Proto-Talo-Edastean/Lexicon

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This article is currently undergoing a major edit.
This article is currently undergoing a major edit.

The contents are incomplete and in need of elaboration and/or change!
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This draft of the proto-Talo-Edastean lexicon is not a finished work, and NOT READY FOR USE.

It is not intended at this time to present a picture of only a reconstructed vocabulary,
but instead to provide probable sources for as many native NT and Tlaliolz words as reasonably possible.

To Do

  • High Priority
  1. remove words that were borrowed into NT later than this stage
  2. remove some compounds and derived words
  3. introduce semantic differences from NT, especially by comparing to Tlaliolz
  4. check against all other information for errors and issues
  • Middle Priority
  1. add adverbs, and some words from the extended NT list
  • Low Priority
  1. list Tlaliolz reflexes where appropriate
  2. add Tlaliolz native words not having reflexes in NT
  3. color-code entries for reconstructive certainty
  4. alphabetize

Word List

Unmarked stress is always word-initial.

pTE root likely meaning NT reflexes
aɴeka air âka
xeŋka animal engka
itwam arm itwam
ainda ashes ainda
boŋga back bongga
imbáɴro bark mbâro
kil barley kil
imbúsmu belly mbusmu
aláix bird lai
gʷeŋga one's honor, rights, or due bwenggautsu "birthright"
bwengor "to honor"
anʦé blood ntse
laɴqʷo bone langkwo
ompékim breast mpepm
merqát brother merkát
gempa burn gempa
dempix child dempi
sim cloud sim
laʦ land holdings lats
maiɴsaɴ cow mâisâ
axirti day airti
argʷa craftsman arbwa
ʦis dog tsis
ʦondo dust tsondo
okʷa ear okwa
baulai soil baulai
nasa east nasa
kaq edge kak
uɴqai egg ngkai
oldau eye oldau
dimbau fat dimbau
megʷe father mebwe
gʷaikti feast bwaikti
rodom feather robm
deŋi finger dengi
aqʷi fingernail kwi
axoli fire ali
empáiswa fish mpaiswa
titi flea titi
ɴailáu flower ailáu
abmi fly ammi
xarwa fog arwa
oŋgól foot nggol
entáɴug forest ntâug
aqʷi fruit apwi
empi grass empi
dasi goddess dasi
guro entrails guro
aini hair aini
toxon hand ton
imu head imu
maunde heart maunde
impúrnim heathen mpurnim
xʷedon herb wedn
tokʷai horn topai
maldo person maldo
aisab husband aisab
mulaɴ ice mulâ
upón island pon
ʦoŋ knee tsong
diáka ruler diáka
gan knife gan
tau lake tau
neŋa leaf nenga
baitrai leg baitrai
iɴqʷi liver ingkwi "liver"
ngkwaimpaugng "vomit"
nakʷiŋe loot napnge
ʦeɴaʦi louse tsêtsi
erúd man rud
sax meat sa
andímu mercy ndimu
intíndo metal ntindo
imbi moon imbi
ʦar moon tsar
omo mother omo
daiŋ mountain daing
susi mouse susi
magum mouth mabm
wisma mud wisma
embóp music mbop
imai name imai
ŋane neck ngane
xʷimés neighbor wimés
iswau night iswau
idaɴu noble idâu
ibli north ibli
aupúŋʷa nose pungwa
abáus ox baus
aimbu peasant aimbu
rauŋ plain raung
poniɴ plant ponî
gaido rabbit gaido
empéɴalo rain mpêlo
ɴoda right, just odam "rightward"
sikîda "to corrupt" (< *sikiɴoda)
aunti river aunti
gaux bare earth gau "road"
gauron "steppe"
baɴapu root bâpu
ulwo rope ulwo
odai salt odai
pailbe sand pailbe
aɴuqʷai sculpture âukwai
xindúŋ sea indúng
ambóntai seed mbontai
gaibrax sheep gaibra
kʷap shield pap
omau sister omau
ŋʷau skin ngwau
rande sky rande
ŋaqtis captive ngaktis
pumaɴ smoke pumâ
aimwa snake aimwa
aise snow aise
taxe south tam (< *taxam)
ʦeloɴ spear tselô
gʷai star bwai
baʦen stick batsn
tiɴqáu stone tingkáu
atól sun tol
aɴobai swamp âbai
ontéɴwaŋ tail ntêwâ
ospáq throne ospák
ŋemba toe ngemba
komxʷa tongue komwa
ʦilauɴ tooth tsilâu
endái tree ndai
sauŋʷe water saungwe
xaŋái war angái
emwel west emwel
borma wheat borma
netrai wife netrai
altó wind altó
etáindi wing taindi
asax woman asa
gatan wood gatn
lexʷai word lewai
moŋgʷai worm mombwai
laixod year laid
qenau ask kenau
pasto attack pasto
okʷáin bite kwain
xʷuku blame wuku
unʦix blow untsi
goŋgai break gonggai
indénam breathe ndenam
mixasko celebrate miasko
ɴoto come oto
abaɴ commit crime abâ
ʦobi control tsobi
mondu count mondu
ampáim cry mpaim
narno cut narno
oŋgúku deceive ngguko
sompís defeat sompis
xebri destroy ebri
unóʦ die nots
waʦ dig wats
aisáb drink sab
tux eat tu
bambi fail, failure bambi "to fail"
bambor "strength"
endu fall endu
ɴain farm ain
paiŋkʷu fear paingkwu
iskʷe feel ispe
xenánda feel enánda
das fight das
intéʦan float ntsetsn
imlana flood imlana
lail flow lail
alnixa fly alnia
oslók forget oslók
aipix freeze aipi
penta fuckup penta
ʦampi give tsampi
umús largeness, dumbness mus "to grow"
muspê "stupid (actions)"
musmis "stupid (person)"
non go non
baɴre have bâre
ranto hear ranto
xʷapa hit wapa
imbúnwe hold mbunwe
orandél hurry randél
desmog hunt desmog
ʦurti insult tsurtor "to give insult"
untai joke untai
meɴ journey
aikan keep aitn
eɴqu kill engku
matun know matn
ŋaŋo laugh ngango
limu laugh limu
obál lie bal
saɴa bring sâpabm "lift"
(< *saɴapabam "bring upward")
ʦixen like tsin
wim live wim
raxula love raula
papau name papau
aɴidai need âidai
rowa play (music) rowa
udma play unma
aiʦu promise aitsu
mauɴak protest mâuk
bespi punish bespi
otéŋo pull tengo
aŋgʷáxʷe push mbwawe
meɴli read mêli
wompo remember wompo
qumaɴi repair kumâi
erbo rest erbo
xula rise ula
orte run orte
ausa sacrifice ausa
ambí say mbi
egran scratch egran
ina see ina
pilai send pilai
isma sew isma
eptág shine eptág
ombí come before mbiski "necessary"
mbîbwe "sing" (< *ombíɴegʷe)
ampé sit mpe
iŋáta sleep ngata
dumbo smell dumbo
aumux spit aumu
alen split alen
orŋi squeeze orngi
bontu stab bontu
ande stand ande
aulmo steal aulmo
ontáx stop nta
malwe suck malwe
embur swim embur
xesul take esul
ulxʷa taste ulwa
ŋʷaiɴ think ngwâi
aqék throw kek
kiɴebai tie kîbai
aundé touch nde
em turn em
iŋgʷa use imbwa
lolmau visit lolmau
aqéŋ walk keng
ʦaiŋ wash tsaing
ŋende wipe ngende
banai worship banai
ŋauro ancient ngauro
gaɴaga angry gâga
molan awake molan
gid bad gibm (< gidam)
ilmo beautiful ilmo
qʷai big pai
ilki black ilki
asái blue sai
peras brave peras
namoxʷi brown namowi
waxʷaik calm wawaik
aixo chief aio
elge clean elge
leɴaʦau cold lêtsau
lonte correct lonte
aiŋgáux crooked ainggáu
udu cruel udu
obád cultured bad
kelki dangerous kelki
ompu deep ompu
andágʷa dirty ndabwa
asnán dry asnán
gaut dull gaut
qʷiwel early piwel
xaubo easy aubo
anai empty anai
laŋáŋ familiar langáng
ompág far mpag
saxi female sai
sai other sai "foreign"
saisung "left"
ŋʷolaiɴ full ngwolâi
qola funny kola
aiwax good aiwa
auspi green auspi
umbíbo guilty mbibo
giɴqo hard gingko
mwarwog heft, weight mwarwobm "heavy"
gom high gom
dautin holy dautin
selkon hostile selkon
kʷekʷa last pekwa
miʦ late mits
epwaip light epwaip
larmai long larmai
ipím low pim
sim lucky sim
dado male dado
deɴaqa mystical dêka
axurne muddy aurne
ʦuʦ near tsuts
oltox new olto
anto old anto
ambésta ordered mbesta
andáun pure ndaun
ukʷéda ready kweda
napeɴ red napê
simwai rotten simwai
bagaŋ rough bagng
kʷaim round kwaim
palmambi secret palmambi
ŋimbu sharp ngimbu
ambáuɴer short mbâur
onám sick nam
nambe smallness;
a growing bud
nambam "small"
nambepm "to swell"
nuxʷex smooth nuwe
ʦaɴuki soft tsâuki
ikʷa straight ikwa
ŋabra thick ngabra
auntón thin auntón
aqlu ugly aklu
aŋgʷúra unusual mbwura
paba up, high sâpabm "lift"
(< *saɴapabam "bring upward")
disaux usual disau
bugʷiʦ warm bubwits
wiŋ wet wing
dauxʷai white dauwai
tentox wide tento
osúmo wrong sumo
ulmái yellow ulmái
-or (suffix) give, remove from onesself bambor
tsurtor
bwenggor
-am (suffix) forms qualitative adjectives nambam
odam
tam
gibm
mwarwobm
sâpabm