Buruya Nzaysa/Thematic dictionary

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A Thematic Dictionary of Buruya Nzaysa

Note: Not every word in the main dictionary is included, and some words may appear in multiple semantic fields. In case of conflict, the main dictionary, and not this page, should be considered authoritative.

Time and location

Time

ɛte
n.
day
mɔromə
n.
night
tolma
n.
morning, dawn
badolu
n.
morning, early day
əmuyso
n.
noon
tolbɔ
n.
evening, dusk
esugo
n.
evening, early night
latsa
n.
hour
pelvo
n.
hourglass
kəsusa
n.
calendar
əsu
n.
calendar date
n.
year
spexətsa
n.
spring
ya’ɔwa
n.
summer
nzɛwəslu
n.
autumn
rɛyrɔ
n.
winter
xawə́be
n.
month
yɔti
n.
week (of the Fáralo calendar)
gɔyto
n.
week (of the Ndok calendar)
palmayo
n.
1st day of the week
atsɔyo
n.
2nd day of the week
ɛkuyo
n.
3rd day of the week
əbeyo
n.
4th day of the week
buliyo
n.
5th day of the week
omɔyo
n.
6th day of the week
toyo
n.
7th day of the week
tsuyo
n.
8th day of the week
kawa
n.
last year
smalu
n.
last week; last month
usɔ
n.
yesterday
mah
n.
today
tsore
n.
tomorrow
ogo
n.
early
məsta
n.
late
pewəlu
n.
beginning
nta
n.
end
exɛ
n.
first
pɛgavo
n.
last
isaga
n.
previous, preceding
səmvo
n.
next in line, subsequent
ɔdɔvo
n.
event
soslu
n.
annals, chronicles
ogó’ə
n.
history
atsɔlu
n.
the past
dɛlu
n.
the present
ñudɔ
n.
the future
mvora
n.
new
lire
n.
young
ñurɔ
n.
old, ancient
ñire
pp.
before, until
rabɛ
pp.
while, during
owa
pp.
after, since
witsu
pron.
now
tsetsu
pron.
then
ɛtsu
pron.
always
matsu
pron.
never
natsu
pron.
sometime
solə
pron.
when?
piga
adv.
initially, at first
rabəga
adv.
at the same time, simultaneously
səmaga
adv.
next
ntise
adv.
immediately
uvo
adv.
soon
mvuga
adv.
already
pɛga
adv.
finally
smada
adv.
recently
atsa
adv.
still
bu
adv.
again
uvi
v.erg
happen, occur, come to pass
mɔwa
v.
begin
ntada
v.
stop, finish
kwəma
v.
repeat
we’ɔ
v.
expect
oxɔtɔ
v.
anticipate
səma
v.
wait
məmat
v.
remember
esopo
v.
forget
tɛnɔ
v.
delay, postpone
ɛraga
v.
be ineffective, waste time
əno
v.
linger, remain, stay

Distance, direction, movement

kwətso
n.
distance
kəlu
n.
step, yard (measurement of distance)
latsi
n.
abroad
tavlɛ
n.
far away, outside the Edák sphere
petu
n.
separation
ñɛdu
n.
infinite
bədu
n.
near, close-by
tsu
n.
vicinity, surroundings
ega
n.
straight
sisu
n.
left side
ɔ’a
n.
right side
ñunɛ
n.
middle, center
xagala
n.
portion, fraction, part, piece
ɛnalu
n.
ground, floor, bottom
əvle
n.
north
nasa
n.
east
tamlu
n.
south
mvəlu
n.
west
ako
n.
origin, source
kəñəla
n.
target
ñanɛ
n.
link, connection
kwɛña
n.
ring, circle
botsoño
n.
square, rectangle
ñɔlna
n.
state of affairs, setting, situation, circumstances
ñalɔ́nzi
n.
speed, velocity, acceleration
lɔnzi
n.
quick, fast
kəlna
n.
slow
o
pp.
at, on
ada
pp.
to, towards
ni
pp.
in, into
owa
pp.
from
mvəbo
pp.
between, among, along, through
sade
pp.
outside of, behind, beyond
moldu
pp.
in front of
gilu
pp.
over, above, on top of
gɔla
pp.
under, below
ñugɛ
pp.
around
ñire
pp.
as far as
wa
pp.
against
wilu
pron.
here
tselu
pron.
there
ɛlu
pron.
everywhere
malu
pron.
nowhere
nalu
pron.
somewhere
yəlu
pron.
where?
v.
go, walk
oskə
v.
come, approach
məlu
v.
arrive
nora
v.
go outside, leave temporarily
noñə
v.
leave, depart, go away
ninólɔyə
v.
emigrate
amo
v.
travel
xañɔ
v.
move
nəlga
v.
turn, twist, rotate, spin, stir
mɔysa
v.
recede, retreat, go backward
iyɔda
v.
lead
wano
v.
follow
xo’a
v.
chase
kalma
v.
lose one's way
əmu
v.
be out of place
xida
v.
climb, go upward
ɛnta
v.
descend, go downward
v.erg
fall
ɔdɛ
v.
pull
mvawɛ
v.
push, shove
tsugə
v.
press, squeeze, pinch
ñawe
v.
put, place
mpadɛ
v.
keep positioned (in a certain way)
taspa
v.
point at
nodɛ
v.
reach for, touch
solvo
v.
bring, carry
xaga
v.
distribute
nzolab
v.
arrange, sort, classify
niñawe
v.
insert
ñañəvi
v.
connect
tɛfta
v.
combine with
ətsa
v.
be attached to
sɔdɔ
v.
stick out, protrude
to’anu
v.
impede, obstruct, block
salaspo
v.
put away
mɛpsɔh
v
expel, eject
kəh
v.
throw
pili
v.
send

Types of places

ŋkana
n.
the world
ɔlu
n.
place, location, territory
la
n.
land, region
latsi
n.
foreign country
layáxa
n.
kingdom, state
bɛru
n.
estate; land owned by a noble
sanu
n.
village
mo
n.
town, city
ñunɛmo
n.
city center
ñuylu
n.
marketplace
baulu
n.
harbor
rɛməl
n.
quay
mlu
n.
home, house
mlusɔmɛ
n.
houseboat
mluñunɛ
n.
inn, hostel
mɛsɛlu
n.
tavern
oñelu
n.
mill
banilu
n.
temple
waslu
n.
grave, tomb
tsɔvlu
n.
tower
pawaymó
n.
city walls
alɔra
n.
wall
kaywemə
n.
fence, boundary
tere
n.
door, gate
murɔ
n.
gap, passageway
nolɔ
n.
road, path, way
xɔpsah
n.
trade route
əlu
n.
bend in the road
xuñe
n.
crossroads
xawaxa
n.
bridge
mopso
n.
ford
ɔtse
n.
river
ñanzɔmɛ
n.
canal, waterway
sɔmɛlu
n.
well, fountain
tasku’u
n.
waterfall, rapids
mɛsɔtsə
n.
confluence
lawa
n.
mouth of a river; delta
ludɛ
n.
riverbank
su
n.
shore, coast (of a lake or ocean)
polu
n.
island
ponaba
n.
small island
tu
n.
lake
ədu
n.
ocean
pɛlbɛ
n.
beach
gɔgəh
n.
bay, bayou
avɛlu
n.
swamp, bog
opsa
n.
lowlands, plains
dɛñə
n.
mountain, hill
xolu
n.
slope
palda
n.
valley
ntɔh
n.
forest
xadalu
n.
woodland
mɛslu
n.
meadow, pastureland
wəlu
n.
garden, orchard
mayradɛ
n.
balcony, terrace, veranda
naysi
n.
field
ɛlu
n.
farm

People

General terms

maldɔ
n.
person, human being
ru
n.
man
asa
n.
woman
dəpse
n.
child
tsɛsəbo
n.
baby, infant
iñeru
n.
boy
iñesi
n.
girl
lirevo
n.
teenager, adolescent
liru
n.
young man
aduna
n.
young woman
ñavo
n.
adult
rauru
n.
old person; senior
da’ɔ
n.
male
sivo
n.
female

Kinship

gəsta
n.
family, relatives, descendants
ñanɛvo
n.
relative
mɛwɛnomɔ
n.
parents
mɛwɛ
n.
father
omɔ
n.
mother
mɛya
n.
brother
iñomu
n.
sister
gəru
n.
son
ve
n.
son
tara
n.
daughter
isavru
n.
husband
nɛtsi
n.
wife
uyse’abɔ
n.
bride, fiancée
sɛpsɔya
n.
significant other; boyfriend/girlfriend
mɛpsi
n.
grandfather
opsi
n.
grandmother
ruña
n.
uncle; male cousin
asaña
n.
aunt; female cousin

The nobility

sɛtsa’ɔk
n.
emperor
de’áxa
n.
king, ruler
tsɔska
n.
queen
sasama
n.
baron, lord
sasanzi
n.
baroness
nata
n.
noble status
natavo
n.
person of noble descent
erɔvo
n.
sir; man of high prestige
yɔsa
n.
lady; woman of high prestige
səmvo
n.
successor, heir
de’axɛ́to
n.
dynasty

Occupations

aga
n.
craftsman
baxa
n.
captain (of a ship)
daspo
n.
warrior
ɛbo
n.
peasant, farmer
gaxɛtu
n.
veteran, pensioner
gəñobo
n.
singer (of religious songs), reciter (of epic poems), eulogist
gɔlna’a
n.
researcher, explorer
gɔni
n.
member of the merchant guild
gorɔyvo
n.
prophet, guru
kɛyfo
n.
spearman
kəlna
n.
teacher
kwədaspo
n.
junior craftsman
manavo
n.
consultant; member of the city council
mɛgagɔy
n.
general, military commander
məvo
n.
traveller
mɔlado
n.
guard, sentinel, custodian
mvopso
n.
musician
nilədo
n.
judge
ñaysə
n.
slave, servant
ñoxubo
n.
adventurer
ɔyalsi
n.
marketwoman
ɔyalvo
n.
trader, merchant
ɔyrolvo
n.
entertainer, performer
omɔlvo
n.
weaver
ore’e
n.
master craftsman
perɛdo
n.
leader, executive
re’abo
n.
student, apprentice
rulɛwi
n.
writer, poet
rulsi
n.
prostitute
runah
n.
priest
ruyɔvo
n.
inventor, creative person
sɛvɛsɛtɔy
n.
monk, hermit, ascetic
susuvo
n.
messenger
tovo
n.
assistant
tsɛvobo
n.
innkeeper
tsenɛ́ña
n.
scholar
tsɔbo
n.
shepherd
uyɔlvo
n.
philosopher
xo’avo
n.
hunter

Other terms for people

avavo
n.
offender, culprit, criminal
balbo
n.
sick person
dɔ’ɔ
n.
physically weak person
ɛnzədɛ
n.
straight-haired person
ɛñəmu
n.
curly-haired person
əbivo
n.
blind person
əstədo
n.
widow(er), orphan
iravo
n
outsider (derog.)
kalɛste
n.
active person; one who takes charge of things
karo
n.
helpful person
kətsɔ
n.
patron, sponsor, generous person
luki
n.
versatile person, clever person, genius
maməlgɛ
n.
honest person, trustworthy person
mɛlɛdu
n.
member (of a group or category)
meko
n.
lookalike
mepsovo
n.
outgoing person
məmova
n.
business partner
məropso
n.
one who cannot forgive
mlaña
n.
visitor, stranger
mɔdɔnɛ
n.
mysterious person
musmə
n.
fool
mpɛbo
n.
mourner, one who is in grief
mpunə
n.
heathen
mvɔrula
n.
respected person, one who has good social standing
mvoñuvo
n.
founder, initiator
mvora
n.
newcomer
nospo
n.
dying person
nzɛwəspo
n.
recipient, addressee
ñabo
n.
one who does not pay attention
ñalvo
n.
berserk; one who is mad with rage
ñoluvo
n.
rival
oldɛbi
n.
one who lacks foresight
otsevo
n.
experienced person; expert
pauvo
n.
acrobat; person with skillful movement
petuvo
n.
refugee, exiled person
rañavo
n.
insane person, lunatic
rɛnavo
n.
miser, scrooge
rɛvlevo
n.
opponent, antagonist
rosa’o
n.
citizen (person with full civic rights)
rudɔ
n.
role model; archetype
ruñɔxɔ
n.
liar, hypocrite, double-dealer
səmədo
n.
stubborn person
simvo
n.
one who prefers to be alone
sɔsa
n.
slut, whore
spɛspo
n.
hero; strategist
stasavo
n.
changed person; convert
suñabo
n.
ally; one who cooperates
tagɔvo
n.
rebel; traitor
tivo
n.
friend
toñɔ
n.
strict person, authoritative person
uylospo
n.
inexperienced person; amateur
uysɔbo
n.
jealous person
vono
n.
aggressive person
wayfo
n.
confident person, one who is prudent
wemə
n.
neighbor
we’ɔvo
n.
optimist; ambitious person

Flora, fauna, and agriculture

Livestock

n.
ox
mɛsa
n.
cow, bull
xɛvra
n.
sheep
kwərə
n.
goat
nzata
n.
pig
nalo
n.
horse
pə’águ
n.
pack horse
aski
n.
stallion; war horse
lɔyse
n.
poultry
mpiña
n.
chicken
lɛñanɛ
n.
goose
lidu
n.
duck

Other animals

tsə
n.
dog
dəsmobo
n.
tracking dog
ñufɛ
n.
cat
sose
n.
mouse, rat
yubuso
n.
oppossum
nɔlsi
n.
squirrel
xi’ɔ
n.
rabbit
reyo
n.
fox
tilɛ
n.
tiger
dɔ’ɛ
n.
wild boar
tikasa
n.
llama
yɛski
n.
bird
gɛxu
n.
eagle
tali
n.
hawk, falcon
tɔfu
n.
owl
adavo
n.
crow, raven
romoldu
n.
peacock
mpɛsa
n.
fish
oño
n.
crayfish, crustacean
pisoño
n.
crab
se’əspo
n.
frog
ɛma
n.
snake
mogi
n.
worm
ɔyvinza
n.
insect
ame
n.
fly
amedalsu
n.
bee
kusavo
n.
wasp, hornet
tsətse
n.
louse
yuska
n.
a legendary creature that eats people

Animal-related words

əña
n.
animal
əñamlu
n.
pet
əñali
n.
young (of an animal)
ɛsɛtsi
n.
type, species
sudusa
n.
meat
dəbu
n.
fat, oil
te’o
n.
milk
xɛvrine
n.
wool
nakwi
n.
fur
ntəwa
n.
tail
xolnálo
n.
hoof
munanɔ
n.
claw
tɔwi
n.
horn
mavli
n.
beak
tɛde
n.
wing
rɔva
n.
feather
ŋkili
n.
egg
mɔñi
n.
shell (of an egg)
teseñu
n.
beehive
dalsu
n.
honey
kili
n.
wild, feral, fierce, dangerous
koxi
v.
domesticate; keep (animals)
mɛspɔra
v.
breed, raise (animals)
bɔra
v.
feed
ya’iga
v.
tie, bind
rələh
v.
ride
xo’a
v.
hunt, chase
kweka
n.
game (hunted animals)
esevo
n.
trap
ti’aga
n.
net (especially for fishing)
same
v.
bring down, hunt down, slay, prey upon

Food crops

monzi
n.
grain
boma
n.
wheat
nigiwo
n.
rice
afe
n.
fruit
suni
n.
apple
wɛna
n.
vegetable
kwaxa
n.
beans
ñitsɔrə
n.
sweet potato
sɔntu
n.
carrot
nɛnagɔ
n.
cabbage
nzukatu
n.
tomato
yastɛ
n.
pumpkin, gourd
ɔvɔdɛ
n.
beetroot
bapsɛ
n.
onion
saxə
n.
garlic
kusə’a
n.
olive
bɔsalɔ
n.
ginger
kepə
n.
herb, spice
xalu
n.
black pepper
ŋkura
n.
cloves
tulsu
n.
cinnamon
naga
n.
cardamom
gamu
n.
cumin
wəsku
n.
turmeric, curcuma
xiso
n.
coriander
sasalgɔ
n.
sugar cane

Other plants

nzi
n.
tree
te’i
n.
willow tree
mvaronowɛ
n.
beech tree
ilu
n.
flower
lanɔ
n.
rose
əpse
n.
grass
təska
n.
flax
istixu
n.
cotton
mpexəme
n.
tallgrass
sasɔmɛ
n.
reed
tsɔyɔspe
n.
moss
tsɔxevo
n.
fungus, mushroom (in general)
xɛrɔ
n.
a type of mushroom

Plant-related words

ponə
n.
vegetation; plants
itu
n.
blossom
tsi
n.
seed
bawo
n.
root
xat
n.
wood
mvaro
n.
rind, peel
mɔñi
n.
shell (of a nut)
alnɔ
n.
branch, twig
nɛpsonə
n.
leaf
stonza
n.
needle, spike, thorn
kwamɛdi
n.
tea, herbal infusion
ntɔh
n.
forest
xadalu
n.
woodland
mvotsi
v.erg
grow
avɔ
v.
flourish, thrive
iluso
v.
bloom
ŋkɛtsa
v.
wilt, wither, decay

Other agricultural words

ɛbo
n.
peasant, farmer
ɛlu
n.
farm
naysi
n.
field
mɛslu
n.
meadow, pastureland
wəlu
n.
garden, orchard
rɛbɛ
n.
fertile
buli
n.
soil, earth
bulnanɔ
n.
plough
oñelu
n.
mill
bɛru
n.
estate; land owned by a noble
tsiso
v.
sow

Weather and astronomy

tuyasa
n.
good weather
rəlse
n.
hot weather
avɛ
n.
bad weather
səlu
n.
sky
tol
n.
sun
əbe
n.
moon
vi
n.
star
sivɔy
n.
cloud
kara
n.
fog, mist
mpəlɔ
n.
rain
kisɛ
n.
snow
mola
n.
ice
alsɔ
n.
wind
sexad
n.
storm
sexaspi
n.
hurricane
agono
n.
thunder
kexə
n.
lightning
əftapə́
n.
rainbow
bogə
n.
heat
rɛlga
n.
warm, hot
lətsu
n.
cold
iwe
v.erg
freeze
asna
v.erg
be dry
wəñə
v.erg
be wet
mlana
v.refl
flood

The human body

Body parts

ŋkwayfo
n.
body
əmo
n.
head
ɛne
n.
hair
kolduma
n.
face
soldu
n.
eyes
sɔga
n.
ears
puma
n.
nose
mab
n.
mouth
kayma
n.
lip
tselɔ
n.
tooth
koma
n.
tongue
pɛnɔra
n.
jaw, chin
mvintu
n.
shoulder
eta
n.
arm
tsoñeta
n.
elbow
to
n.
hand
nɛtso
n.
palm
toma
n.
fist
dəñe
n.
finger
lanɛvo
n.
index finger
kwe’əñe
n.
fingernail
bitsi
n.
leg
tso
n.
knee; joint
xol
n.
foot
ñəba
n.
toe
mpəwa
n.
nipple (of a woman)
mvusmo
n.
belly
boña
n.
back
lamɔ
n.
spine
xañɔvo
n.
muscle
mɔdɛ
n.
heart
əme
n.
liver
xorɔ
n.
guts
kəsa
n.
flesh and blood
gatsɔmɛ
n.
sweat
mpɛsɔmɛ
n.
tears
smɛnɔ
n.
gall
pɛsala
n.
feces, excrements

Senses and bodily actions

nzəna
v.erg
breathe, be alive
ena
v.erg
see, notice
tsɔve
v.
watch, observe
kasəl
v.
examine, inspect, look closely
buna
v.
hear, listen
kwɛsta
n.
noise
magɛsta
n.
silence
dubɔ
v.erg
smell (perceive scent)
dəñɛ
v.
taste, savour
algɔ
n.
sweet
e’u
n.
sour
ɛnɔ
n.
bitter
tul
v.
eat
nzugi
v.
devour, eat greedily
savla
v.
drink
pɛnə
v.
bite
kwɛtsa
v.
chew
inzɔ
v.
swallow
ani
n.
hungry
konzo
v.
lick
malɛ
v.
suck
utse
v.
blow
lɛldɛ
v.
touch, caress
spɛ
v.erg
feel, experience (of physical sensations)
ogab
v.
suffer, feel pain
nodɛ
v.
reach for
ɛsul
v.
take, catch, grab
ɔdɛ
v.
take, pull
dənzo
v.
grasp, handle, manipulate; ply
yana
v.
cling to, hold fast, retain
mvunɛ
v.
have, hold
la’e
v.
lift, hold up (physically)
dalmə
v.
present; lift towards
solvo
v.
bring, carry
tsɔmva
v.
drop, let go of
kəh
v.
throw
tsugə
v.
press, squeeze, pinch
mvawɛ
v.
push, shove; urge
kume
v.
punch; test
tsoñəba
v.
kick
xoñi
v.
break, tear apart
sili
v.
pierce, stab
əxra
v.
scratch; dig
ñədɛ
v.
wipe
bəbɔ
v.
rub
ləmo
v.
smile
ñañɔ
v.
laugh
mpi
v.erg
cry, weep
wesi
v.
scream
nzəxrə
v.
yell, shout
mvəgɛ
v.
sing
mve
v.
say, speak
sɛwə
v.
whisper
masto
v.
whistle
rɔnzobe
n.
voice
ɔrɛ
v.
stand
xəme
v.
stand up straight
mpɛ
v.erg
sit
xodah
v.
rest, relax
ñada
v.erg
sleep
xañɔ
v.
move
ntada
v.
stop, finish
v.
go, walk
kwɛno
v.
walk around, stroll
otɛ
v.
run
pɛpɔy
v.
dance
se’ə
v.
jump
kəlu
n.
step
tsɛ
v.refl
wash oneself
əbu
v.refl
swim
nəlga
v.
turn
mɔysa
v.
go backward; retreat, recede
ɔlatsa
v.
tire, exhaust oneself
lesəgɔ
v.
tremble
v.erg
fall
bal
v.erg
lie, lie down
ulbo
v.
crouch, kneel
kəñɛma
v.
crawl
pɛsa
v.
defecate
tsatsa
v.
sneeze
radɛna
v.
cough
bɛle
v.
burp, hiccup
ɔsinə
v.erg
choke
tsuto
v.
spit
wimvɔ
v.
vomit
gasta
v.
sweat, perspire
rɛtsisa
v.
bleed

Body condition

rɛtsə
n.
nature (of a thing/person), characteristic attribute
mu
n.
semblance, looks
əlmo
n.
beautiful, attractive
yumu
n.
neat, pretty, cute
navɔ
n.
ordinary-looking, average-sized
bɛgɔ
n.
puny, undesirable
rifə
n.
ugly, scary
ulpi
n.
size
tətsɔ
n.
big, fat
asi
n.
thick, obese
mewa
n.
stout, heavy, broad-shouldered
olto
n.
thin, slender, skinny
sewe
n.
tall, high
mvɔ
n.
short, small
nabaña
n.
tiny, little, dwarf-sized
katsu
n.
power, strength
mɛgɔ
n.
mighty, intimidating, powerful
kunə
n.
tough, muscular
ɛtsɛ
n.
weak, fragile
dɔ’ɔ
n.
weary, tired, physically weak
lɛlta
n.
graceful, agile, nimble, flexible
pauvo
n.
person with skillful movement
kɔla
n.
clumsy person
ñadə́nzo
n.
skill, dexterity, sleight of hand
ɛnzədɛ
n.
straight-haired person
ɛñəmu
n.
curly-haired person
mɛpsɔgo
n.
drunk, intoxicated

Health and disease

laste
n.
health
nɛsɔ’u
n.
not feeling well
nɛsɔ
n.
disease
əno
n.
disease, illness, plague
ñu’o
n.
pain
ñu’əmo
n.
headache
boñamad
n.
backache
rəstə
n.
scar
kwayo
n.
skin disease
tolta
n.
sunburn
ale
n.
fever
əbivo
n.
blind person
uño
n.
lame, crippled
əkə
v.
hobble, limp
ɛrula
n.
impotent
lamatɛ
n.
medicine (field of study)
orovo
n.
doctor
orono
n.
medicine (potion, medical drug)
lalpɔ
n.
medicine (cure-inducing treatment)
bəduspo
n.
bandage
mabo
n.
massage