Buruya Nzaysa/Sound changes

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Sound changes from Ndak Ta to Buruya Nzaysa

1. Word-Initial
unstressed vowels → Ø / #_NC
mb mbʷ nd ŋɡ → mv mv nz ŋɣ
nr → nz
ŋɣ → ɣ

2. Word-Medial
mb mbʷ nd ŋɡ → bb bbʷ dd ɲ
mp nt ŋk ŋkʷ → pp tt ɲ m
medial syllabic nasals vocalize to /ə/, except between two homoorganic plosives where they are deleted instead.
ts → s (before another consonant)
b bʷ d ɡ → Ø (before nasals)
b bʷ d ɡ → v ɣʷ ɾ ɣ (intervocalic and before liquids; coda ɣʷ ɾ merge with w r)
b bʷ d ɡ → p p t k (after /s/)
p t k kʷ → Ø (before nasals)
p t k kʷ → b d ɡ ɡʷ (intervocalic)
p t k kʷ → f s j w (in other medial clusters except after /s r l/; also, pt → ft and tr → ts in all positions)
lk rk lkʷ rkʷ → lj rj lk rk
ni ŋi → ɲ (before another vowel)
C → Ø / (before /j ɲ ŋ/)
db ɡb bd ɡd bɡ dɡ → bb bb dd dd ɡɡ ɡɡ

3. Word-Final
k ɡ → h
other obstruents → Ø
tn → t
pm tsn kŋ → ba tsa ɡa
bm dn ɡŋ → b d ɡ
nasals → Ø

4. Naidda Vowel Shift
i e a o u ai au → e ɛ a ɔ o i u (open non-nasalized in NT)
i e a o u ai au → ə ə a o u ɛ ɔ (closed or nasalized in NT)

The shift only affects original /ai au/, not any new /ai au/ created by preceding changes.

5. Further changes
V → Ø / #_sC (if C is an obstruent)
ɡ ɣ → h (word-finally)
ɡ ɣ → ɡ (after liquids)
ɡ ɣ → x (elsewhere)
b → w / V_V
pp tt → ps ts
ŋ → ɲ (except in initial clusters /ŋk ŋkʷ/)
ŋʷ → m
ɣʷ ɡʷ bʷ bbʷ → ɡ
any /w/ after consonants is deleted, but kʷ remains as is.
unstressed vowels are lost between a nasal and a single onset obstruent, except immediately after the main stress.
coda nasals assimilate in POA, except before /r l/.
f s → v z (after nasals)
coda /r/ is lost.
coda nasals are lost after stressed vowels; also generally nr ŋr nl ŋl ŋx → r r l l x, but mr ml remain.
geminate consonants are simplified
r → əɾ (after voiceless plosives and /s/)
ɾ → ʔ
As in Ndok Aisô, a glottal stop is inserted to break up any vowel hiatus.


See also