Vindasingaįq sihaį

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Vindasingaįq sihaį /ʋiⁿdɑsiŋgɑĩʔ siχɑĩ/ is a language spoken in Western Tuysafa around -500 YP.

Phonology

Consonants

Consonants Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal stops /m/
«m»
/n/
«n»
[ɲ ~ ɲɟ] /ŋ ~ ŋɡ/
«ng»
Prenasalized stops /ⁿd/
«nd»
Plain stops /p/
«p»
/t/
«t»
[c] /k/
«k»
/ʔ/
«q»
Fricatives /s/
«s»
[ç] /χ/
«h»
Approximants /ʋ/
«v»
[i̯] [u̯] [ɑ̯]

Notes:

  • /ŋ ~ ŋɡ/ are two realizations of the same phoneme, occurring in free variation; [ŋ] tends to be more common word-initially and [ŋɡ] tends to be more common word-medially.
  • [ɲ ɲɟ c ç] are palatalized variants of /ŋ ŋɡ k χ/, occurring before /i/.
  • /ʔ/ occurs only word-finally and is the only one consonant allowed in that position.
  • [i̯ u̯ ɑ̯] are the glide equivalents of /i u ɑ/.

Vowels

Monophthongs Front Back
Close /i ĩ/
«i į»
/u ũ/
«u ų»
Open /ɑ ɑ̃/
«a ą»


Diphthongs /iɑ iɑ̃/
«ia ią»
/iu iũ/
«iu ių»
/uɑ uɑ̃/
«ua uą»
/ui uĩ/
«ui uį»
/ɑi ɑĩ/
«ai aį»
/ɔu ɔũ/
«au aų»

Notes:

  • Nasal vowels are phonemic only word-finally. In other positions they can occur as allophones before nasal consonants.
  • The word stress is not phonemic. It is usually drawn to the last diphthong in a word (although in words with multiple diphthongs, a free variation might be present). In words without diphthongs, the last syllable is stressed.

Morphology

Nouns

Class system

Vindasingaįq nouns can be divided into seven classes depending on their countability, animacy and gender. They fall into an animacy hierarchy which then determines the appropriate verb agreement.

Animacy hierarchy Countable Uncountable
Highest ngi (environment)
Middle haį (feminine) ngaiq (collective)
ma (masculine)
Lower a (animal)
Lowest tių (inanimate) na (mass nouns)

Countables

HAĮ class

This class consists of feminine animate nouns. Nouns of this class form collective plurals.

The pronoun for this class is haį and is homonymous with the irregular noun haį “woman”.

Nominative haį
she / woman
Genitive haįq
Dative haina
Ablative hainį
Collective noun hainingaiq
women

Examples of regular nouns in this class include naitihaį “widow”, niahaį “(female) neighbor”, nuiukiahaį “spinster”, ainiahaį “hostess” and kiuvuahaį “vixen”.

Nominative naitihaį
widow
niahaį
(female) neighbor
nuiukiahaį
spinster
ainiahaį
hostess
kiuvuahaį
vixen
Genitive naitihaįq niahaįq nuiukiahaįq ainiahaįq kiuvuahaįq
Dative naitihana niahana nuiukiahana ainiahana kiuvuahana
Ablative naitihanį niahanį nuiukiahanį ainiahanį kiuvuahanį
Collective noun naitingaiq ningaiq nuiukuangaiq ainingaiq kiuvuangaiq
MA class

This class consists of masculine animate and gender-neutral human nouns. Nouns of this class form collective plurals.

The pronoun for this class is ma and two irregular nouns are numa “man” and ama “human”.

Nominative ma
he, they (sg)
numa
man
ama
human
Genitive maįq numaįq amaįq
Dative maia numaia amaia
Ablative mauį numauį amauį
Collective noun numangaiq
men
amangaiq
people

Examples of regular nouns in this class include naitima “widower”, nima “(male) neighbor”, nuiukuma “bachelor”, ainima “host” and kiuvuma “(male) fox”.

Nominative naitima
widower
nima
(male) neighbor
nuiukuma
bachelor
ainima
host
kiuvuma
(male) fox
Genitive naitimaįq nimaįq nuiukumaįq ainimaįq kiuvumaįq
Dative naitima nima nuiukuma ainima kiuvuma
Ablative naitimauį nimauį nuiukumauį ainimauį kiuvumauį
Collective noun naitingaiq ningaiq nuiukuangaiq ainingaiq kiuvuangaiq
A class

This class consists of non-human animate nouns, mostly animals. Nouns of this class form collective plurals.

The pronoun for this class is a.

Nominative a
it
Genitive aįq
Dative aia
Ablative

Examples of regular nouns in this class include uviu “female animal”, ta “male animal”, uaupisa “reptile”, viukia “goose” and kiuvua “fox”.

Nominative uviu
female animal
ta
male animal
uaupisa
reptile
viukia
goose
kiuvua
fox
Genitive uviuaįq taįq uaupisaįq viukiaįq kiuvuaįq
Dative uviua ta uaupisa viukia kiuvua
Ablative uvi ta uaupis viuki kiuvua
Collective noun uviuangaiq tangaiq uaupisingaiq viukitingaiq kiuvuangaiq
TIŲ class

This class consists of countable inanimate nouns. Nouns of this class form mass plurals.

The pronoun for this class is tių.

Nominative tių
it
Genitive tįq
Dative tiuva
Ablative tiuvį

A few irregular nouns in this class are iuvu “nose”, iakau “house”, pauq “shirt”, nasi “leg”, ainda “foot”, sata “eye” and kių “stone”.

Nominative iuvu
nose
iakau
house
pauq
shirt
nasi
leg
ainda
foot
sata
eye
kių
stone
Genitive iuvutįq iakaukįq paukįq nasitįq aindatįq sataitįq kiungįq
Dative iuvua iakaua paua nasia ainda sataia kiuha
Ablative iuv iaka pa nasi ainda sat kiu
Mass noun iuvuna iakauna paukuna nasina aindana sataina kiuhuna

A regular inflection table looks as follows:

Nominative ~u ~uq ~i ~iq ~a ~aq ~ų ~ųq ~į ~įq ~ą ~ąq
Genitive -pįq -tįq -kįq -mįq -ndįq -ngįq
Dative ~ua ~ia ~a -va -na -ha
Ablative ~uį ~aį -vį -nį -hį
Mass noun ~una ~puna ~ina ~tina ~aina ~kina ~vuna ~muna ~nina ~ndina ~hina ~ngina

Examples of regular nouns in this class include ndiuiuvu “smell”, savui “head”, aiq “wall”, napua “ear”, ngiaiųq “tooth”, hahaitaį “bloodline” and puą “room”.

Nominative ndiuiuvu
smell
savui
head
aiq
wall
napua
ear
ngiaiųq
tooth
hahaitaį
bloodline
puą
room
Genitive ndiuiuvupįq savuitįq aitįq napuakįq ngiaimįq hahaitandįq puangįq
Dative ndiuiuvua savuia aia napua ngiaiva hahaitana puaha
Ablative ndiuiuv savuį aį napu ngiai hahaita pua
Mass noun ndiuiuvuna savuina aitina napuaina ngiaimuna hahaitanina puahina

Uncountables

NGI class

This class consists of uncountable animate nouns, mostly environmental forces and natural phenomena. These nouns don't have plural forms and can't be formed from singular nouns of other classes.

The pronoun for this class is ngi.

Nominative ngi
it
Genitive ngįq
Dative ngia
Ablative ngiuį

Examples of regular nouns in this class include iangungi “earth”, aungi “sun”, iuiungi “ice”, tiaungi “star” and kiuvungi “river(s)”.

Nominative iangungi
earth
aungi
sun
iuiungi
ice
tiaungi
star
kiuvungi
river(s)
Genitive iangungįq aungįq iuiungįq tiaungįq kiuvungįq
Dative iangungia aungia iuiungia tiaungia kiuvungia
Ablative iangungiuį aungiuį iuiungiuį tiaungiuį kiuvungiuį
NGAIQ class

This class consists of collective animate nouns. Nouns of this class can be formed from singular nouns of the HAĮ, MA and A classes.

The pronoun for this class is ngaiq.

Nominative ngaiq
they all
Genitive ngaįq
Dative ngaia
Ablative ngaį

Examples of regular nouns in this class include vindasingaiq “the Vindasingaiq tribe”, hainingaiq “women”, numangaiq “men”, amangaiq “people” and uangaiq “vermin”.

Nominative vindasingaiq
the Vindasingaiq tribe
hainingaiq
women
numangaiq
men
amangaiq
people
uangaiq
vermin
Genitive vindasingaįq hainingaįq numangaįq amangaįq uangaįq
Dative vindasinga haininga numanga amanga uanga
Ablative vindasingauį hainingauį numangauį amangauį uangauį
NA class

This class consists of uncountable inanimate nouns. Nouns of this class can be formed from singular nouns of the TIŲ class.

The pronoun for this class is na.

Nominative na
it all
Genitive naįq
Dative naia
Ablative nauį

Examples of regular nouns in this class include kikaina “grass”, kiaina “sound”, vaina “jewelry”, nukuna “tools”, aiangana “travel” and piuna “fat, oil”.

Nominative kikaina
grass
kiaina
sound
vaina
jewelry
nukuna
tools
aiangana
travel
piuna
fat, oil
Genitive kikainaįq kiainaįq vainaįq nukunaįq aianganaįq piunaįq
Dative kikaina kiaina vaina nukuna aiangana piuna
Ablative kikainauį kiainauį vainauį nukunauį aianganauį piunauį

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

There is a class-gender split in first person singular and third person pronouns. Additionally, there is a clusivity distinction in first person plural pronouns.

Person Singular Plural
1. exc ihaį fem
iuma masc
ingaiq
1. inc haini
2. hai haingaiq
3. haį fem
ma masc
a an
tių inan
ngi env
ngaiq coll
na mn
Declension

First and second person pronouns:

Nominative ihaį
1sg fem
iuma
1sg masc
ingaiq
1pl exc
haini
1pl inc
hai
2sg
haingaiq
2pl
Genitive ihaįq iumaįq ingaįq hainingaįq haiungįq haingaįq
Dative ia inga hainia haia hainga
Ablative iuį ingauį hainiuį haį haingaį

Third person pronouns:

Nominative haį
3sg fem
ma
3sg masc
a
3sg an
tių
3sg inan
ngi
3sg/pl env
ngaiq
3sg/pl coll
na
3sg/pl mn
Genitive haįq maįq aįq tįq ngįq ngaįq naįq
Dative haina maia aia tiuva ngia ngaia naia
Ablative hainį mauį tiuvį ngiuį ngaį nauį

Demonstratives

The demonstrative determiners are:

  • įq this, here
  • kani that

Related adverbs are:

  • įq here
  • ihini there
  • į now
  • ita then
  • ingaų this way, in this manner

Interrogatives

The interrogative determiner is nga what, which.

There are following interrogative pronouns:

  • ngahaį what woman
  • nguma what man, what person
  • nga what animal
  • ngatių what thing, what
  • ngungi what force
  • ngangaiq what people
  • ngana what things

Additionally, following interrogative adverbs exist:

  • hini where
  • ta when
  • ngaų how

Generalizing quantifiers

The generalizing determiner is every, all.

There are following generalizing pronouns:

  • iuvungi every force
  • iuvuangaiq every person, everybody
  • iuvuna everything

Additionally, following generalizing adverbs exist:

  • iuvi everywhere
  • always
  • iuaų in every way

Indefinite quantifiers

There are following existential pronouns and determiners:

  • maisihaį some woman
  • maisima some man
  • ngaitingaiq some people, somebody
  • maindi, ngaindi somebody's
  • tiumi something

The following words can be used as existential and indefinite quantifiers:

  • vaisi one
  • ngaisi some
  • ana any, possibly some
  • hihi any, no matter which
  • nda another

An indefinite amount can be expressed using several different determiners:

  • uhi a little
  • ni too little
  • iai a lot
  • iaina too much
  • ndiaki most, almost all

Additionally, following indefinite adverbs exist:

  • hinisi somewhere
  • taisi somewhen, once
  • ngaumi somehow

Negative quantifiers

The negative determiner is vu no.

There are following negative pronouns:

  • vungi no force
  • vuangaiq no person, nobody
  • vuina nothing

Additionally, following negative adverbs exist:

  • vuivi nowhere
  • vuakį never
  • vuiaų in no way

Verbs

Adjectives and verbs are put into a common grammatical class.

The structure of an inflected verb looks as follows:

-2 -1 0 +1 +2
subject person object person / class root subject class irrealis (optional)

Verb prefixes are separated from the stem with a hyphen «-». This doesn't influence pronunciation and is only done to make the spelling more morphologically transparent.

Occurrences of the same vowel blend together, e.g. hai- + iukimiha-iukimi. Sometimes it can lead to ambiguities, e.g. iukimių can be analyzed either as ∅-iukim-ių or as i-iukim-ių.

Subject person prefixes

The following subject person prefixes can be applied to a verb:

i- — first person singular and first person plural exclusive:

  • aua be baldi-auaų I am bald, i-auaiq we are bald
  • naitaki be thirstyi-naitakaų I am thirsty, i-naitakaiq we are thirsty
  • iukimi be wetiukimių I am wet / theysg are wet, iukimaiq we are wet / theypl are wet (ambiguous forms)

haini- — first person plural inclusive:

  • aua be baldhaini-auaų we all are bald
  • naitaki be thirstyhaini-naitakaų we all are thirsty
  • iukimi be wethain-iukimių we all are wet

hai- — second person:

  • aua be baldhai-aua yousg are bald, hai-auaiq youpl are bald
  • naitaki be thirstyhai-naitaki yousg are thirsty, hai-naitakaiq youpl are thirsty
  • iukimi be wetha-iukimi yousg are wet, ha-iukimaiq youpl are wet

Third person is unmarked:

  • aua be baldauaų theysg are bald, auaiq theypl are bald
  • naitaki be thirstynaitakaų theysg are thirsty, naitakaiq theysg are thirsty
  • iukimi be wetiukimių I am wet / theysg are wet, iukimaiq we are wet / theypl are wet (ambiguous forms)

Object prefixes

The following object prefixes exist:

  • i- (1sg or 1pl exclusive), e.g. i-uahiq theypl fight me/us
  • haini- (1pl inclusive), e.g. haini-uahiq theypl fight us all
  • hai- (2sg or 2pl), e.g. hai-uahiq theypl fight you, ihai-uahių I fight you
  • ha(n)- (3sg feminine), e.g. han-uahiq theypl fight her, hainihan-uahių we all fight her
  • ma- (3sg masculine), e.g. ma-uahiq theypl fight him, haima-uahi yousg fight him
  • a- (3sg animal), e.g. a-uahiq theypl fight it, ia-uahiq we fight it
  • ti- (3sg inanimate), e.g. ti-uahiq theypl fight it, haiti-uahiq youpl fight it
  • ngi- (3sg/pl environmental), e.g. ngi-uahių theysg fight it, ingi-uahiq we fight it
  • nga- (3sg/pl collective), e.g. nga-uahių theysg fight thempl, hainga-uahi yousg fight them
  • na- (3sg/pl mass nouns), e.g. na-uahių theysg fight it all, ina-uahių I fight it all

In many cases the ambiguities are resolved with subject class endings, see below:

  • ha-iukuhai-i-iuku-u yousg rule over me (the ending suggests a 2sg subject)
  • ha-iukų∅-hai-iuku-ų theysg rule over you (the ending suggests a 3sg subject)

However, sometimes the ambiguities persist:

  • ha-iukuiqhai-i-iuku-uiq youpl rule over me or ∅-hai-iuku-uiq theypl rule over you

Subject class endings

Verbs are inflected into four forms:

  • I — used with 2sg subjects and with subjects of the ngi environmental class;
  • II — used with 1sg subjects (both masculine and feminine), 1pl inclusive subjects and with the haį feminine and ma masculine classes;
  • III — used with subjects of the a animal and tių inanimate classes;
  • PL — used with subjects of the ngaiq collective and na mass nouns classes.

Verbs are divided into six inflectional types, according to their conjugation pattern:

  • type 1a comprises most verbs with the root ending with a i u, this type covers around 30% of verbs;
  • type 1b comprises some of the verbs ending in a i and differs from the type 1a only in irrealis forms, this type covers around 20% of verbs;
  • type 1c comprises some of the verbs ending in a which turns to u in some forms, this type covers around 10% of verbs;
  • type 2, 3 and 4 comprise verbs with roots most often ending in a consonant, those types taken together cover around 40% of verbs.
Form Type
1a/1b 1c 2 3 4
I ~a ~i ~u ~a -i -i -i
II ~aų ~ių -ių -ių -aų
III ~au ~ia ~u ~u -u -a -a
PL ~aiq ~iq ~uiq ~aiq -aiq -aiq -aiq

Examples of inflected verbs:

vina-
be false
uhi-
be small
nanuku-
be useful
kianga-
be fruitful, be plentiful
iukiuv-
be wide
kini-
know
asik-
have taste
I vina uhi nanuku kianga iukiuvi kini asiki
II vin uh nanukų kiangų iukiuv kin asik
III vinau uhia nanuku kiangu iukiuvu kinia * asika
PL vinaiq uhiq nanukuiq kiangaiq iukiuvaiq kiniaiq * asikaiq
*) Please note that in the case of kini to know, the root to which the endings are added, is kini-, not kin-.

Irrealis endings

Form Type
1a 1b 1c 2 3 4
Irr I ~avi ~ivi ~uvi ~auvi ~iuvi ~uvi -uvi -ivi -ivi
Irr II ~avių ~ivių ~uvių ~auvių ~iuvių ~uvių -uvių -ivių -ivių
Irr III ~aviu ~iviu ~uviu ~auviu ~iuviu ~uviu -uviu -iviu -iviu
Irr PL ~aviaiq ~iviaiq ~uviaiq ~auviaiq ~iuviaiq ~uviaiq -uviaiq -iviaiq -iviaiq

Examples of inflected verbs:

vina-
be false
ndiakika-
graze
kianga-
be fruitful, be plentiful
iukiuv-
be wide
kini-
know
asik-
have taste
Irr I vinavi ndiakikauvi kianguvi iukiuvuvi kinivi asikivi
Irr II vinavių ndiakikauvių kianguvių iukiuvuvių kinivių asikivių
Irr III vinaviu ndiakikauviu kianguviu iukiuvuviu kiniviu asikiviu
Irr PL vinaviaiq ndiakikauviaiq kianguviaiq iukiuvuviaiq kiniviaiq asikiviaiq

Numerals

Number Cardinal Ordinal Fractional
0 (vuina) (vuinaįq)
1 vaisi vainisi
2 kuau kuapįq niq
3 pią pinį tipią
4 ndaisi ndainisi ni
5 ndauva ndainiva tindauva
6 ndai ndaini tindai
7 ndaupią ndaupinį tindaupią
8 inda ininda tinda
9 uhina uhinatįq tiuhina
10 kiumi kinimi tikiumi

Sample texts

Deraighaw creed

  • Iti-sihaiq ingaįq sihaį. Ndungiq pauhuangaiq kivisisingaiq inga ti-tiungaiq vindiungia.
    We speak our language. The bright spirits caretakers gave it to us by the wind.
Iti-sihaiq
i-ti-sih-aiq
1ex-3in-speak-pl
ingaįq
i-ngaįq
1ex-pl.gen
sihaį.
sihaį
language
We speak our language.
Ndungiq
∅-ndungi-iq
3.s-be.bright-pl
pauhuangaiq
pauhu-ngaiq
spirit-coll.pl
kivisisingaiq
kivisisi-ngaiq
caretaker-coll.pl
inga
i-nga
1ex-pl.dat
ti-tiungaiq
∅-ti-tiung-aiq
3.s-3in-give-pl
vindiungia.
vindiungi-a
wind-abl
The bright spirits caretakers gave it to us by the wind.

Wendoth poetry (“Cattle die”)

A loose adaptation of the Kejazang ouhyehąsh poem.

  • Hahaiq vau ndiakikaiq.
    Hahaitaiq įq ngiumaiq.
    Iuvuangaįq aiaį sia iuvamia.
    Hihia vaisi takau,
    Hihau vu ti-ndandau,
    Tataindaį ngiumisingaįq pupia.
    What grazes, will depart.
    Who's kinsman here, will die.
    Everybody's time will reach an end.
    There is one thing
    That is not tarnished,
    A good memory of the dead.
Hahaiq
∅-haha-aiq
3.s-depart-pl
vau
vau
rel
ndiakikaiq.
∅-ndiakika-aiq
3.s-graze-pl
What grazes, will depart.
Hahaitaiq
∅-hahait-aiq
3.s-be.related-pl
įq
įq
here
ngiumaiq.
∅-ngium-aiq
3.s-die-pl
Who's kinsman here, will die.
Iuvuangaįq
iuvu-ngaįq
everybody-coll.pl.gen
aiaį
aiaį
time
sia
∅-si-a
3.s-get-iii
iuvamia.
iuvami-a
end-dat
Everybody's time will reach an end.
Hihia
∅-hihi-ia
3.s-exist-iii
vaisi
vaisi
one
takau,
takau
thing
There is one thing
Hihau
hihau
wound
vu
vu
neg
ti-ndandau,
∅-ti-ndandau-u
3.s-3in-corrupt-iii
That is not tarnished,
Tataindaį
tataindaį
memory
ngiumisingaįq
ngiumisi-ngaįq
dead.person-coll.pl.gen
pupia.
∅-pupi-ia
3.s-be.good-iii
A good memory of the dead.