User:Pole, the/Hamoluan

From AkanaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Hamoluan language (séŋuŋa ŋalmólu language of the Hamolu) is one of the languages spoken in Southern Tuysafa.



labial alveolar palatal velar glottal
nasal /m/ /n/ /ɲ/ /ŋ/
plosive /p/ /t/ /c/ /k/
fricative /s/ /h/
sonoric /l/ /j/ /w/


  • /ɲ j/ are written ‹ñ y›.
  • No clusters are permitten in onsets and codas. Syllable-finally only nasals and semivowels are permitted.
  • /p t c k/ are realized as [b d ɟ ɡ] ‹b d j g› after nasals; it happens also at word boundaries, e.g. linin + táŋlinin dáŋ.


front central back
close i (ɨ) u
mid e ə o
open a


  • [ɨ] is the stressed allophone of /i/ in some dialects. It is not contrastive, though.
  • Only /i e a o/ can be stressed. If so, they are written ‹í é á ó›.
  • Initial schwa is elided after another word-final vowel, unstressed /i u/ become [j w], e.g. əndé + əlŋéəndé ’lŋé.


The most characteristic feature of Imiluan morphology is lack of any definite division between nouns, adjectives and verbs. The largest open word class will be therefore just named ‘nominals’.

Among nominals one actual distinction can be drawn: they can be divided into stative and dynamic nominals. ‘Stative’ covers mostly what we would call nouns, adjective and stative intransitive verbs. ‘Dynamic’ covers dynamic and transitive verbs.

Subject person and number

person singular plural
1st əl- ~ l- lən- ~ əln-
2nd əŋ- ~ ŋ- ŋən- ~ əŋn-
3rd fem. ñə- ŋa-
masc. mo-
neut. i- ~ y- ən- ~ n-


  • ŋa- and ən- ~ n- are used commonly to denote number, e.g. ŋaén women = they are women.
  • i- ~ y- can also show definiteness, e.g. yén that woman.
  • The rest of these are used only in predicative context, e.g. én womanñəén she is a woman.
  • hamó human and its derivatives have an irregular plural: ŋalmó.


Nominals are negated by prefixing əm- ~ m-. Often, for emphasis, each word in the clause is negated:

  • Əlnóni ’lló yéŋ.
    I see the sun now.
  • Məlnóni məlló ’myéŋ.
    I see no sun now.


Stative nominals

All stative nominals are inherently imperfective.

Appropriate dynamic inchoative nominals are created by adding -so to the stem, e.g. əndé motherəndéso to become a mother = to give birth.

Another, less often used, suffix is -semə denoting delimitatives, e.g. naél to eatnaélsemə to eat for a given time.

Dynamic nominals

Dynamic nominals are perfective by default, e.g. kéha to cut (once).

These can be turned into imperfective, by:

  • most often, reduplicating the first syllable of the nominal (é á í ó change into e e ə ə), e.g. kéhakekéha;
  • reduplicating the first consonant before initial schwa, e.g. ənsónənsó;
  • adding w y u i əl before initial u i w y l, e.g. lóyəllóy;
  • adding ñ before initial stressed vowel, e.g. éneñéne.

Both perfective and imperfective dynamic nominals can be transformed into their passive (stative) counterparts. It is done by adding -u ~ -w.


A nominal can be marked for the person and number of its secondary argument. It can be a genitive or possessive argument (for stative nominals) or an object (for dynamic nominals), e.g. əndé motherəndélən our mother; moteó he hatesmoteólən he hates us.

person singular plural
1st -əl ~ -l -lən
2nd -əŋ ~ -ŋən
3rd fem. -ñə -ŋa
masc. -mo
neut. -i ~ -y -ən ~ -n

These affixes can be used to create an attributive phrase, e.g. séŋuŋa their language + ŋalmólu the Hamoluséŋuŋa ŋalmólu language of the Hamolu.


1. óse
3. táŋ
4. nóse
5. nóm
6. nomó
7. nomyá
8. nomdáŋ
9. nomnóse
10. əmjéna
11. əmjena ó
12. əmjena yá
20. icéna
30. tañéna
40. nocéna
50. nomjéna
60. noməmjéna
70. nomicéna
80. nomdañéna
90. nomnocéna
100. léin
101. linde ó
200. yá léin
1000. léyñena
1001. liñenade ó
2014. yá liñenade mjena nóse
9999. nomnóse liñenade nomnóse linde nomnocena nomnóse