| To Be Continued...|
Thedukeofnuke is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
| Aysuchi Meshi |
|Period||c. -1000 YP|
|Spoken in||Mexi valley|
|Writing system||adopted Ndak script|
|Classification|| Eigə-Isthmus languages |
|Basic word order||SVO, head-initial|
Aysuchi Meshi is the native name for the language of the Meshi people. In this article it is simply referred to as Meshi.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Morphology
- 3 Syntax
- 4 Sample
- 5 See also
|Plosive||p · b||t · d||ʧ · ʤ||k · ɡ|
|Fricative||f · v||s · z||ʃ · ʒ|
|Approximant||w||ɹ · l||j|
/ʧ ʤ ʃ ʒ ɹ j/ are transcribed ch j sh zh r y. All other consonants are transcribed as in IPA or the Latin-text equivalent.
/f v/ are very marginal: in native words, /f/ only appears before /w/, and /v/ is only distinguished from /w/ initially and intervocalically.
/e/ has a broad range of realisations; it is usually [ɛ] in closed syllables, and reduces to [ə] when adjacent to a stressed syllable.
The diphthongs /aj aw/ are transcribed ay aw. In some respects these behave as vowels (they can be followed by a coda consonant) and in others they behave as vowel-consonant sequences (they can be followed by a vowel).
Syllable structure is (C)(G)V(C), where C is a consonant, V is a vowel or phonemic diphthong, and G is a glide (y or w).
Clusters of two obstruents or nasals in any combination or order are forbidden.
Vowel hiatus is broken up by an epenthetic glide or, in some cases, v.
The clusters ty dy sy zy always simplify to post-alveolar ch j sh zh.
Sound changes from Proto-Eigə Valley
- *a̤j *a̤w > *əj *əw
- phonation contrast becomes non-phonemic
- *aj *aw → e o
- *ʔ → Ø / (if this is still present in PEV)
- *ts *dz → t d / in onsets
- *ts *dz → s z / elsewhere
- *w → v / #_ , V_V
- *a *e *o → Ø / _#
- *m̩ → *am / _[+obstruent]
- nasals assimilate in place to a following obstruent
- C → Ø / _# in most polysyllabic words; some clusters are simplified rather than deleted
- C → Ø / C_#
- *e *o → i u / including diphthongs
- *kw *gw → fw zw
- [+obstruent] → Ø / [+nasal]_, [+obstruent]_
- t d s z → ʧ ʤ ʃ ʒ / _i
- *iw *uj → *ø → e / _C, _#
- *uj → *øj → ej / _V
- *ij *uw → *əj *əw
- *əj *əw → aj aw
- *θ *ð → s z
- *ŋ → g / V_V
- *ŋ → j / u_, a_
- *ŋ → Ø (elsewhere)
- *r *l → j w / C_
- tj dj sj zj → ʧ ʤ ʃ ʒ (persistent)
Extensive apocope between PEV and Meshi has resulted in the loss of most of PEV's suffixes, with the result that Meshi is largely isolating, with little inflectional morphology.
Nouns inflect for number by partial or full reduplication. For count nouns, this forms plurals, while for mass nouns it indicates a large quantity. It is always optional, and rarely used with a quantifier.
The reduplicated form of a noun can be formed in one of three ways:
- Monosyllabic nouns reduplicate the full syllable if they end in a vowel or approximant, or the last (G)V(G)C if they end in an obstruent or nasal. Hence twa "gold" → twatwa "lots of gold"; tes "lake" → teses "lakes".
- Polysyllabic nouns reduplicate the first C(G)V (or the first VC if they begin in a vowel). Hence sanu "village" → sasanu "villages", aku "source" → akaku "sources".
- A number of common nouns are irregular, usually combining one of the above processes with a consonant change; this is most common for nouns ending in a nasal consonant. Hence bwi "worm" → bwimi "worms", tum "story" → tunum "stories; tradition".
Meshi personal pronoun inflections derive transparently from case prepositions. The former dative has taken on an accusative role.
Some correlatives are also known for Meshi:
The only verbal inflection in Meshi that can clearly be described as such is the atelic, deriving from the PEI J-grade. This is formed either by ablaut or infixing, depending on the last vowel of the root:
- All verbs in a, and most in i and u, undergo ablaut.
- All verbs in e ay aw, and some in i and u, undergo infixing. The form of infix is not predictable for verbs in u or e, and must be learned.
Meshi retains reflexes of the stem vowels, although apocope has worn away the active suffix *-ʔa. These are somewhere between inflectional and derivational, creating "families" of related verbs.
| After a
| After a|
| Middle of
- The causative usually increases valency by one, while the anticausative decreases it by one.
- The causative suffix -i palatalises word-final t d s z to ch j sh zh.
- Some verbs have a slightly different form when taking stem suffixes, typically adding an intrusive consonant; this is noted in the lexicon.
Examples of stem suffixes:
- Root (active) ays "talk to"
- Causative ayshi "introduce"
- Anticausative aysu "speak"
- Middle of causative ayse "answer"
Other verbal forms
The highly productive suffix -chi nominalises verbs. It always follows a stem suffix - if there is none, an epenthetic -a- is added (a remnant of the old active suffix). For example, ays "talk to" becomes aysachi "talking, conversation"; the anticausative aysu "speak" becomes aysuchi "speech, language", as in the name of the language.
The suffix -yu forms agentive nouns. For example, deb "marry" has the agentive debyu "bride or groom".
Either of these particles can be combined with the atelic: for example ayisachi, the nominalised active atelic of ays, means "address, invocation".
The particle ga before the verb negates it.
The particle git forms reflexives (a single subject affecting themself) and saz forms reciprocals (each subject affecting the other), both of which follow the verb.
Adjectives behave similarly to verbs. They can take the same nominaliser -chi and can form predicative expressions without a copula.
Basic constituent order
The default word order is SVO:
Direct objects precede indirect objects:
OSV order can be used to emphasise the object as long as the meaning remains clear:
Determiners (demonstratives and quantifiers) precede the noun, while adjectives and genitives follow it.
Appositives immediately follow the head noun, as do ethnonyms.
Zaryuches pishi in awkwai chi zus il pad mwu Kaswun.
Mus Kasad Kaswun nyaz zwip gwun Dak, am wu bwur chima nakes ji zalu. Nakak zan ni wu zasa chi Meshi.