã-ʔadzu 'coo away'
oŋópá n cradle *wãyu-pa 'back-and-forth-place' (cf. Tm. eńo 'again')
opi pre wet PL oabi
ophá coll beans *wapʰa
otá it turn *weta
otálawa it, mt navigate, steer 'turn with the eye', calque of PL 'pamiki' 'turn and see'
oté part [future tense marker] *watya 'the day after tomorrow'
otéoté adv; n the day after tomorrow *watya-watya
oto7am n next year *wetweʔnã
otlá n; it; mt hit, strike; id.; séo. otlá = make a good point *walca
otle it die *wadže
otletla mt kill *wadže-dza
otlotlam par a greeting (otlotlam 'I greet, welcome' < PW *wa-cucã (cf. Tm. cocą 'serve, obey'))
otlú n liver, emotions, disposition *wetłu
otsí pre steep *wači-
otsú mt eat vegetables *wecu
paka n; it hiccup [onomatopoeia]
palokitó it sneak Iŋ. paluceudo 'scout'
pampa n;par. uncle, grandfather, cousin; address for older male relatives < Wellawi
pamapa n; mt nail, peg; fasten, secure PL paŋmap
paná it find one's way *pãta
panatlom n road, path *pãta-dzũ
pásá n copper PL pasa
pemí it, mt it: hide; mt: cover *pẽpi (cf. Tm. pępi)
pénem pre distant, out of touch Tm. peńę
peŋe dt give good news to so. *pẽγe
peŋéllá mt comfort, reassure (peŋe-ellá)
peŋeí n messenger, herald, reporter (peŋe-í)
pétá n butter PL kpita
par maybe cf. Tm. pińę < *piγĩ
pisú n dreg, scrap, snack PL bisu 'woodlouse', a small foodstuff
piwa n favor, esteem, cool, machismo Tm. piwa
po7wató mt abandon Tm. poʔwaro}}
pólí n estuary, river mouth PL poahi 'mouth'
polpá pre brave Tm. polpa
puŋum adv gradually *pũkʷũ (cf. Tm. pǫkmǫ)
pósí mt, dt request, ask for sth. from so. Tm. possi < PL pusa-usi
potla pre cool, daring, bold *publa var. of *pulba cf Tm. polpa
putholakhé n prosperous person PL butu-laki 'honey-finger'
puputhú n mead PL bupitu
puwolu n mermaid, sea-woman PL buəlu 'strange woman'
phá- n everyone, everything, all *pʰa-
pha7á mt throw *pʰaʔta
phálá it swell, grow, become painful *pʰala
phálá pre far *pʰala-
phálámá n, pre north (phálá-má 'far place')
pham par then, next *pʰã
phané n response in chant, refrain *pʰãli (cf. Tm. hani 'respond, answer')
phápa mt shoot, hurl as a weapon *pʰapʰa
phásamé n wealth, treasure PL pasami 'treasury'
phatótsá n council, meeting *pʰa-tuca 'all the houses'
phéé n seed *pʰeyi
phélí n tree bark *pʰełi
phená n cloud *pʰẽla
pheo it breathe, blow, be alive, live *pʰiwa
phéotla mt inflate, brag, exaggerate *pʰiwa-dza
phétá pre small *pʰita-
phétlo n son *pʰita-lawa 'small man' (cf. Tm. pcaha)
phétlópása n bronze (phétlo-7ú pásá 'son of copper')
phoa n chief *pʰuda
phoayem n chief's residence; authority (phoa-yem 'chief-place')
phoayeu n heir, chief's chosen successor (phoa-yé-u 'son of the chief' (honorific))
phopo n rope, cord, connection, link PL kpaubu
phopowu ip vein *phopo- + -wu 'diminutive'
phukótsá n irritability, suspicion, touchiness [contraction of máseyempukhótsá < *mašeγẽ-ʔu kʷceyta 'moon womb']
n we *sa
sákhé n lavender PL saki
sákheu n large predatory feline *sakʰe-du 'noble fierce one'
sála n coin PL haəlal 'mass of small objects'
sallem adv surprisingly *sałtĩ
sámo mt end, finish PL haŋmoa 'stab'
saŋ pp inside *sãk
saŋ n;par aunt, grandmother; address for older female relatives < Wellawi
sawe mt fight *sabaya
sawelo n warrior (sawe-lo)
sawo n silver PL savu
pp down *še
se7atla it flow away *šeʔta-ʔadza
se7á7ellá it flow towards *šeʔta-ʔiłca
sékam it stand *šikã
sékampellá mt support *šikã-ʔiłca 'stand towards'
sékana mt resist *šikã-dza 'cause to stand'
sená mt sing *šẽta
senákhá n music (sená-khá 'sing-thing')
sena ip; n hand, palm [archaic], side, portion; implication, undertone *šĩda
senallá mt count *šĩda-łpa
senálo n singer (sena-lo)
senalló n song (sena-llú 'made by singing')
senatsó adv discretely, quietly (sena-tsú 'palm-ADVZ')
sépam n eldest son, heir *šepã (cf. Tm. śepą)
sepaŋá n birthright, inheritance, legacy (sépam-khá 'heir-thing')
sésá n oar PL haisa 'wing (of a boat)'
séseo n star *šešewa
séwá it float *šiwka
sewatla it travel, journey *šiwka-ʔadza 'float downstrem'
sewum par only *šekʷũ
n two *ši-
so par or *saw
soél pre likely *saw-yelu 'or other'
soelútsó adv likely *saw-yelu-cu 'or otherwise'
sokomom mt dwell, inhabit Tm. śokmǫ
sompatsa n a martial art of the Kipce Desert Tm. sǫʔca
soná pre round *sũla-
sonatloná pre; ip pregnant, pregnancy (NC5) *sũla-blũla 'round belly'
sopam it; mt; n itch; scratch; itch *supã (cf. Tm. sopą)
sotla adv tomorrow *sudła
sumu n; par abundant kotsú, safety, peace, tranquility; a greeting and farewell *sũbu (cf. Tm. somo 'approve, agree')
sumoká mt greet, wish good fortune upon, say goodbye
susu n willow tree; any medicinal tree (bark is analgesic) [onomatopoeia]
suwom mt clear (brush, trees), chop; clean; sé-s. konú understand *šiwkʷã (cf. Tm. śokmą 'dwell')
swéthá n cave, grotto PL huita
swo ip guts *šuwa
swowu n harp (swo-wu 'little guts')
swowolá n music exercise, practice, arpeggio (swowu-lá 'what is done with a harp')
n you *ta
ta- n [demonstrative (invisible)] *da
taé par agreement, accord, yes *tãya 'must, should'
talana n bird *dalã-ta 'flying one'
talam it swim, fly *dalã-
tamo - pre thick *dãbu-
táká n grass *taka-
tákatle n grassland, plain *takadłe-
takálá n attachment, affection *takala 'rope'
tákálallá mt bind, restrain *takala-łpa
tamotlum n sail, canvas PL dam 'breath' + -tlum
taoŋa n rudder PL daəŋa 'tail'
tatle n here *dadłe
tatsa pre, par same, like, similar to (tatsata < *da-ca-da 'that and that')
tawa it, mt speak, say *daγa 'shout'
tawe pp on, at *tabe
tawatla mt call to *daγa-dza
tawo n one *takʷa-
tawotsú ip yin, feminine energy, 'female kwacu' *tá-kotsú
tésá coll hair *tyaša
tewisi n sea (poetic) PL deabisi 'sea foam'
teŋú n jerky *tẽku
tíku n; dt trade, exchange, barter PL diəku
tilem n mushroom, fungus cf. PTul. dilen 'ear'
tímom n canoe PL itimum
típawo n prostitute PL tuipabu 'huntress'
tísí pre learned, smart PL tisi 'to write'
tonú n treasure PL doanu 'abundance'
tótlaŋa coll ancestors *tuca-łãγa 'house-spirit'
tótsá n house, home *tuca
tótsatla mt found, establish *tuca-dza 'make a house'
topu pre stubborn PCW dopu
towa n good *duγa
towanaŋo n, pre respectability, good-standing; respectable, upright *duγa-nãγu 'good-foot'
towatlo n, pre health, vigor; healthy, vigorous *duγa-tłuwa 'good-blood'
tu7 par therefore *duk
túpí n few, little *tupi-
tutle n sky *dudže
tuwíwutsí n a tasty fish species PL dui + wutsí 'fish'
twatwa n dog (negative connotation, 'mutt' or 'stray') [onomatopoeia]
twolláthá n scorpion (tá-7wollá-thá 'it causes vomiting')
thá mt do, make *tʰa
thamo it fall *tʰãbu
thana pre cold *tʰãda
thanaotle n winter, cold months *tʰãda-dudže 'cold sky'
tháosá n spear PL taəsa 'rib'
tháto mt snap *tʰatʰawa < *tʰawa
thatle n there *tʰadłe
tháthá mt use *tʰatʰa
tho it; mt sway; bend [dated] *tʰawa
thotana pre numb, unfeeling, unresponsive *tʰawa-tʰãda 'bend cold'
thotlom ip knee *tʰawdzũ
thé ip; n human milk; vitality, essence, manifestation of tawotsú *tʰaya 'milk'
théllá mt nurse *tʰaya-łpa
théllú n a ritual alcohol made from human breast milk *tʰayałcu 'made from milk'
thempí n daughter *tʰẽʔpi
théuséseo n Milk Star (brightest star in night sky) *tʰayaʔu šešewa
thítú it pass away, die *tʰuytu
thowa n root *tʰuba
thunu mt have sex with *tʰũdu
thólá n wool *tʰula
thónam ip head of the family, father, uncle [archaic] *tʰunã
thóno ip grandfather *tʰunã-du
thóŋem ip uncle (maternal or paternal), heir *tʰunyaʔã
thwé mt become *tʰuya
tla pp for *dła
tlakom pre important, serious *cakũ-
tlalam mt stab *dzalã
tlallempellá ip wing *dzaldayãʔu ʔilsa
tlamá it fart *błama
tlamá pre red *dzama
tlanátlam par once upon a time *tłã-ca-tłã 'again and again' (with *tłã- 'again' backderived from *tłãtłã)
tlanem adv suddenly *dłanẽ
tlanotletá n bird of prey, falcon *dalã-dudže-ta 'sky-flyer'
tle pp through *dže
tle n [demonstrative (visible)] *dže-
tle7á n land *dłeʔa
tle7á ip tribe *dłeʔka
tle7átó ip tribe-ness, solidarity, unity, zeal, fanatic loyalty (tle7á-tú)
tle7á7ellá it be initiated, become a member of *dłeʔka-ʔiłca 'towards the tribe'
tle7 par however *džet
tlemé it; mt dream, have a vision; dream of so. *dzẽpe (cf. Tm. ńępe 'sleep')
tlempená n feather [contraction of tlallempená < *dzałdayãʔẽta]
tlená mt dance *džẽsa
tlenáphá n communal dance rituals (tlená-phá 'all dance')
tlénam it freeze *dzaynã
tlénanó n ice, snow *dzaynã-słu
tleŋá ip fingernail *džiña
tletsam mt surprise *džecã
tliní pre straight *dzĩči-
tlím n bee *džĩ < *džĩʔĩ
tlimpeŋá n honey, sweetness *džĩʔĩ-kʰa
tloʔólo n, pre vigor, manliness, strength; vigorous, manly, strong * tluwa-ʔu-lawa 'blood of a man'
tloŋéŋí n river *dłũ-yãki 'long river'
tloná ip belly *blũła
tlonátsé dt promise, swear, vow *dłũ-dzači 'long-say'
Tlonaone7á n Tlonaone'a, the Coastal Corridor *dłũ-nadũ-dłeʔa 'land of the long sunset'
tlonatsékhá n promise, oath, vow (tlonátsé-khá 'promise-thing')
tlunótsá n hall of the chief *dłũ-tuca 'long house'
tlum pre long *dłũ-
tlumni ip breast *džũbłi
tluphú mt gather, hunt, collect, fish *dzupʰu
tlutlowó mt calm, soothe *dzudzukʷa < *dzukʷa
tlhámá n flower *plama
tlhámá coll berries *kłama
tlhanam adv repeatedly *tłãtłã
tlhaŋá pre new *plãka-
tlhaŋé n skin *kłãke
tlhaótlo it; mt walk away; abandon *pławaʔadzu
tlatsé mt say *dzači
tlhátsé mt mix *kłače
tlhawé n gorge, ravine, gully *kłaγle (cf. Tm. ćale)
tlhépam n wild animal, game, prey, quarry *kłephã
tlhétlé it; mt rub, prepare leather, masturbate *tletle
tlhétlellú n cum, semen (tlhétlé-llú 'made by rubbing')
tlho it walk *pława
tlhó n blood, essence, family, virtue *tłuwa
tlhókhá n lineage (tlhó-khá)
tlhollá it bleed (tlhó-llá)
tlhollú n relative *tłuwa-słu
tlhothá pre short *kłutʰa-
tlhótsinetá pre simple, uncomplicated *tluwa-dzĩčita 'straight blood'
tlhúphé mt find, discover *tłupʰe
tlhuyem n bay *tluγẽ (cf. Tm. cońę)
tsal par also *cał
tsallo n hill, knoll *calkʷa (cf. Tm. calkwa 'pile, heap')
tséé mt want *čiye
tséká it sit *čeka
tsékatla mt seat *čeka-dza
tsékhullú n thicket, grove *čekʰusłu < *čewkʰ-słu
tsetla n heart *čełdza
tsínú pre full *činu
tsíyu ip sister < Wellawi
tso7 n leaf [dated], tea leaf *čewkʰ
tsomá n sayings, stories, fables, idiom *cũpa (cf. Tm. cǫpa 'language')
tsómom n package, bag Tm. comǫ 'contents (of a bag)'
tsopenem n refuge, rest, haven Tm. ćopńę 'oasis'
tsósam it, mt interfere, impede, block Tm. ćosą 'be curious about'
tsotsú par maybe, hopefully *čewcʰu
tsotwa n pot, vessel Tm. ćotwa
tsowa n fruit *cuba
tsowá it be silent, quiet *dzukʷa (cf. Tm. sokwa)
tsowallá it pass away, die ('fall silent') (tsowá-llá)
tsumé n axe *cũme
tsuŋé adv skillfully, artfully *tyũkʰe
tsuŋeí n master, maestro, sage, artist (tsuŋé-í)
tsúphé n water *kyupʰe
tshámáwo n tilled land, farm (tshámá-wu 'little land' < *cʰama)
tshéká pre yellow *čʰeka
tshékham n earth, ground, soil *čʰekʰã
tshellá dt teach *čʰiłta
tshenem n value, price *čʰẽdłẽ
tshéphú n wild animal, deer *čʰepʰu
tshetlena mt initiate *čʰiłta-džẽsa 'teach to dance'
tshillú ip arm *čʰilpu
tshinúkótsá n compassion, motherly love *činu-kʷʰeyta 'full womb'
tshú adv yesterday *cʰuy
tshumem n dawn *cʰũbẽ
tsúphú mt annoy, irritate *cupʰu
tsúphué n louse *cupʰudaya
tshútlim n cliff *čʰiwdłĩ (cf. Tm. ćohcę)
yámá par but *ye ʔama 'not with'
yáthá n current PL iəta 'river'
mt hear *γiya
yellá mt listen to *γiya-łpa
yellí n fat, grease *γelši
yemó n pine *γĩwa
yemá pre bad, evil *γema-
yemátó n evil *γema-tu
yepá n some *γipa-
yépem n pass, solution, fix Tm. yepę 'mountain pass'
yisé n day *γiše
yetle it run *γedže
yetlelá n race *γedže-la
yetlelallá mt race *γedže-łpa
yetle7atlo it retreat, run away *γedže-ʔadzu
yetsa n trial, test, difficulty PCW yetsa
yewetle it hurry *γebedže < *γeγedže
yómá n gold Tm. yoma 'sun'
wakhe n holiness, abundance of kotsú *bakʰe
wa7á mt milk animals *γlaʔta
wa7álá n milk (from animals) *γlaʔta-la
wa7atlom n udder (wa7á-tlum 'milk-thing')
walápem mt oust, exile, overthrow *γlalãpi < *γlãpi
wallé ip neck *γalši
walléwu ip shoulder (wallé-wu 'little neck')
wane pre big, great, important *γãdže-
Wanelo n a mythical hero who taught the secrets of the earth *γãdželawa cf. Gezoro
waŋá n leaf *γaña
we pre heavy *γʷuye-
wekhá n weight, burden *γʷuye-kʰa
wekhá7é iv burden, weigh down (wekhá-7é)
wemena mt understand *bẽbẽdza
wena mt know *bẽdza
wesa mt cut *besa
wesalawae mt to feel ashamed, guilty (wesa-lawae 'cut the eye')
wesatlom n knife *besa-dzũ
wesatliní n; pre middle *besa-dzĩči 'cut straight'
wewesá mt split *bebesa
wílí pre pretty, charming, cute PL vili 'good'
wilimú mt promote, elevate, honor, educate *γlilĩpu < *γlĩpu (cf. Tm. lępo 'lift')
wiŋásé n tea PL viŋmasi 'hibiscus tea'
wo pp outside *γaw
wolaŋ pre apparent, accessible, exoteric (wo-laŋ 'outside-ish')
wo it live, be alive *γʷiwa
woé n hill *γʷeye
wokú pre quick *γʷeku-
wokuwoná n winter *γʷeku-γʷĩta 'quick wind'
wokuwolé n eagle *γʷekudu-γʷeley 'mountain eagle'
wolé n mountain *γʷeley
wollá n spit *γʷałka
wollallá it spit *γʷałka-łpa
wollé mt wash *γʷałki
wollu n slave *γʷełbu
wollotla vt enslave *γʷełbu-dza
wóna pre green *γłuna-
woná n wind *γʷĩta
woŋá n pig *γũka
wone n island *γʷẽdle
wonó n bone *γʷãsu
wonotótsá n grave; láwonotótsá - graveyard *γʷãsu-tuca 'bone-house'
wóthú mt erase *wewetʰu < *wetʰu (cf. Tm. weto 'fade, wither')
wotla mt give birth to *γʷiwa-dza
wotlakhá n midwife (wotla-khá 'birth-giver')
woyem n Akana, the physical world (wo-yem 'live-place')
wullí coll millet *γulši
wutsí n fish *γuči
wutsupho n net [contraction of wutsetsuphotá < *γuči-dzupʰu-ta 'fish-catcher']
wuwe mt drink *γʷibe
wuwekhá n fruit alcohol (wuwé-khá 'drink-thing')