Proto-Coastal-Western/Lexicon

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PCW IPA PoS gloss etymon etymon gloss
dziʔga /ʣiʔɡa/ adv continuously, repetitively *kiʔka continuously
mìňa /mìɲa/ adv the day before yesterday *miña
mu /mu/ adv completely *mu
nadze /naʣe/ adv rarely *nadže
ňaje /ɲaje/ adv frequently *ñaye
sèhtì /sèhtì/ adv surprisingly *sałtĩ
suʔxa /suʔxa/ adv tomorrow *sudła
tłàʔlà /tɬàʔɫà/ adv repeatedly *tłãtłã
tshi /ʦʰi/ adv yesterday *cʰuy
woki /woki/ adv the day after tomorrow *watya
zedzotsu /zeʣoʦu/ adv quickly *γedže-cu run + adverbialiser
ʔeľ /ʔeʎ/ cj because *ʔel
ge /ɡe/ cj but *kʷe
jege /jeɡe/ cj but not *yekʷe
jesu /jesu/ cj nor *yesaw
jetsa /jeʦa/ cj and not *yeca
su /su/ cj or *saw
tsa /ʦa/ cj and *ca
tsatsa /ʦaʦa/ cj moreover *caca
neğlàgłàma- /neɣɫàɡɬàma/ n coll a mushrooms (neğla-głàma) white-berries
wopha- /wopʰa/ n coll a beans *wapʰa
ğaʔle- /ɣaʔɫe/ n coll i salt *γaʔle
głàma- /ɡɬàma/ n coll i berries *kłama
ğulzi- /ɣuɫzi/ n coll i millet *γulši
tiza- /tiza/ n coll i hair *tyaša
tshehga- /ʦʰehɡa/ n coll i sand *kʰełka stone
tsheja- /ʦʰeja/ n coll i soil *kʰeya
tshejegi- /ʦʰejeɡi/ n coll i worthless items, inedible material *kʰeyakʷi sand
ʔàzè- /ʔàzè/ n ip a wife *ʔaše
ʔiľsa- /ʔiʎsa/ n ip a hand *ʔilsa
bľùxa- /bʎùxa/ n ip a meat, flesh, edible organs *blũła belly
dzaldàjòʔuʔiľsa- /ʣaɫdàjòʔuʔiʎsa/ n ip a wing *dzaldayãʔu ʔilsa
dzùʔli- /ʣùʔɫi/ n ip a breast *džũbłi
ğeľzi- /ɣeʎzi/ n ip a neck *γalši
gluwo- /ɡɫuwo/ n ip a leg *kluwa
gòdu- /ɡòdu/ n ip a head *kʷẽdu
gogu- /ɡoɡu/ n ip a tail *kʷadu
ľa- /ʎa/ n ip a husband *la
ľahga- /ʎahɡa/ n ip a ear *lałka
ľòxu- /ʎòxu/ n ip a back *lãsu
miłi- /miɬi/ n ip a tongue *mełi
mìna- /mìna/ n ip a mother *mina
nòğu- /nòɣu/ n ip a foot *nãγu
thùňàʔà- /tʰùɲàʔà/ n ip a uncle, brother, eldest son of the head of the family *tʰunyaʔã
thùŋà- /tʰùŋà/ n ip a head of the family, father *tʰunã
tshulpu- /ʦʰuɫpu/ n ip a arm *čʰilpu
ʔujadzała- /ʔujaʣaɬa/ n ip i wound, injury *ʔuyadza-ła cause pain + nominaliser
ʔùka- /ʔùka/ n ip i tooth *ʔũta
dzijeła- /ʣijeɬa/ n ip i want, wish, desire *čiye-ła want + nominaliser
dzìňa- /ʣìɲa/ n ip i fingernail *džiña
jòbu- /jòbu/ n ip i mouth *yabu
łağa- /ɬaɣa/ n ip i eye *łaγa
łàğa- /ɬàɣa/ n ip i soul *łãγa
ľàňała- /ʎàɲaɬa/ n ip i crack, scratch *laña-ła scratch + nominaliser
màdzà- /màʣà/ n ip i nose *mãdzã
thùdzù- /tʰùʣù/ n ip i knee *tʰawdzũ
zuwo- /zuwo/ n ip i guts *šuwa
ʔàzè- /ʔàzè/ n a woman *ʔašẽ
bèdzànoʔxuwogaja- /bèʣànoʔxuwoɡaja/ n a relative *bẽdza-na-tłuwa-daya lit. “one who carries my blood”
dłeʔga- /dɬeʔɡa/ n a tribe *dłeʔka
dzaldàjà- /ʣaɫdàjà/ n a bird *dzaldayã
dzehdza- /ʣehʣa/ n a heart *čełdza
dziphe- /ʣipʰe/ n a water *kyupʰe
dzuphugoju- /ʣupʰuɡoju/ n a fisherman *dzupʰu-dayu gather + nominaliser
geľa- /ɡeʎa/ n a child *kʷela
głàdze- /ɡɬàʣe/ n a skin *kłãke
głèʔhà- /ɡɬèʔhà/ n a game animal *kłepʰã wild animal, game
ğogugu- /ɣoɡuɡu/ n a eagle *γʷekudu
ğohbu- /ɣohbu/ n a prostitute *γʷełbu slave
ğudzi- /ɣuʣi/ n a fish *γuči
ğùga- /ɣùɡa/ n a pig *γũka
ğùgogu- /ɣùɡoɡu/ n a rich person (honorific) *γũka-du lit. “great pig”
guxu- /ɡuxu/ n a wolf *kʷułu
jàmajaʔa- /jàmajaʔa/ n a human *yamayaʔa
jàsa- /jàsa/ n a food *yãsa meat
jathadaja- /jatʰadaja/ n a slave *yatʰa-daya garden + nominaliser
jolu- /joɫu/ n a other *yelu-
ľa- /ʎa/ n a man *la
łàğlawo- /ɬàɣɫawo/ n a priest *łãγlawa
ľàtsa- /ʎàʦa/ n a many *lãca-
ľàtsa- /ʎàʦa/ n a egg *lãca
ľegi- /ʎeɡi/ n a boy *la-kʷi lit. “little man”
łèzi- /ɬèzi/ n a horse *łãši
łija- /ɬija/ n a snake *łiya
meʔli- /meʔɫi/ n a bear *madłi
meʔludu- /meʔɫudu/ n a warrior (honorific) *madłi-du lit. “great bear”
medza- /meʣa/ n a dog *medza
mòğu- /mòɣu/ n a sheep *mẽγu
na- /na/ n a I *na
pèľogu- /pʰèʎoɡu/ n a fat person, large person, great person (honorific) *pʰẽladu lit. “great cloud”
pha- /pʰa/ n a everyone, everything, all *pʰa-
phuga- /pʰuɡa/ n a chief *pʰuda
sa- /sa/ n a we (distributive) *sa we
ta- /ta/ n a you *ta
thìʔpi- /tʰìʔpi/ n a daughter *tʰẽʔpi
tłuwo- /tɬuwo/ n a blood *tłuwa
tshophu- /ʦʰopʰu/ n a deer *čʰepʰu
tsuba- /ʦuba/ n a fruit *cuba
tupi- /tupi/ n a few *tupi-
woʔlu- /woʔɫu/ n a liver *wetłu
ziľzi- /ziʎzi/ n a fat, grease *γelši
zipa- /zipa/ n a some *γipa-
ʔahpa- /ʔahpa/ n i anger, rage *ʔałpa
ʔèta- /ʔèta/ n i feather *ʔẽta
ʔìje- /ʔìje/ n i name *ʔĩye
ʔuga- /ʔuɡa/ n i five *ʔudza-
ʔuja- /ʔuja/ n i pain *ʔuya
ʔuwo- /ʔuwo/ n i vomit *ʔuwa
batshe- /baʦʰe/ n i holiness *bakʰe
besògù- /besòɡù/ n i sharp edge, blade *besadzũ knife
daʔle- /daʔɫe/ n i here *dadłe
dłeʔa- /dɬeʔa/ n i land *dłeʔa
dłùkuka- /dɬùkuka/ n i family; longhouse *dłũ-tuca
dudze- /duʣe/ n i sky *dudže
dzìʔì- /ʣìʔì/ n i bee *džĩʔĩ
dzìʔìkha- /ʣìʔìkʰa/ n i honey, sweetness *džĩʔĩkʰa
ğàňa- /ɣàɲa/ n i leaf *γaña
gatsa- /ɡaʦa/ n i lover *kaca friend
ğeje- /ɣeje/ n i hill *γʷeye
ğeľi- /ɣeʎi/ n i stone *γʷeley mountain
ğeľudu- /ɣeʎudu/ n i mountain *γʷeley-du mountain + augmentative
ğìta- /ɣìta/ n i wind *γʷĩta
gładze- /ɡɬaʣe/ n i mix *kłače
ğolga- /ɣoɫɡa/ n i spit *γʷałka
ğòxu- /ɣòxu/ n i tool *γʷãsu bone
jàma- /jàma/ n i sun *yama
jathapa- /jatʰapa/ n i garden *yatʰapa
jèdzi- /jèʣi/ n i river *yãki
jidzi- /jiʣi/ n i arrow *yeči
jolu- /joɫu/ n i other *yelu-
khaja- /kʰaja/ n i fire *kʰaya
khajałòkù- /kʰajaɬòkù/ n i ashes *kʰayałacũ
khapa- /kʰapa/ n i tree *kʰapa
khapòkù- /kʰapòkù/ n i forest *kʰapacũ
khulga- /kʰuɫɡa/ n i boat *kʰułda
khulu- /kʰuɫu/ n i anus *kʰulu
łàğa- /ɬàɣa/ n i guard, guide *łãγa spirit
ľağo- /ʎaɣo/ n i smoke *laγʷa
ľàtsa- /ʎàʦa/ n i many *lãca-
łìna- /ɬìna/ n i lake *łina
ľùmè- /ʎùmè/ n i right, east *lumẽ
ma- /ma/ n i place, location *ma
madze- /maʣe/ n i sea *madže
mazèzè- /mazèzè/ n i moon *Mašeγẽ
mètsa- /mèʦa/ n i four *mẽca-
nipha- /nipʰa/ n i fog *nipʰa
nògù- /nòɡù/ n i left, west *nadũ
nolku- /noɫku/ n i three *nałtu-
pàtògù- /pàtòɡù/ n i road, path *pãtadzũ
pha- /pʰa/ n i everyone, everything, all *pʰa-
phèľa- /pʰèʎa/ n i cloud *pʰẽla
phiji- /pʰiji/ n i seed *pʰeyi
phiłi- /pʰiɬi/ n i tree bark *pʰełi
pľàma- /pʎàma/ n i flower *plama
seji- /seji/ n i night *sayi
taga- /taɡa/ n i grass *taka
tagaʔle- /taɡaʔɫe/ n i grassland, plain *takadłe
tagala- /taɡaɫa/ n i cloth *takala rope
tago- /taɡo/ n i one *takʷa-
thaʔle- /tʰaʔɫe/ n i there *tʰadłe
thaja- /tʰaja/ n i milk *tʰaya
thuba- /tʰuba/ n i root *tʰuba
thula- /tʰuɫa/ n i wool *tʰula
tshejòhxù- /ʦʰejòhxù/ n i wall, rampart *kʰeyasłũ
tshèkhà- /ʦʰèkʰà/ n i earth *čʰekʰã
tsheľna- /ʦʰeʎna/ n i horn *kʰelna
tshesa- /ʦʰesa/ n i dung *kʰesa
tshibu- /ʦʰibu/ n i worm *kʰeybu
tsuphugaja- /ʦupʰuɡaja/ n i louse *cupʰudaya
tuka- /tuka/ n i house, home *tuca
tupi- /tupi/ n i few *tupi-
wèʔnà- /wèʔnà/ n i year *weʔnã
wetùʔnà- /wetùʔnà/ n i next year *wetweʔnã
zezewo- /zezewo/ n i star *šešewa
zi- /zi/ n i two *ši-
zìda- /zìda/ n i webbing between the fingers, palm *šĩda
zipa- /zipa/ n i some *γipa-
zìwo- /zìwo/ n i pine *γĩwa
zize- /zize/ n i day *γiše
duʔ /duʔ/ par therefore, in that case; thus, in this way *duk therefore
dzeʔ /ʣeʔ/ par however *džet
phà /pʰà/ par then, next, and *pʰa then, next
su /su/ par or *saw
tsah /ʦah/ par also, and *cał also
tsatsa /ʦaʦa/ par because *caca moreover
tshidzi /ʦʰiʣi/ par instead *kʰeči
ʔàma /ʔàma/ pp with *ʔama
ʔi /ʔi/ pp if *ʔey
ʔihma /ʔihma/ pp without, if not *ʔiłma without
dła /dɬa/ pp for *dła
dze /ʣe/ pp across, through *dže through
dze /ʣe/ pp to *ke
ga /ɡa/ pp on behalf of *ka
gèʔdzi /ɡèʔʣi/ pp towards *kãʔči
ğu /ɣu/ pp outside *γaw
guku /ɡuku/ pp after, behind *kʷucu
jeʔogu /jeʔoɡu/ pp away from *yeʔadzu leave
ľaʔ /ʎaʔ/ pp under *lat
meʔ /meʔ/ pp by means of *mek
mèľà /mèʎà/ pp along *melã
naʔ /naʔ/ pp above *nat
noʔu /noʔu/ pp up towards *naʔu up
sàʔ /sàʔ/ pp inside, during, while *sãk inside
tabe /tabe/ pp on, at, when *tabe on, at
ze /ze/ pp down towards *še down
gòdu /ɡòdu/ pp prep on top of *kʷẽdu head
zuwo /zuwo/ pp prep through, into the middle of *šuwa guts
ʔida- /ʔida/ pre slow *ʔida-
dłù- /dɬù/ pre long *dłũ-
dòbu- /dòbu/ pre thick *dãbu-
duğa- /duɣa/ pre good *duγa-
dzàma- /ʣàma/ pre red *dzama-
dzìdzi- /ʣìʣi/ pre straight *dzĩči-
dziga- /ʣiɡa/ pre yellow *čika-
dzùnu- /ʣùnu/ pre full *činu-
ğàdze- /ɣàʣe/ pre big *γãdže-
gatha- /ɡatʰa/ pre correct *katʰa-
gatsha- /ɡaʦʰa/ pre soil, make dirty *kačʰa
getshi- /ɡeʦʰi/ pre dirty *kačʰi-
głukha- /ɡɬukʰa/ pre short *kłutʰa-
ğłùŋa- /ɣɬùŋa/ pre green *γłuna-
ğogu- /ɣoɡu/ pre quick *γʷeku-
ğuje- /ɣuje/ pre heavy *γʷuye-
jada- /jada/ pre old *yada-
khàʔa- /kʰàʔa/ pre black *kʰãʔa-
khawo- /kʰawo/ pre narrow *kʰawa-
łago- /ɬaɡo/ pre near *łakʷa-
ľàma- /ʎàma/ pre warm *lama-
mahga- /mahɡa/ pre sharp *małka-
maje- /maje/ pre rotten *maye-
mìgo- /mìɡo/ pre wet *mĩkʷa-
mòxu- /mòxu/ pre wide *mãsu-
nadze- /naʣe/ pre tame *nače-
neğla- /neɣɫa/ pre white *neγla-
ňizi- /ɲizi/ pre smooth *ñeši-
ňolgu- /ɲoɫɡu/ pre dull, blunt *ñałdu-
phala- /pʰaɫa/ pre far *pʰala-
phita- /pʰita/ pre small, weak *pʰita- small
pľàga- /pʎàɡa/ pre new *plãka-
sùla- /sùɫa/ pre round *sũla-
thàda- /tʰàda/ pre cold *tʰãda-
tshiʔla- /ʦʰiʔɫa/ pre dry *kʰibła-
tshìňa- /ʦʰìɲa/ pre together *kʰiña-
tshìňà- /ʦʰìɲà/ pre thin *kʰiñã-
wedzi- /weʣi/ pre steep *wači-
zèma- /zèma/ pre bad *γema-
-da- /da/ pron that near you *da-
-dze- /ʣe/ pron this near me *dže-
-gi- /ɡi/ pron cataphoric stem *kʷi-
-ja- /ja/ pron anaphoric stem *ya-
-tha- /tʰa/ pron that over there (invisible) *tʰa-
-tshe- /ʦʰe/ pron that over there (visible) *čʰe-
ʔèda- /ʔèda/ v dt give *ʔẽda
tshihta- /ʦʰihta/ v dt teach *čʰiłta
ʔago- /ʔaɡo/ v it rain *ʔakʷa
ʔujaʔaja- /ʔujaʔaja/ v it be in pain (source indicated with meʔ PP) *ʔuya-ʔaya
ʔuwolpa- /ʔuwoɫpa/ v it vomit *ʔuwałpa
błàma- /bɬàma/ v it fart *błama
dağa- /daɣa/ v it shout *daγa
dàlà- /dàɫà/ v it swim, fly *dalã
dzega- /ʣeɡa/ v it sit *čeka
gisa- /gisa/ v it make felt *kʷisa
ğiwo- /ɣiwo/ v it live, be alive *γʷiwa
ğolgahpa- /ɣoɫɡahpa/ v it spit *γʷałkałpa
guga- /ɡuɡa/ v it sleep *kuda
jaga- /jaɡa/ v it play *yaka
jeʔogu- /jeʔoɡu/ v it leave *yeʔadzu
jèma- /jèma/ v it row *yema
jiʔihtsa- /jiʔihʦa/ v it come *yeʔiłca
khajaʔaja- /kʰajaʔaja/ v it burn *kʰaya-ʔaya fire + verbaliser
khakho- /kʰakʰo/ v it laugh *kʰakʷʰa
khakhoku- /kʰakʰoku/ v it amusingly *kʰakʷʰa-cu laugh + adverbialiser
ľaʔpa- /ʎaʔpa/ v it insult *laʔpa steal
maze- /maze/ v it shine *maše
pàta- /pàta/ v it find one's way *pãta
phala- /pʰaɫ a/ v it swell, grow, become tumescent *pʰala
phiwo- /pʰiwo/ v it breathe, blow *pʰiwa
pławo- /pɬawo/ v it walk *pława
pławoʔogu- /pɬawoʔoɡu/ v it walk away *pławaʔadzu
thòbu- /tʰòbu/ v it fall *tʰãbu
tľetľe- /tʎetʎe/ v it prepare leather *tletle
tshesahpa- /ʦʰesahpa/ v it defecate *kʰesałpa
tshotu- /ʦʰotu/ v it lie down *kʰetu
weta- /weta/ v it turn *weta
weteʔihtsa- /weteʔihʦa/ v it meet *weta-ʔiłca turn + towards
wodze- /woʣe/ v it die *wadže
zeʔtaʔadza- /zeʔtaʔaʣa/ v it flow away *šeʔtaʔadza
zeʔteʔihtsa- /zeʔteʔihʦa/ v it flow towards *šeʔtaʔiłca
zedze- /zeʣe/ v it run *γedže
zedzeʔogu- /zeʣeʔoɡu/ v it run away (zedze-ʔogu) run + away from
zìgà- /zìɡà/ v it stand *šikã
zuga- /zuɡa/ v it float *šiwka
zugaʔadza- /zuɡaʔaʣa/ v it float downstream *šiwkaʔadza
ʔadi- /ʔadi/ v mt fear *ʔadya
ʔahpadza- /ʔahpaʣa/ v mt anger *ʔałpadza
ʔitsha- /ʔiʦʰa/ v mt fish *ʔičʰa
ʔoxu- /ʔoxu/ v mt smell *ʔału
ʔujadza- /ʔujaʣa/ v mt cause pain *ʔuyadza pain + verbaliser
ʔùkahpa- /ʔùkahpa/ v mt bite *ʔũtałpa
ʔùkalpa- /ʔùkaɫpa/ v mt eat vegetables, eat non-meat (humans and non- herbivorous animals) *ʔũta-łpa tooth + verbaliser
bebesa- /bebesa/ v mt split *bebesa
bèdza- /bèʣa/ v mt have, carry, possess *bẽdza know
besa- /besa/ v mt cut *besa
dağadza- /daɣaʣa/ v mt call to *daγadza
dzàlà- /ʣàɫà/ v mt stab *dzalã
dzedzi- /ʣeʣi/ v mt say *dzači
dzegadza- /ʣeɡaʣa/ v mt seat *čekadza
dzeľda- /ʣeʎda/ v mt see; know *čelda see
dzèsa- /ʣèsa/ v mt dance *džẽsa
dzije- /ʣije/ v mt want *čiye
dzuphu- /ʣupʰu/ v mt gather, hunt, n collect, fish *dzupʰu
gàmà- /ɡàmà/ v mt fear *kamã
ğehdzi- /ɣehʣi/ v mt wash *γʷałki
ğibe- /ɣibe/ v mt drink *γʷibe
gisa- /ɡisa/ v mt squeeze, press *kʷisa
ğiwoga- /ɣiwoɡa/ v mt give birth to, engender *γʷiwadza
ğlaʔta- /ɣɫaʔta/ v mt milk *γlaʔta
gogu- /ɡoɡu/ v mt cook *kʷekʷu
ğoguʔlawoʔogu- /ɣoɡuʔɫawoʔoɡu/ v mt escape from, run away from *γʷeku-pławaʔadzu walk away from + quick
jàsahpa- /jàsahpa/ v mt eat meat *yãsa-łpa meat + verbaliser
jatha- /jatʰa/ v mt tend, garden *yatʰa
jedza- /jeʣa/ v mt push *yedza
jezi- /jezi/ v mt hold, own, marry *yaši
jiʔihtsadza- /jiʔihʦaʣa/ v mt pull *yeʔiłcadza
jòbulpa- /jòbuɫpa/ v mt suck *yabułpa
jogu- /joɡu/ v mt perform rituals *yeku eat meat
khajahpa- /kʰajahpa/ v mt burn *kʰayałpa
khakhoga- /kʰakʰoɡa/ v mt mock *kʰakʷʰadza
kholu- /kʰoɫu/ v mt tie, fasten *kʰalu
khulpa- /kʰuɫpa/ v mt hunt, catch *kʰulpa hunt
ľaʔpa- /ʎaʔpa/ v mt attain, win; take by raiding *laʔpa steal
ľàlàňa- /ʎàɫàɲa/ v mt dig *lalaña
ľàňa- /ʎàɲa/ v mt wound, hurt *laña scratch
łijahpa- /ɬijahpa/ v mt heal *łiyałpa
ľipha- /ʎipʰa/ v mt wipe *leypʰa
ľùma- /ʎùma/ v mt grind, mill *luma
moʔzu- /moʔzu/ v mt sew *meʔšu
nòbu- /nòbu/ v mt think *nãbu
phaʔta- /pʰaʔta/ v mt throw *pʰaʔta
phaphaʔta- /pʰapʰaʔta/ v mt shoot, hurl as a weapon (DO = weapon) *pʰapʰaʔta
phiwoga- /pʰiwoɡa/ v mt inflate *pʰiwadza
sabaja- /sabaja/ v mt fight *sabaya
tha- /tʰa/ v mt do, make *tʰa
thatha- /tʰatʰa/ v mt use *tʰatʰa
thawo- /tʰawo/ v mt bend *tʰawa
thòbuga- /tʰòbuɡa/ v mt fell, chop down *tʰãbu-dza fall + causative
thùgu- /tʰùɡu/ v mt have sex with *tʰũdu
thuja- /tʰuja/ v mt become *tʰuya
tľetľe- /tʎetʎe/ v mt rub *tletle
tłuphe- /tɬupʰe/ v mt find, discover *tłupʰe
tshìňatha- /ʦʰìɲatʰa/ v mt build, put together, create *kʰiñatʰa
tshotuga- /ʦʰotuɡa/ v mt place *kʰetudza
tsuphu- /ʦupʰu/ v mt itch, irritate *cupʰu
wodzedza- /woʣeʣa/ v mt kill *wadžedza
wolka- /woɫka/ v mt hit *walca
wotsu- /woʦu/ v mt eat (of herbivorous animals) *wecu eat vegetables
zedzeʔogùbèdza- /zeʣeʔoɡùbèʣa/ v mt steal (zedzeʔogu-bèdza) run away from + carry
zèta- /zèta/ v mt sing *šẽta
zìdahpa- /zìdahpa/ v mt count *šĩdałpa
zìgàdza- /zìɡàʣa/ v mt stick in the ground *šikãdza
zija- /zija/ v mt hear *γiya