Ronc Tyu/Lexicon

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Ronc Tyu morphology PoS gloss notes
an pl nan n.i amphora, flask (ceramicware for liquids)
ao pass hao, attr kao v.tr want
atáonc (no sgv) n.i.coll history
ban adv today
bao pl mbao n.i corner, edge, tip, peak
bao pp.n towards, in the direction of; intended for
baon sgv byaon n.i.coll bread
be sgv bye n.i.coll message, news, facts, information
attr kwè v.it be drunk, be intoxicated
beanc attr kweanc v.it laugh
beanc nu svc.tr make fun of ‘laugh and push’
bei attr kwei v.it boast, exaggerate
pass hpí, attr kwí v.tr catch, capture
bìc attr kwìc v.it do once
binc pl mbinc n.i ritual, ceremony
blao (no pl) n.a.poss eclipse
blei pass hpsei, attr giblei v.tr imitate
bli attr gibli v.it be disgusting; be worthless
blo attr gublo v.it+ depart, leave, go away (from something)
blóun pl psóun n.a lion
bóc attr kwóc v.it itch
bonc cj under the circumstance that (introduces manner subclauses)
bou attr kwou v.it be wet, be damp
bòu pass hpòu, attr kwòu v.tr be/move perpendicular to attr ‘perpendicular’
bra attr gabra v.it stay, remain
brec pl orà n.a.poss spirit, soul, personality
bri attr gibri v.it be evil, be malicious
brinc attr gibrinc v.it be secret, be confidential, be hidden
brinc kóan tóc svc.tr steal ‘seize and remove secretly’
bronc pass hpronc attr gubronc v.tr regret
attr v.it be windy (of weather)
attr v.it swim, float
bún pron.a (2pc pronoun)
bùn pron.a (relative pronoun: animate)
bwá pass hpwá, attr gubwá v.tr be similar to, be like, resemble
bwác attr gubwác v.it suffer
bwác fwi svc.it have a fever ‘suffer and burn’
bwaon (no sgv) n.i.coll dough
bwí attr gubwí v.it be bright
bwíc attr gubwíc v.it be thin (3D)
bwìc pass hpwìc, attr gubwìc v.tr nudge, urge, insist
bwín pass hpwín, attr gubwín v.tr love, be fond of (non-sexual affection)
bwìn pass hpwìn, attr gubwìn v.tr clean, tidy up
bwóu pass hpwóu, attr gubwóu v.tr come up with, invent
byao pass hpyao, attr gibyao v.tr support, help
byao xònc wa svc.tr save sb.’s life ‘support, rescue, and protect’
byen cj by doing (introduces manner subclauses)
byo pl mbyo n.i stick, twig, shaft
byùc attr gibyùc v.it be ambitious
bzèi cj / pp.v due to (the fact that), because (of) (introduces reason subclauses (formal register) when used as a conjunction)
bzìc attr gibzìc v.it be delicate, be fragile
bźec pass hpśec, attr gibźec v.tr greet, welcome
da attr ksa v.it be powerful, be influential
dadào pl ndadào n.i atlatl (spear-thrower)
dagàc pl ndagàc n.i handle (for carrying)
dahsào (no sgv) n.i.coll mixture
dán pass htán, attr ksán v.tr teach (practical skills)
dandáen pass htandáen, attr glandáen v.tr dismiss, reject, repudiate
dandza attr glandza v.it be in trance
danggae attr glanggae v.it be cruel, be bloody
danggan attr glanggan v.it be difficult, be problematic
dao attr ksao v.it fly
dào pass htào, attr ksào v.tr convince, persuade
dàon attr ksàon v.it dare, venture, take a chance
dec sgv dzec n.i.coll barn, stables
dei pass htei, attr ksei v.tr share, distribute
didyèi attr glidyèi v.it be critically ill
didyúc pl ndidyúc n.i topic (of conversation)
diec pl dac n.i box, case
dihmi pl ndihmi n.i clasp, brooch, fibula
dimbléi attr glimbléi v.it be cloudy (of weather)
dinyù pl ndinyù n.i lock
dinggéc attr glinggéc v.it be colorful
dlá (no sgv) n.i.coll glue
dlae pass htlae, attr klae v.tr steer, navigate
dlíe pl dlác n.a fist
dlò (no attr) v.it spec it is possible (impersonal verb, requires a complement clause as object)
dlu pl ndlu n.i free-standing wall, fortification, barrier, fence
do attr dlo v.it+ come, approach (towards something)
dòc qu neither, none (of a few) (+ du/pc)
dóc attr ksóc v.it be heavy, be massive
dou pass htou, attr ksou v.tr indicate, be evidence for (requires inanimate subject)
drá pass htrá, attr krá v.tr press, poke
drác pass htrác, attr krác v.tr pillage, sack
drac attr krac v.it be holy, be sacred, be magical
drae attr krae v.it do twice
dráo attr kráo v.it be eager, be motivated
drenc cj so, therefore (introduces result subclauses (result of punctual event))
dric pass htric, attr kric v.tr attack
dro (no attr) v.it spec do the same (proverb, can stand in for any verb phrase with the same object or no object)
dròc attr kròc v.it do three times
dróu pl ndróu n.i field
dru pass htru, attr kru v.tr curse, condemn
drúnc pl ndrúnc n.i ring (jewelry)
drundronc attr grundronc v.it exhaust oneself
dudźoc pl ndudźoc n.i grate, grill
duhrù pl nduhrù n.a talisman
dumbwáo attr glumbwáo v.it be welcoming, be hospitable
dunó pl ndunó n.i chisel
dùonc attr ksùonc v.it be pregnant
dwá pass htwá, attr gudwá v.tr understand
dwao attr gudwao v.it do several times, do every now and then
dwenc attr gudwenc v.it appreciate, be grateful
dwic sgv diec n.i.coll.poss quarrel, strife, conflict, rivalry
dyá (no attr) v.it spec it is required; should (impersonal verb, deontic necessity)
dyáe attr gidyáe v.it be polite
dyao (no sgv) n.a.coll enemies (as a group)
dye pl ndye n.i rowboat, canoe
dyèi attr gidyèi v.it be sick, be ill
dyen cj so that (introduces purpose subclauses)
dyò attr gidyò v.it be loud, make noise
dyóu pl tyóc n.a knee
dyòun attr gidyòun v.it kneel, squat, crouch
dzá qu all (of a few) (+ pc)
dza pass htsa, attr ksa v.tr dig
dza li svc.tr plow ‘dig and pull’
dza ndè svc.tr bury ‘dig and keep’
dzac pass htsac, attr ksac v.tr finish, complete
dzèa attr ksèa v.it be creative, have an idea
dzèc sgv dréi n.a.coll swarm of insects
dzéi pass htséi, attr kséi v.tr declare, announce
dzí pl ndzí n.i necklace
dzì attr ksì v.it be full (of food)
dzic pass htsic, attr ksic v.tr go through, pass through
dzó pron.a the same one (animate)
dzóc pass htsóc, attr ksóc v.tr disconnect, loosen, untie
dzoc sgv dźoc n.i.coll pine trees
dzòc qu either, any (of a few) (+ du/pc)
dzónc attr ksónc v.it be true, be correct
dzùn pass htsùn, attr ksùn v.tr contain, be filled with attr ‘containing’
dzùnc adv four times (multiplier)
dzùo attr ksùo v.it be poisonous
dźao (no sgv) n.i.coll leaves
dźaon pl htśaon n.a salmon
dźé pron.a (1pc pronoun)
dźea (no sgv) n.i.coll willow trees
dźéc (no attr) v.it spec it is desired; may...! (impersonal verb)
dźei (no sgv) n.i.coll mushrooms
dźi attr kśi v.it+ come, approach (towards someone other than speaker or listener)
dźi syu svc.tr visit ‘come and meet’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
dźìc attr kśìc v.it commit incest
dźie attr kśie v.it be sharp
dźoc pl ndźoc n.i oven
e cj or (used with clauses)
ec attr kec v.it return, come back
emàn (no sgv) n.a.coll morning
en pass hen, attr ken v.tr fight
fa pp.v with, accompanied by
fae attr gwae v.it fall
faen pass hfaen, attr gwaen v.tr sing
fao sgv fyao n.i.coll scales (of fish or reptiles)
fào attr gwào v.it be together
faonc pl honc n.a skin
fe pass hfe, attr gwe v.tr keep, raise (domesticated animals)
fec pl fwéc n.a warrior
fi pass hfi, attr gwi v.tr wrap, cover
fi mó śea svc.tr cover sth. completely ‘wrap, cover, and hide’
fo pl mbo n.i pan
foc pl fwóc n.a bug, beetle
fou attr gwou v.it pass, move on, go forward
fun attr gun v.it melt
fùn (no attr) v.it spec it is good (impersonal verb)
fwae sgv fyae n.a.coll landslide
fwanc-swín (no pl) n.a.poss stepchild, child-in-law
fwei pass hfwei, attr guvwei v.tr slap, beat, hit
fwenc pl mbenc n.a river
fwi attr guvwi v.it burn (intransitive)
fwic pl mbic n.i pole, pillar, column, tree trunk
fwin sgv fyun n.a.coll.poss fate, destiny, luck
fwinc pass hfwinc, attr guvwinc v.tr think, reflect, consider, assume
fwoc pl mboc n.i path, route, road
fyao pl fwáo n.a.poss friend
fyao pass hfyao, attr givyao v.tr pour (of liquids), strew (of granular masses)
fyao bwìn svc.tr wash ‘pour and clean’
fyao bwìn soc gónc svc.tr take care of, raise (children) ‘pour, wash, give, and feed’
fye pl fwé n.a brother
fyec attr givyec v.it happen, occur
fyei pl hsèi n.a wasp
fyein qu 5
fyou attr givyou v.it be blind
ga pl ngga n.i earring (jewelry)
gáe (no sgv) n.i.coll respect, social standing
gáo pl góc n.i oar, paddle
gao pp.n in the middle of
(no sgv) n.i.coll feces
gein sgv gyein n.a.coll hail (weather)
ginggéc (no pl) n.a rainbow
glà sgv gzà n.i.coll firewood
gónc pass hkónc, attr kyónc v.tr feed, nourish
gonc sgv gyunc n.i.coll food; meal (event of eating)
gou pl hkou n.a female dog, bitch
gra attr gagra v.it climb, go up
grac cj with the result that (introduces result subclauses (result of process))
grèa attr gigrèa v.it limp
grec sgv ksec n.i.coll jewellery
gréi (no sgv) n.i.coll bottom (of a river or lake)
gro (no sgv) n.i.coll midden, waste heap
gròn sgv gyòn n.i.coll beach, gravel bank
grunc attr gugrunc v.it fast (abstain from eating)
gu (no pl) n.i.poss death
guc attr kyuc v.it take revenge
gundùn pass hkundùn, attr gindùn v.tr sew
guo attr kyuo v.it be angry
gwae sgv gyae n.i.coll rules, laws, traditions
gwe pl n.a spider
gwoc sgv gwa n.i.coll pair of shoes
gyác pass hkyác, attr gigyác v.tr control, manage, rule, govern
gyáe pass hkyáe, attr gigyáe v.tr imagine
gyào pron.i (relative pronoun: inanimate)
gyè attr gigyè v.it move sideways, shift one's position
gyè lin svc.it lie down ‘shift one's position and lie’
gyè pùn svc.it stand up ‘shift one's position and stand’
gyè té svc.it sit down ‘shift one's position and sit’
gyoa pass hkyoa, attr gigyoa v.tr count
gyóc pass hkyóc, attr gigyóc v.tr kick
gzo det / qu second (ordinal number)
gzòu pl nggzòu n.i window
ha pass hxa, attr v.tr step on
hac qu each (member of a collection) (+ sgv)
hae attr káe v.it spec it is likely, it is probable (impersonal verb)
han (no pl) n.a moon
hanào (no pl) n.i ritual site
hao sgv hmáo n.a.coll siblings
haon pl hxon n.a.poss widow, widower
he pl fwé n.a mouse, rat
he-ngkun pl fwé-ngkun n.a hedgehog ‘needle-mouse’
heanc attr kéanc v.it feel melancholic, feel nostalgic
hec pass héc, attr kéc v.tr hew (with an axe)
hei pron.a (1pl pronoun)
hei pl hae n.a.poss companion, fellow, coworker
hfyáon attr gihfyáon v.it rush, hurry, do sth. hastily
hic pass híc, attr tśíc v.tr realize, become aware of
hihtsea cj in the unlikely event that (introduces conditional subclauses)
hinc pl fwinc n.a jaw, chin
hindzic (no pl) n.i camp
hinggec (no pl) n.i fireplace
hká (no pl) n.i hearth
hka gónc svc.tr breastfeed ‘lactate and feed’
hkáe pron.i (3i.du pronoun)
hku pass huhku, attr guhku v.tr scream at attr ‘screaming’
hkwae pl fwáe n.a totem animal
hkwi pl ngkwi n.i blanket
hkwì cj / pp.v in the manner of, in such a way that (introduces manner subclauses when used as a conjunction)
hlán sgv hlíen n.i.coll moonflower
hláo pass hahláo, attr tláo v.tr ask, plead, request (sth.)
hli pl fwá n.a snake
hli-zèi pl fwá-zèi n.a grass snake
hlíc (no sgv) n.i.coll soup, stew
hlin (no pl) n.a worm
hlo sgv syo n.i.coll beans
hlou pass huhlou, attr tlou v.tr smell, perceive a scent
hlou kyá svc.tr find intuitively, stumble upon ‘smell and arrive’
hlú sgv fyú n.i.coll poplar trees
hluc sgv syuc n.i.coll sand
hlun (no sgv) n.a.coll late winter / early spring
hmào (no sgv) n.a.coll twilight, red sky (at dawn and dusk)
hmi cj for as long as (introduces duration subclauses)
hmi pass fwí, attr gwi v.tr squeeze, pinch, be tight against
hmóc (no pl) n.i valley
hngoc (no pl) n.i quarry, stone pit
ho pl fwó n.a omen, portent, prophecy
hoa sgv yóa n.a.coll lungs
hoc adv twice (multiplier)
hóu pass fóu, attr kóu v.tr call, shout attr ‘calling, shouting’
hóu dźi syu svc.tr invite ‘call, come, and meet’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
hóu pou nàc svc.tr gather, summon (people) ‘call, find, and take’
hpan cj when (during the day) (introduces time subclauses)
hpi cj / pp.v while, during (a longer timeframe) (introduces time subclauses when used as a conjunction)
hpúoc attr guhpúoc v.it lay eggs
hra-tra (no sgv) n.a.coll lightning
hrào pass hahrào, attr dào v.tr participate, join
hréc (no attr) v.it spec (question verb) (impersonal verb, requires a complement clause as object)
hrèc (no sgv) n.a.coll band, tribe, ethnic group
hríe attr kríe v.it collapse, fall apart, decay, rot
hríe hkú tú svc.it break apart ‘collapse, be broken, and be defunct’
hru (no pl) n.i detail, characteristic feature
hrùn attr dùn v.it be whole, be complete, be functional
hśac attr kśac v.it be ready, be finished
htèin cj when (in the future) (introduces time subclauses)
htlanc cj / pp.v while, during (a short timeframe) (introduces time subclauses when used as a conjunction)
htlinc cj when finally; as soon as (introduces time subclauses)
hto pron.i the same one (inanimate)
htrenc cj when (during the night) (introduces time subclauses)
htroa attr v.it lose, fail; very (when used in a SVC with a negative quality verb)
htsao pl ntsao n.i knife
htséi cj when (in the past) (introduces time subclauses)
htsí adv now
htsi (no pl) n.a belly, stomach
htśenc (no pl) n.a carp
hun attr kún v.it be old (of people and animals)
hun (no attr) v.it spec it seems, it is obvious (impersonal verb)
húnc sgv ngkwac n.a.coll council of elders
huo attr kúo v.it be bad
húoc pass fúoc, attr kúoc v.tr reach out for
húoc bí lóc li soc dźi svc.tr pull sb. close ‘reach out, catch, hold, pull, and cause to come’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
hxaenc sgv hśinc n.a.coll.poss mind, thoughts sgv ‘idea, thought (of sb.)’
idré (no pl) n.i anus
idric pass hidric, attr gidric v.tr complain about
ihtrìc pl nihtrìc n.i jewel, gemstone
attr gyá v.it be crooked, be bent
ka pass ká, attr gya v.tr need, lack, miss
kác pl kwác n.a male dog, hound
kàc pass hkàc, attr gyàc v.tr bear, carry
káe qu 2
káenc pl kwáenc n.a cat
kan pass kán, attr gyan v.tr resist, ward off
kànc sgv tśànc n.i.coll meat, flesh, muscle
kao det middle, intermediate
kào pass hkào, attr gyào v.tr offer, sell, trade away
kào paec svc.tr trade ‘offer and acquire’
kàonc sgv kyùnc n.i.coll chalk, limestone
ke pp.n at the rear of, behind
cj but, however (used with clauses)
sgv kyè n.i.coll mountain range
kèa pass hkèa, attr gyèa v.tr hit, strike (used in SVC to indicate a surprising outcome)
kéc attr gyéc v.it play (music)
kec sgv tśec n.a.coll fire
kèc sgv n.a.coll ancestors
kéi pl nggéi n.i shovel, scoop
kèi attr gyèi v.it+ depart, leave, go away (from listener)
kein attr gyein v.it+ depart, leave, go away (from speaker)
kén sgv kyén n.i.coll task, mission, quest, project
kenc pass kénc, attr gyenc v.tr decide, judge
kenc fwei xanc svc.tr punish ‘decide, hit, and injure’
ki det this
kinc pl ngginc n.i the space within a hollow tree
ko adv only, merely, barely, just, simply
ko pass kó, attr gyo v.tr touch, get in contact with
ko drá svc.tr check, test ‘touch and poke’
pass hkò, attr gyò v.tr borrow (temporary transfer of possession in either direction)
kò mi svc.tr borrow ‘borrow and receive’
kò soc svc.tr lend ‘borrow and give’
kóa pl nggóa n.i hole, opening
koa sgv kyoa n.i.coll ash trees
kòa det last, final
kóan pass hkóan, attr gyóan v.tr seize, conquer
kóc sgv n.i.coll buttocks
kónc pass hkónc, attr gyónc v.tr bite
kóu qu 18
kòu pass hkòu, attr gyòu v.tr lie to, deceive
koun pl nggoun n.i weapon (general term)
kòun attr gyòun v.it go nowhere in particular, move around, roam, wander
ksèc attr gigzèc v.it lead, guide
ksùn (no sgv) n.i.coll coast (of the ocean)
pass hkú, attr gyú v.tr break, destroy
det that
kuc pron.a (3a.du pronoun)
kun sgv tśun n.a.coll thunder
kúnc pass hkúnc, attr gyúnc v.tr surprise, catch sb. off guard, shock
kwá attr gugwá v.it go down, descend
kwac pl ngwèi n.a woman
kwàe sgv kyàe n.i.coll heap, batch, amount (of sth.)
kwé sgv kyé n.i.coll ground, floor
kwè (no pl) n.a vagina, vulva
kwéi attr gugwéi v.it be warm, be hot (of weather)
kwei pl nggwei n.i club, bludgeon
kwenc (no pl) n.a eel
kwì sgv n.i.coll manner, method, way
kwóa attr gugwóa v.it defecate, poo
kyá pass hkyá, attr gíe v.tr reach, arrive at
kyao pl nggyao n.i disease, illness
kyèi pl n.i jar, bowl
kyòc sgv kàe n.a.coll twins
kyú (no sgv) n.i.coll moss
kyuc attr gigyuc v.it be straight
pass hlá, attr tlá v.tr build, create, manufacture
lá lei svc.tr craft, create (artwork) ‘build and decorate’
lá nàc svc.tr create for oneself ‘build and take’
la adv six times (multiplier)
la attr tla v.it be female
la yé qu 36 ‘six times six’
lác qu 12
lae attr tlae v.it be dangerous
làe attr tlàe v.it be calm, be clear, be sunny (of weather)
laláo pass hlaláo, attr glaláo v.tr examine, study
lánc sgv línc n.a.coll time sgv ‘moment; situation’
láo pass hláo, attr tláo v.tr watch, look at
le pl hloa n.a dove
lea pass léa, attr tlea v.tr go into, enter
léac (no pl) n.a.poss lover, sex partner
léc pass hléc, attr tléc v.tr waste, squander
lec pass léc, attr tlec v.tr learn (practical skills) (reduplicated habitual lec lec: ‘train, practice’)
léi sgv yéi n.a.coll cloud(s)
lei pass léi, attr tlei v.tr decorate
lenc sgv yenc n.i.coll forest of deciduous trees
sgv n.i.coll turnips
li pass lí, attr tli v.tr pull
li hmi ... hka svc.tr milk (animals) ‘pull, squeeze, and cause to lactate’
li soc tsì svc.tr drag ‘pull and cause to come’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
li tào svc.tr shoot (arrows) ‘pull and throw’
líc attr tlíc v.it be thin (2D)
lic sgv yec n.i.coll cloth, fabric
ligyèc (no sgv) n.i.coll birch trees
lín attr tlín v.it be honest
lin attr tlin v.it lie, recline
lin kòun svc.it crawl ‘lie and move around’
pp.v for, to (dative)
attr tló v.it aux must, should attr ‘required, obligatory’
lo attr tlo v.it aux become
lóa adv there
lóc pass hlóc, attr tlóc v.tr hold, cling to pass ‘belong to’
lóc sruo svc.tr take care of, look after (inanimate things) ‘hold and wait’
loc attr tloc v.it be rough (of weather)
lou pl ndlou n.i drop (of water)
pass hlú, attr tlú v.tr bind, tie
lú lóc svc.tr attach, fasten ‘tie and hold’
lúc pl hlúc n.a snail
luc pl hluc n.a toe
lulú pass hlulú, attr tlulú v.tr tie down sb.
lunc attr tlunc v.it be thick (2D)
lùo pass hlùo, attr tlùo v.tr be worried about
sgv myá n.i.coll ditch, moat, trench, furrow
ma attr ba v.it die
(no sgv) n.a.coll sunset, sundown, late afternoon
mác det / qu first (ordinal number)
màc sgv myèc n.i.coll village sgv ‘house’
mae pl mfwáe n.a deer
màen sgv myàen n.i.coll fruit
maenc pass máenc, attr baenc v.tr like, consider attractive
mahtsao (no pl) n.i blade
mamaenc pass hmamaenc, attr babaenc v.tr fall in love with
man (no pl) n.a day
man-honc (no pl) n.a winter solstice
manc attr banc v.it be tired
manc sgv moun n.a.coll lips
mandaoc pl mindźinc n.a foal (horse offspring)
manggác pl manggwác n.a puppy (dog offspring)
mao cj if (introduces conditional subclauses)
mao sgv myao n.i.coll strawberries
mào attr bào v.it be yellow
màonc attr bàonc v.it stop, cease
mba qu (singulative particle)
mbà pl nambà n.i yard, enclosed area
mbàc pass hpàc, attr bàc v.tr replace, substitute, switch with
mbàn attr gambàn v.it be long
mbèc adv maybe, possibly
mbèin pl nimbèin n.i nest (of birds or other animals)
mbenc pl mbíenc n.a creek, brook, small river
mbí (no pl) n.a sun
mbí attr gimbí v.it be lonely
mbì (no sgv) n.a.coll spring (season)
mbíc pass himbíc, attr gimbíc v.tr turn, rotate, twist, knead, mold
mbíc ec svc.tr revert, undo ‘twist and return’
mbíc kòu bí svc.tr trap ‘twist, deceive, and capture’
mbìn attr mìn v.it be small
mblóc sgv mbléac n.i.coll lily (type of flower)
mbò pl mpwò n.a baby
mbóun pl numbóun n.i headgear, hat
mbràe pl mpràe n.a bull (male bovine)
mbré pl nimbré n.i tube; tunnel (of a cave); sleeve (of clothes)
mbrinc attr gimbrinc v.it be brave, be courageous
mbùn attr mùn v.it be good; do well
mbyè pl mpyè n.a maternal uncle
mbyo attr gimbyo v.it err, be mistaken
mbyu attr gimbyu v.it be coarse, be rough
mbza (no sgv) n.i.coll clay
mbzac pl mpsac n.a duck, goose
mbze pl mpse n.a grasshopper
me pass mé, attr be v.tr tell, say towards
cj (complementizer, mirative) (indicates unexpected information)
méc sgv myéc n.i.coll.poss events, instances, occurrences, repetitions
mèc sgv myèc n.a.coll.poss religion, culture
mei (no sgv) n.i.coll flour
mèi sgv myèi n.i.coll grain, seed(s)
attr v.it be separate, be on one's own
mi pass mí, attr bi v.tr get, receive
attr v.it be skilled
mic attr bic v.it turn around
mìc adv once (multiplier)
mimbíc attr bimbíc v.it turn the tables; change a situation completely
minc pron.a (2du pronoun)
mìnc pass pìnc, attr bìnc v.tr sacrifice
mindzín pl mandźá n.a lamb (sheep offspring)
mindzìnc pl mandràenc n.a calf (bovine offspring)
pass fwó, attr v.tr cover, protect
pl ndò n.a.poss descendant, offspring
móc pass fwóc, attr bóc v.tr kill
moc pass móc, attr boc v.tr confuse, mix up, fail to distinguish
moc-tóun pl mboc-tóun n.i millstone
mònc attr bonc v.it be lazy
móu attr bóu v.it be tame (of animals)
mou sgv myou n.i.coll flowers
mpa pass dwá, attr glàc v.tr destroy, devastate
mpao pass twao, attr gampao v.tr single out, point at
mpúo (no pl) n.a trunk (of an elephant or anteater)
sgv myú n.i.coll nuts
mumbùn attr gumbùn v.it be very good, be perfect, do really well
mun pron.a (2sg pronoun)
muo sgv myuo n.i.coll apple(s)
mwác sgv myéc n.i.coll egg(s)
mwei sgv myei n.i.coll wheat
mwinc pl hmúnc n.a squirrel
mwòu sgv myòu n.i.coll roof
mya attr bya v.it+ come, approach (towards listener)
myae pl mfwáe n.a leader, guide, scout
myào pl pyáo n.a horn (of an animal)
myaon (no sgv) n.i.coll earth, soil
myè pl pyé n.a father, paternal uncle
myéc (no sgv) n.a.coll star(s)
myei pass myéi, attr byei v.tr pray to
myèi pass pyèi, attr byèi v.tr hint, suggest
myein pass myéin, attr byein v.tr plot, conspire
myen attr byen v.it look (intransitive)
myen mic ndźù svc.tr search intensively ‘look, turn around, and search’
myèn attr byèn v.it be usual, be ordinary, do habitually
myóa pass fyóa, attr byóa v.tr order, command, instruct
myòu (no sgv) n.a.coll sky, weather
myù pl myùc n.a hand
myuc pp.n among, in reach of, connected to
myun (no sgv) n.i.coll underwear
sgv nyá n.i.coll pear(s)
na cj and (used with non-subject phrases)
na qu all (of many) (+ pl)
pl twá n.a mother, maternal aunt
nac pron.a (1du pronoun)
nac qu both (+ du)
nac sgv nic n.i.coll teeth
nàc pass tàc, attr dàc v.tr choose, take, use
nàc fi yo svc.tr put on (clothes) ‘take, wrap, and wear’
nàc kàc tsì svc.tr bring ‘take, carry, and come’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
nàc rò svc.tr adopt (children) ‘take and embrace’
nàe attr dàe v.it be fragrant
nàenc attr dàenc v.it be intelligent, be clever
nànc pl twánc n.i name
nanda attr gananda v.it gain power, rise to glory
náo sgv nyáo n.i.coll temple sgv ‘altar’
nào pass tsào, attr dzào v.tr perform (a ceremony)
naonc pass náonc, attr daonc v.tr be characterized by
ndà pass handà, attr gandà v.tr strike down, slay, kill
ndà móc svc.tr massacre, kill brutally (multiple victims) ‘slay and kill’
ndàc pass handàc, attr gandàc v.tr extinguish, put out (fire)
ndàe (no sgv) n.a.coll summer
ndán pl pyán n.a new moon
ndáo pron.i (3i.pc/pl pronoun)
ndè pass hindè, attr gindè v.tr store, keep, retain
ndèin attr gindèin v.it aux be about to
ndlíc (no sgv) n.a.coll magical herbs
ndòu (no sgv) n.i.coll wall(s) (of a house)
ndra pl ntśwá n.a tiger
ndrác pl nandrác n.i mark, symbol
ndrí (no sgv) n.i.coll thorns, pricks, spikes
ndrì pass trì, attr gindrì v.tr rub
ndro pron.i (3i.sgv pronoun)
ndroa attr gundroa v.it be irrelevant, don't matter
ndrún pl ntrún n.i hill fort
ndù pass syù, attr gundù v.tr admit, confess
ndúc pass hundúc, attr gundúc v.tr obey, be ruled by attr ‘obedient, subordinate’
ndùc pl nundùc n.i battle, skirmish
ndùo (no sgv) n.i.coll apple trees
ndwin pl nundwin n.i shirt
ndza attr gandza v.it be successful, hit the target
ndzáo pass handzáo, attr gandzáo v.tr learn (mental knowledge)
ndzei (no sgv) n.i.coll fingernail(s)
ndzì pron.a (3a.pc/coll pronoun)
ndzu attr gundzu v.it rise, get up
ndzu kein tyòu yenc do svc.it+ travel (to) ‘rise, go from here, eat, sleep, and come to there’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
ndźác pass handźác, attr gandźác v.tr defeat
ndźáo pass handźáo, attr gandźáo v.tr cook
ndźéan pl nindźéan n.i bay
ndźec (no sgv) n.i.coll asters (type of flower)
ndźei pass hindźei, attr gindźei v.tr know, be acquainted with cf. French connaître
ndźí pron.a (3a.pl pronoun)
ndźi qu much, a lot, a large amount of (+ coll)
ndźìc sgv ndźèc n.a.coll snow
ndźù pass hundźù, attr gundźù v.tr search for
pl mfwé n.a tail
ne pron.a (1sg pronoun)
qu every (+ sg)
nèa pl ndèa n.i chimney
nèan (no sgv) n.a.coll smoke
nec pl mfwéc n.a young animal (general term)
nèc pl ndèc n.i torch
nèi cj (complementizer, inferred evidential) (indicates information based on physical evidence)
nenc pass nénc, attr denc v.tr smile at attr ‘smiling’
ni qu many (+ pl)
pl kwí n.a thrush
nic pp.n at, on (also used to form ordinal numbers)
níe attr díe v.it sink; dive
nin pl mfwín n.a goat
nínc sgv nyénc n.i.coll beard
ninc pl ndinc n.i bed
pl ndó n.i notch, indentation
no pl hno n.a bird (general term)
nóa pl ndóa n.i cliff, rocky slope
nòa (no sgv) n.i.coll bandage
nóc sgv nyóc n.i.coll pants, trousers
nòc adv three times (multiplier)
nòn pass tòn, attr dòn v.tr match, be equal to attr ‘equal, equivalent’
nonc pl mfwónc n.a girl, daughter
nóu sgv nyóu n.i.coll brick
nou (no sgv) n.a.coll steam
nòu attr dòu v.it go downstream, follow the flow
nrà attr drà v.it can, be able
nrèn pl hnrèn n.a stranger, foreigner
nrenc pp.n to the south of
nrènc (no sgv) n.a.coll sunrise, daybreak, early morning
nrìn sgv nyèn n.i.coll arrow(s)
nro (no pl) n.i river crossing, ford
nròc pl hnròc n.a hunter
nrù cj (complementizer, sensory evidential) (indicates information based on sensory evidence)
nrùnc attr drunc v.it be thick (3D)
ntào pass ntsào, attr gantào v.tr dance (usually with dummy object źwi)
ntòc det / qu third (ordinal number)
ntrae (no sgv) n.a.coll harvest season
ntrèc adv long ago
ntronc (no sgv) n.a.coll winter
ntú (no pl) n.a owl
det the other one(s)
nu pass nú, attr du v.tr push, have an impact on
nu sgv nyu n.i.coll clothes
adv really, indeed
nuc attr duc v.it be available, be sufficient, be suitable
nudróu pass hnudróu, attr gunudróu v.tr cultivate, grow (crops)
nùn (no pl) n.a sea, ocean
nwa pass nwá, attr dwa v.tr exceed, surpass
nwao attr dwao v.it cry, weep
nwì pass twì, attr dwì v.tr receive (as a gift)
nya (no pl) n.i.poss dwelling, home
nyac attr dźac v.it win, be victorious; very (when used in a SVC with a positive quality verb)
nyào pl kyáo n.a chick, baby bird
nye attr dźe v.it be safe
nyec pl tśinc n.a female horse, mare
nyèn attr dźen v.it be new, be young
nyoun attr dźoun v.it play, enjoy oneself, have fun
nyu pass nyú, attr dźu v.tr see
nyu fou ngglóc svc.tr ignore, look away from, turn a blind eye towards ‘see, walk by, and forget’
nyu ndźei svc.tr recognize ‘see and know’
nyù pl ndźù n.i door, gate
ngá pl mfwá n.a frog
nga (no sgv) n.i.coll milk
ngà pl kíe n.a magpie
ngàe qu several, some, a few (+ pl)
ngan pl mfwán n.a nose
ngànc pass kànc, attr gànc v.tr give birth to pass ‘be born’
ngào sgv nyào n.i.coll branches (of a tree)
ngàoc sgv tśòa n.i.coll network of caves
ngé pl mfwé n.a heron
nge pp.n before, in front of, across from, facing
ngèa-kàc pl ngào-kàc n.i bucket
ngèa-póu pl ngào-póu n.i barrel
ngec sgv nyec n.i.coll nipples
ngèc sgv ngì n.a.coll parents sgv also: ‘same-sex parental sibling’
ngéi attr géi v.it be popular
ngei qu a little, a small amount of (+ coll)
ngèi pl nggèi n.i color (general term)
ngèn attr gèn v.it be different, be unusual, be foreign
nggá pl ngkwá n.a forest elephant
nggà pass hxà, attr ganggà v.tr approve, agree
nggàc pl nanggàc n.i basket
nggae (no pl) n.a beak (of a bird)
nggao pl nanggao n.i bellybutton
nggaon pl ngkwáon n.a turtle
ngge attr gingge v.it flow (of liquids)
nggèa sgv nggyèa n.i.coll rowan trees
nggéc pl ninggéc n.i speckle, stain, colored spot
nggèi (no sgv) n.a.coll autumn, fall
nggí attr ginggí v.it be soft, be smooth
ngglì (no pl) n.a head
ngglóc pass ksóc, attr klóc v.tr forget, neglect, lose sight of
ngglónc pl ngglúnc n.a firefly
nggò attr gunggò v.it be precious, be valuable, be of high quality
nggóa pass hxóa, attr gunggóa v.tr dislike
nggóu sgv tśù n.a.coll hips
nggòun attr gunggòun v.it stumble
nggráon attr ganggráon v.it speed up
nggren (no pl) n.a womb, uterus
nggruc attr gunggruc v.it slow down
nggù attr gunggù v.it be distant, be far away
nggùc attr gunggùc v.it stink
nggùn attr gunggùn v.it prepare oneself, get ready
nggùnc attr gunggùnc v.it grow up, become an adult
nggwi pass hunggwi, attr gunggwi v.tr burn, set on fire
ngi-swín pl ngec-swín n.a.poss stepparent, parent-in-law
ngì-tóun (no pl) n.i mortar, grinding bowl
ngká pl nangká n.i spider web
ngkùc (no pl) n.a penis
ngkun pl nungkun n.i sewing needle
ngò sgv nyò n.i.coll hills
ngòc sgv ngè n.a.coll eye(s)
ngónc (no sgv) n.a.coll evening
ngóu (no attr) v.cop be (copula)
ngòu sgv nyòu n.i.coll beads, pearls
ngoun pp.n in, inside
ngòun sgv nyòun n.i.coll drums
ngù pp.n to the east of
ngunc attr gunc v.it fade, wither
ngunc ma kànc svc.it pass (of a year or other long period) ‘fade away, die, and be born again’
ngùnc sgv ngìnc n.i.coll grease, fat
ngunggóa pass hngunggóa, attr gunggóa v.tr hate
ngùo attr gùo v.it be blue, be green
ngúoc pass hxúoc, attr gúoc v.tr collect, gather
ngwae attr gwae v.it do properly, do well
ngwi attr gwi v.it be kind, be gentle
ngwìn attr gwìn v.it be open
ngwou sgv nyou n.a.coll waves (of water)
o cj and, also (used with clauses)
oc sgv moc n.i.coll rock(s), stone(s)
oc-mu sgv moc-mu n.i.coll quartz
oc-ngòa sgv moc-ngòa n.i.coll flint
oc-pè sgv moc-pè n.i.coll granite
odzac pp.n to the north of
odzao pl nodzao n.i sword
ogá pl ohká n.a raven
ohán pl ufwán n.a full moon
omàc (no sgv) n.i.coll large village, town
onc attr konc v.it do the right thing, guess correctly, be suitable
pass hpá, attr gwá v.tr row
pa pp.v as, like
pàc sgv pyàc n.i.coll feather(s), coat of feathers
pàc pass hpàc, attr gwàc v.tr kiss
paec pass páec, attr gwaec v.tr acquire, buy
pàn sgv mpàn n.i.coll rope
páon pass hpáon, attr gwáon v.tr bake
pàonc attr gwàonc v.it be white, be pale
pe sgv pye n.i.coll beer
attr gwè v.it be male
pec attr gwec v.it aux not, be not
pei pl pwéi n.a boy, son
pei attr gwei v.it+ depart, leave, go away (from someone other than speaker or listener)
pèin pass hpèin, attr gwèin v.tr be/move diagonal to attr ‘diagonal’
pass hpí, attr gwí v.tr go between
pi (no sgv) n.i.coll peas
attr gwì v.it grow
pìc qu 1
pie attr gwie v.it be determined, be strict
piec attr gwiec v.it be wild, be fierce (used in SVC to indicate strong motivation)
pienc (no pl) n.a orphan
pín attr gwín v.it be innocent, be peaceful
pínc sgv pyénc n.i.coll oak forest
pìnc sgv pyènc n.i.coll acorns
ploc attr gubloc v.it be round (3D)
po-tóun (no pl) n.i pestle
poc attr gwoc v.it be hard, be solid
pòc pass hpòc, attr gwòc v.tr give (as a gift)
pòc nwì svc.tr donate, give gifts to ‘give and receive (as a gift)’
póu pl mbóu n.i hammer
póu attr gwóu v.it be closed
pou pass póu, attr gwou v.tr find, discover
poun pp.n over, above, on top of
pòun attr gwóun v.it be important, be relevant, be prominent
prec attr gibrec v.it be surprising, do suddenly
prei pass hprei, attr gibrei v.tr guess
pric attr gibric v.it be salty
psòn pass hpsòn, attr gubzòn v.tr be less than
pùn attr gùn v.it stand, be upright
pùnc pass hpùnc, attr gùnc v.tr be/move parallel to attr ‘parallel’
púo (no sgv) n.a.coll midday, noon
pwae attr gèi v.it be red
pwanc pl dànc n.a child
pwaon attr gubwaon v.it be fertile
pwec attr gubwec v.it be heroic, be famous, be noble
pwì pass hpwì, attr gubwì v.tr try, attempt, strive
pwo pass pwó, attr gubwo v.tr answer
pya pass pyá, attr gibya v.tr go out of, exit
pyáo qu 4
pyè (no pl) n.a grandfather
pyec attr gibyec v.it keep happening; continue
pyei attr gibyei v.it be round (2D)
pyó pass hpyó, attr gibyó v.tr face, be oriented towards; take aim at
pyo pass pyó, attr gibyo v.tr predict
pyonc attr gibyonc v.it be black, be dark
pyu cj because (introduces reason subclauses)
pyù pl hpyù n.a knuckle, wrist, joint
pp.n due to; made by
rae pp.n at the edge of (but still inside the relevant area)
rae sgv rie n.a.coll bee(s)
ràe pass hràe, attr kràe v.tr wish, hope
radźáo pass hradźáo, attr gradźáo v.tr heat up, keep warm (can only be used within SVC)
ragá pass hragá, attr gragá v.tr bend (can only be used within SVC)
ranào (no pl) n.i religious festival
rao cj in order to, with the goal of (introduces purpose subclauses)
ráon attr tráon v.it be fast, be quick
raonc pl hrunc n.a lizard
ravae pass hravae, attr gravae v.tr drop, cause to fall (can only be used within SVC)
re pp.v without
attr krè v.it starve
reanc pass hreanc, attr kreanc v.tr please, make sb. happy (can only be used within SVC)
réc pass hréc, attr tréc v.tr offend, insult, humiliate
rec pl hroac n.a wing
rei cj (complementizer, quotative) (introduces reported speech; may also indicate information based on hearsay)
rèi sgv yèi n.i.coll.poss juice, sap
rèi-rae sgv yèi-rae n.i.coll honey
rén (no attr) v.it spec be what?
rèn pass hrèn, attr krèn v.tr have sex with (usually used in a dual-to-dual reflexive construction)
ri pl ndri n.i knot
ric (no pl) n.i.poss type, kind, variety, species
ric sgv yoc n.i.coll salt
ridźí pass hridźí, attr gridźí v.tr hollow out (can only be used within SVC)
rie pp.n around
rigéi (no pl) n.a mask
rimyuc (no sgv) n.i.coll saliva
rinc pass rínc, attr trinc v.tr wake up, rouse; warn
attr kró v.it be special, be unique
ro cj or (used with phrases, appears before each conjoined element)
pass hrò, attr krò v.tr embrace; accept
roa attr troa v.it feel comfortable, be at ease
ròc sgv yèac n.i.coll gravel
ron pass rón, attr tron v.tr recite, tell (a story); hand down (a tradition)
ronc pl raonc n.a.poss language
róu (no attr) v.it spec be who?
ròu attr kròu v.it be thirsty
roun sgv youn n.i.coll plain, lowlands
ròun (no pl) n.i waist, small of the back
pass hrù, attr krù v.tr bless
rubóu pass hrubóu, attr grubóu v.tr close (can only be used within SVC)
ruc pl hruc n.a mouth, throat
rùc pp.n through, between, surrounded by
rudwó pass hrudwó, attr grudwó v.tr strengthen (can only be used within SVC)
ruguo pass hruguo, attr gruguo v.tr annoy, bother (can only be used within SVC)
ruhrùn pass hruhrùn, attr gruhrùn v.tr fix, repair (can only be used within SVC)
runc pp.n near, beside, close to
rùo attr krùo v.it be dry, be barren
rúoc (no sgv) n.a.coll livestock, domesticated animals
ruoc (no pl) n.i megalith
rúon pl koc n.a.poss spouse, partner, husband, wife pl ‘couple’ (non-possessed)
ruzruo pass hruzruo, attr gruzruo v.tr lift, raise (can only be used within SVC)
sa pl swá n.a sister, parallel cousin (female)
sáe sgv syáe n.i.coll shores (of a river or lake)
sae pl syoc n.a elbow
saen cj where (stative) (introduces place subclauses; stative)
saen sgv śin n.a.coll embers
saenc pl ndzaenc n.i wound, injury
san pp.n socially related to
san sgv śein n.i.coll forest of coniferous trees
sao attr gzao v.it go upstream, go against the flow, push through
sao-wa (no pl) n.a shepherd
se qu no, none (of many) (+ sg/pl/coll/sgv)
sec pl swéc n.a shooting star
sei sgv śei n.i.coll words, statement, utterance sgv ‘word’
sen sgv śen n.i.coll war
sie pl ndzie n.i loop, noose, lug
sin sgv śin n.i.coll music
so pass hso, attr gzo v.tr follow, accompany
soc sgv śoc n.i.coll.poss material, constituent, ingredient
soc pass hsoc, attr gzoc v.tr give (in general) (used in SVC as a causative auxiliary)
sonc pl swónc n.a tongue
srae pass hsrae, attr grae v.tr reap, harvest
sran coll hunc n.a elder, experienced person (suppletive "plural" takes collective agreement)
sréc sgv śéc n.i.coll crime, misbehavior
srec pl śwéc n.a flea
sri pass hsri, attr gri v.tr pierce, stab
sró (no attr) v.cop (interrogative copula) (used with VSO word order)
sro pass hsro, attr gro v.tr chase, pursue, hunt
sru det.a (animate indefinite) ‘one who is...’
sruc attr gruc v.it be slow
srùn pl ndrùn n.i scar
sruo attr gruo v.it wait
sruo ndźei svc.tr expect, anticipate, wait for ‘wait and know’
sruo tsáo svc.it be patient, be resilient ‘wait and be wise’
su attr gzu v.it be present, be in reach
suc pass hsuc, attr gzuc v.tr bump into, collide with attr ‘obstructing’
sun sgv mou n.i.coll water
sunc (no pl) n.a face
suo pp.v at, on (stative locative)
swec sgv syec n.i.coll frost, dew
swi pl ndzwi n.i coat, cloak
swín (no pl) n.a.poss marriage
syéi (no attr) v.it spec has been done already (defective verb)
syu pass syú, attr tśa v.tr meet
syu tonc ndźei svc.tr get to know sb. ‘meet, talk to, and be acquainted with’
śac pass hśac, attr gźac v.tr do, make (generic proverb)
śae pass hśae, attr gźae v.tr ask (sb.)
śao pl śwao n.i dead body
śea pass hśea, attr gźea v.tr hide, conceal
śec pl síec n.a animal
śenc (no sgv) n.a.coll night
śenc (no sgv) n.i.coll ashes
śi pl ndźi n.i.poss meal, portion (of edible things)
śic pl kwóu n.a leg
śie (no sgv) n.a.coll louse
śin pl ndźin n.i song
śo pl ndźo n.i platform, terrace, shelf
śo-gonc pl ndźo-gonc n.i table
śoc attr gźoc v.it rest, relax, take a break
śou pl ndźou n.i.poss place, location, area (mainly as first part of compounds)
śoun pl śwóun n.a centipede
śu pl ndźu n.i string, thread; sinew
śun (no sgv) n.a.coll light
sgv tsá n.i.coll butter
ta adv (imperative particle)
ta pp.v by (demoted agent)
pl twá n.a grandmother
tác pass htác, attr glác v.tr have, hold, own, possess
tac pp.n to the left of
táe pl twáe n.a story, legend
tàe pass htàe, attr glàe v.tr paint, color, dye
táen pass htáen, attr gláen v.tr doubt
taenc sgv tsaenc n.a.coll ants
tan pass tán, attr glan v.tr show, demonstrate, explain
táo pl ndáo n.i thing, item
táo (no attr) v.it spec it is planned; it has been decided; shall; will (impersonal verb)
tao pl mwì n.a man
tào pass htào, attr glào v.tr throw
tào zò zò svc.tr stack, pile up ‘throw put put’
taoc pl tśinc n.a male horse, stallion
attr glé v.it sit
té fi mó radźáo svc.tr breed (of birds) ‘sit, wrap, cover, and keep warm’
te pl nde n.i bridge
qu any (of many) (+ sg/pl/coll/sgv)
tea sgv tśìc n.a.coll bones
téc pp.v near, around (dynamic locative)
téi sgv tséi n.i.coll coal
tei pass téi, attr glei v.tr say, speak
tei ndè svc.tr promise ‘say and keep’
tei nu svc.tr challenge, provoke, tease ‘say and push’
tei tonc móc svc.tr talk without end, blather, prattle, filibuster, talk sb's ear off ‘say, talk, and kill’
tei twè svc.tr interrupt sb. (through speaking) ‘say and split’
tei zò svc.tr teach (mental knowledge) ‘say and put’
tèi pl twéi n.a thumb
tèin adv then (in the future)
tenc cj (complementizer) (introduces complement clauses)
cj although, even if (introduces concessive subclauses)
tlec pl tlíec n.a liver
tléi (no sgv) n.a.coll fog, mist
tlin pass tlín, attr glin v.tr threaten
tlú pl ndlú n.i axe
tlu pl tlúo n.a paternal aunt
tlúnc pl ndlúnc n.i party, celebration, social gathering
attr gló v.it be significant, have a hidden meaning
to pron.i (3i.sg/coll pronoun)
attr glò v.it be calm, be silent
tò kòun svc.it sneak ‘be silent and move around’
tóc pass htóc, attr glóc v.tr take away, remove
toc sgv tsoc n.i.coll wood (material)
tòc qu 3
tòc attr glòc v.it watch out, be vigilant
tòc wa svc.tr herd (animals), watch over (children) ‘watch out and guard’
tonc pass tónc, attr glonc v.tr talk to, chat with attr ‘talking’
tou sgv tsou n.i.coll land
tou pass tóu, attr glou v.tr start, begin
tóun pass htóun, attr glóun v.tr crush, grind
trá adv (question particle) (used with VSO word order)
trá sgv níc n.a.coll feet
tra pp.n under, at the bottom of
trà attr grà v.it spec exist (’there is...’; used with VS word order)
tráe (no attr) v.it spec it is preferable; would rather (impersonal verb)
trae attr grae v.it be cold (of weather)
traen pl ndraen n.i room (of a house)
tre attr gre v.it do never
tréa attr gréa v.it shiver
tréc pl htréc n.a planet, wandering star
trén det.i which? (interrogative inanimate)
trí pl tśwí n.a scorpion
trìc pass htrìc, attr grìc v.tr shake, shove, stir
tró pl ndró n.i pot, cauldron
troc sgv tsac n.a.coll shoulder(s), upper back
tronc attr gronc v.it struggle, toil, strain oneself
tróu det.a which? (interrogative animate)
trou pl ndrou n.i island
tróun qu 24
trùc pl htrùc n.a priest, shaman
tsa attr gza v.it work
tsáo attr gzáo v.it be wise, be experienced
tsao attr gzao v.it be cold (of things); feel cold (of people)
tsao pass tsáo, attr gzao v.tr cut (into), carve
tsao bwìn svc.tr peel ‘cut and clean’
tsào (no sgv) n.i.coll grape(s)
tséa pl tác n.a ear
tsèa attr gzèa v.it be simple, be easy
tséc (no sgv) n.a.coll rapids
tsec pl tyéc n.a rabbit
tsèi (no pl) n.i reason, explanation, motivation
tsí adv already
tsì attr gzì v.it+ come, approach (towards speaker)
tsìc sgv tsèc n.i.coll petals
tsíe pl htsíe n.a guest, visitor
tsie pl trac n.a arm
tsín pl dźá n.a female sheep, ewe
tsin pass tsín, attr gzin v.tr believe, trust
tsìn sgv tsèn n.i.coll wool
tsoc pl tsic n.i tent
tsóu pl htsóu n.a captive, hostage, slave
tsu det.i (inanimate indefinite) ‘something which is...’
tswi attr gudzwi v.it jump, leap
tswi pei svc.it+ escape (from) ‘jump and leave’ (also with other directional motion verbs)
tsyú sgv tsóu n.i.coll hair
tsyún pl twín n.a person
tśa pass tśá, attr gźa v.tr dwell at, live in
tśáo attr gźáo v.it be warm, be hot (of things); feel warm (of people)
tśao pl kyáo n.a bear
tśe pl kíe n.a male sheep, ram
tśèa pl kíe n.a falcon
tśec pp.n near, alongside; with, containing
tśèin attr gźèin v.it hang, be suspended
tśí attr gźí v.it be hollow
tśi pron.a (3a.sgv pronoun)
tśic pass tśíc, attr gźic v.tr drink
tśic nyu svc.tr taste, try (liquids) ‘drink and see’
tśòa pl ndźòa n.i cave, cavern
attr glú v.it be unusable, be defunct (of tools etc.)
tu pl túo n.a fin (of a fish)
túc (no pl) n.a heart
tùc pass htùc, attr glùc v.tr know (how to do sth.) cf. French savoir
tún attr glún v.it be full
tun pl túon n.a male goat, buck
túnc (no pl) n.a finger
tùnc attr glùnc v.it be edible; be nourishing
tuo pp.n to the west of
twè pass htwè, attr gudwè v.tr cut apart, split, cleave
twéc (no sgv) n.i.coll gold
twí pl ndwí n.i spear
twi pass twí, attr gudwi v.tr allow, let, permit
twíc pass htwíc, attr gudwíc v.tr disagree, protest, argue
twic pass twíc, attr gudwic v.tr whisper
twinc adv here
twó attr glúo v.it be strong
twou (no sgv) n.i.coll urine
tyá pl tíe n.a crow
tyaen cj where (dynamic) (introduces place subclauses; dynamic)
tyáon attr gidyáon v.it do too much, do excessively
tyéi (no pl) n.i fishhook
tyein attr tśein v.it spec it is necessary (impersonal verb, epistemic necessity)
tyòc (no pl) n.a painting, image
tyòu pass htyòu, attr gidyòu v.tr eat
tyòu nyu svc.tr taste, try (solid food) ‘eat and see’
tyu sgv tśou n.a.coll villager(s), sedentary people (also used as an ethnonym for the speakers of Ronc Tyu)
tyuc pass tyúc, attr gidyuc v.tr talk about
tyuc pyec pwo svc.tr discuss, negotiate ‘talk about, continue, and answer’
udlúnc (no pl) n.i meeting of villages
udou (no sgv) n.i.coll world
udzéin pl nudzéin n.i.poss promise, oath, pledge
ugei pl uhkei n.a chieftain, leader
ugou pl nugou n.i shield
ugwac pl uhkwac n.a queen, matriarch
urìc pp.n to the right of
uvyèc pl mbyèc n.i representative building; house of the chieftain
va attr ba v.it be sweet
vaen pl mbaen n.i flute, ocarina
vei pp.n coming from; made of
venc pp.n corresponding to, depending on, modeled on, in the style of
vìc (no sgv) n.i.coll secret
vòc sgv vyòc n.i.coll.poss price, value
vòc-swín sgv vyòc-swín n.i.coll brideprice
vùnc attr bunc v.it be old, be ancient (of things)
vyei pl zwei n.i spring, well
wa pass wá, attr kwa v.tr protect, guard
wae pron.a (2pl pronoun)
wàe sgv yàe n.a.coll.poss life
wan sgv wìen n.i.coll strength, force, pressure
wáo sgv yáo n.i.coll dust, dirt
waon sgv yàon n.i.coll arable land
we intj oh, hey
wec pl ufwéc n.a god
wei sgv yèi n.i.coll air
wèi pp.n outside of; apart from; without
wein adv five times (multiplier)
sgv mwì n.a.coll rain
wic attr kwic v.it blow
wie attr kwie v.it slide, slip
wín pass fwín, attr kwín v.tr marry
wínc pl nwínc n.i pond
wo pp.v with, by, using (instrumental)
attr kwò v.it be big, be large, be tall
wóc attr kwóc v.it be free, be unrestricted
won attr kwon v.it do a little bit, do partly
wonc pp.v for the benefit of (benefactive)
wóu sgv yóu n.i.coll bow and arrow sgv ‘bow’
wòu pass fwòu, attr kwòu v.tr swallow
pl n.a wind, storm
wuc pass huc, attr kuc v.tr hear, listen
wuo attr kuo v.it breathe; be alive
wùo pass fùo, attr kùo v.tr deserve, be worthy of
wùo mi svc.tr earn ‘deserve to receive’
wùo soc svc.tr owe ‘deserve to give’
xa pl hxa n.a breast, chest
xae sgv xèi n.i.coll blood
xàe (no pl) n.a bat
xan pl hxan n.a fox
xanc pass hxanc, attr kanc v.tr hurt, injure, harm
xaon pl hxín n.a mosquito
xàon (no pl) n.a.poss birth
xe pl nae n.i adze
xéa (no sgv) n.a.coll knowledge, insight, intuition, wisdom
xèanc (no sgv) n.i.coll peace, prosperity
xei attr kei v.it be pretty, be beautiful
xie pl hxáe n.a fish (general term)
xiec pl niec n.i idea, situation, concept, notion, purpose
xo pass hxo, attr ko v.tr forbid, ban, disallow, refuse, deny
xòac qu the entirety of, all (of a collection) (+ coll)
xon attr kon v.it be healthy
xònc pp.n on, next to, touching
xònc pass hxònc, attr kònc v.tr save, rescue
xu sgv xào n.i.coll.poss shadow, shade
attr v.it call out, cry, roar, bark (of animals)
xùon sgv màon n.i.coll root
ya det previous, preceding
yàc (no pl) n.i.poss end; culmination; result
yàc-ntrae (no pl) n.a fall equinox
yàe pl nyàe n.i tool
yàe-kàc pl nyàe-kàc n.i travois, sledge
yàe-ngge pl nyàe-ngge n.i raft
yàe-pin pl nyàe-pin n.i broom
yàe-sin pl nyàe-sin n.i musical instrument (general term)
yàec sgv yìec n.i.coll obsidian
yao adv too, also, as well
yaon pl yáon n.a lake
qu 6
yéa pass syéa, attr tśéa v.tr feel, sense
yèanc attr kyèanc v.it be sad
yec pl ifwéc n.a neck
yec pou svc.tr remember ‘think and find’
yec prei svc.tr suspect, suppose ‘think and guess’
yec táen sruo svc.it hesitate ‘think, doubt, and wait’
yéi adv then (in the past)
yei attr kyei v.it yawn
yèi sgv myèi n.i.coll.poss surface, pattern, texture, rhythm, cycle
yein attr kyein v.it be naked
yein sgv myein n.a.coll ice
yen det next, subsequent
yenc attr tśenc v.it sleep
yenc gyáe nyu svc.tr dream ‘sleep, imagine, and see’
yenc-wie (no pl) n.a summer solstice
pp.n instead of, in contrast to, rather than
yic pass hic, attr tśic v.tr praise, worship
yie pass hie, attr tśie v.tr fall on, crash on, hit from above attr ‘crashing down’
yin attr tśin v.it be short
yinyèanc pass hinyèanc, attr tśinyèanc v.tr grieve, mourn
yo pass yó, attr tśo v.tr wear (clothes)
yoc attr tśoc v.it be hungry; be empty
yon pl yàon n.a.poss game animal, prey
yonc attr tśonc v.it be happy
yóu sgv láo n.i.coll mud
yòu attr kyòu v.it be deep
yu cj (complementizer, affirmative) (indicates information judged to be certain)
yu pp.n of, belonging to, associated with
yunc attr tśunc v.it be awake, be alert, pay attention, concentrate
yùo pass syùo, attr kyùo v.tr chew
zac pl hsac n.a wolf
zàe pl syàe n.a year
zamblá pl damblá n.a craftsman
zandźa pl dandźa n.a.poss inhabitant
zào pass hsào, attr dzào v.tr add, mix in
zea cj with the goal that (introduces purpose subclauses with emotional commitment)
zèc (no sgv) n.a.coll herd (of animals)
zei pl ndzei n.i competition, contest
zèi (no sgv) n.i.coll grass
zèn (no sgv) n.a.coll swarm of fish
zènc attr dzènc v.it joke, be playful; be funny
zènc móc svc.tr make sb. laugh ‘joke and kill’
zihtric pl dihtric n.a victim
zimí pl dimí n.a unmarried young adult
zìnc pl zràenc n.a cow (female bovine)
zinggéc pl dinggéc n.a musician
zinggrèa pl dinggrèa n.a cripple, disabled person
pass hsò, attr dzò v.tr put, place
zò nàc tóc svc.tr unload, take out ‘put take remove’
zò soc dzùn svc.tr load, fill ‘put give contain’
zoc pl hsoc n.a eagle
zomae pl domae n.a stag
zrà sgv źà n.i.coll pear trees
zrein sgv źein n.i.coll.poss leftovers
zrénc attr drénc v.it be welcome
zrin cj (complementizer, hypothetical) (indicates speculative information)
zròc attr dròc v.it be weak
zróu pass hsróu, attr dróu v.tr change, convert, turn into
zrou sgv źou n.i.coll.poss size, quantity sgv ‘subset’
zrou-mbì (no pl) n.a spring equinox
zúc attr dzúc v.it walk
zúc dyòun gyè svc.it waddle ‘walk, squat, and move sideways’
zúc kòun fae fae svc.it learn how to walk (of children) ‘walk, move around, and keep falling’
zudźòa (no pl) n.i prayer cave
zuhxònc pl duhxònc n.a survivor
zumbron pl dumbron n.a storyteller
zuo sgv zwea n.i.coll ladder sgv ‘rung’
zwà sgv zwìe n.i.coll vegetation, plants
zwì pl htúo n.a family, clan
źao (no sgv) n.i.coll marshland, bog
źec (no sgv) n.a.coll.poss group
źi attr dźi v.it urinate, pee
źíc (no sgv) n.i.coll footprints, trace
źindlíc (no pl) n.i the shaman's garden
źiźenc (no pl) n.i wind burial platform
źù attr dźù v.it be fearful, be afraid
źùn attr dźùn v.it shine, glow
źundúc (no pl) n.i battlefield
źwi sgv źu n.i.coll dance; celebration

1177 entries.