Pʰeśin is an island-highland (team B) language, spoken in the southern Peilaš.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Morphophonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Numerals
- 5 Modality
- 6 Syntax
- 7 Lexicon
|plain stops||p||t||c||k||ʔ <'>|
|creaky nasals||m̰ <ṁ>||n̰ <ṅ>|
|creaky approximants||w̰ <ẇ>||j̰ <ǰ>|
- /ʔ/ is not spelled word initially.
- Realisation of /h/ is free variation between [h] and [ɦ].
- /w ɾ j/ are devoiced after aspirated consonants, which themselves lose aspiration in this position.
/i o ɛ ɑ/ < i o e a >
Stress is after the last of either ejectives or creaky sonorants - the glottal stop may optionally also attract stress in this manner; if neither is present, stress is in front of the last consonant in multisyllable words.
- /ɑ о/ are realised as [æ ɵ] next to a palatal consonant or if the next syllable contains [i].
- /i o/ are realised as [e ɔ] if the following syllable contains one of [ɑ æ ɛ ɔ ɞ].
- /o/ is realised as [ɞ] next to a palatal consonant and if the next syllable contains [i].
- /ɛ/ is realised as [e] if the next syllable contains [i].
Some baisc phontactic patterns are:
- All syllables contain an onset.
- Glottal consonants (/h ʔ/) and creaky sonorants appear only in syllable onset.
- Glottal consonants furthermore don't occur next to another consonant.
- Semivowels don't occur in codas.
Should two homorganic consonants happen next to each other due to a morphological process, they are seperated by an epenthetic /a/.
Abbreviations used in this section:
- V - vowel stems
- T - plosive stems
- C - (other) consonant stems
Nominals include nouns, pronouns and adjectives. They have the category of animacy and case, exhibiting case concord and including seven cases:
The category of animacy exists only in ergative case and for the third person singular pronoun. It is based on semantics.
|Ergative (inan.)||-in ¹||-hin|
¹ Stem-final t tʰ n palatalise to c cʰ ń
Adverbs are formed from adjectives using the suffix -ro (allomorph -o for adjectives ending in r).
If a noun is possessed by the agent, the possession is expressed by the suffix -ṁan on the possessed noun.
Pʰeśin is split-ergative, splitting for 1. and 2. person vs. everything else.
|distal||ṁi||ṁirjo||ran / taṅakʰ ¹||kʼi|
¹ Ran indicates time before present moment, taṅakʰ - time after present moment.
Irregular correlative caseforms:
- Kʼam 'something' and am 'all, everything' use -ir and -iran for oblique and elative case respectively.
- In addition to that, miṁe 'nothing' and ṁi 'that (inan.)' lose their final vowels before receiving a case ending.
- Mjome 'nobody', ṁirjo 'that (anim.)' and piṁjo 'everybody' only lose their final vowels (and semivowels) before receiving a case ending.
- In addition to that, mjo 'who', ṁǰo 'somebody' and orṁǰo 'somebody else' use -aho for genitive case.
- Haco 'this (anim.)' uses har- for stem of cases other than absolutive
- Mi what is wholly irregular:
- Dative is used for recipient and beneficiaries.
- Genitive is used for possessors and follows its head noun. It also governs the postpositions ňonaron 'behind' and wiśeron 'in front of'.
- Elative and illative are never used on their own. Instead they only indicate the direction of movement and the spatial postposition they are governed by indicates the location to or from which the movement takes place.
- For stative usages, most spatial postpositions govern the oblique case. Non spatial postposition also govern the oblique case and it is used only with postpositions.
Some verbs have two or three principal forms, or rather principal stems. In this section they are referred to as P1, P2 and P3. If a verb lacks P3, P2 is to be used instead in P3's morphological slots. The first two principal forms of some three principal form verbs coincide, but they are listed independently anyway for clarity's sake.
Finite verb forms
Finite verb forms have the categories of person, number, negation, tense, aspect, mood and evidentiality.
A good deal of finite verb forms are formed by circumfixes. Their prefixal parts have the following allomorphs:
- tʼa- has an allomorph of s- in front of single stops.
- ka- and ma- have allomorphs of k- and m- in front of single sonorants.
- kʼ(a)- and makʼ(a)- serve as intensifiers for imperative mood, replacing the usual ka- and ma-.
- Consonant stem verbs add -e- in front of the perfect aspect endings.
- Vowel stem verbs add -'- in front of the imperfect aspect endings.
The copula is rather irregular and doesn't have the category of aspect.
The copula uses he as past stem and the imperfective past affixes to form its past tense.
Other morphology of finite verbs
Verbs are obligatorily marked for evidentiality. Evidentiality markers are stacked on top of TAM-person-number-negation (TAM-PNN) markers. In this table C, T, V marks the type of sound the suffix is added to, not the type of verb stem.
|Direct (other senses)||-kʼa||-wa||-wa|
Verbs can also optionally be marked for some sort of clausal relationship. These markers are stacked on top of TAM-PNN and evidentiality markers. Again, C and V mark if the suffix is added to a wordform ending in a consonant or a vowel.
|in order to ...||-war|
|erg. & oblique relativiser||-a'o||-'a'o|
Inifinite verb forms
There are three infinite verb forms, derived from the bare verb stem:
- P1-mence is the verbal noun / nominaliser.
- a-P2-cʼin (C) / a-P2-in (T) / a-P2-hin (V) is used to derive adverbs from verbs. It denotes that another action is done by doing the action of the verb, from which the form has been derived.
- a-P2-tʼan (C) / a-P2-ran (T/V)denotes that the agent is doing another action simultaneously while also performing this action.
The numeral system is base 10.
- Teens are formed by ran- + a number from 1 to 9 (except for 12, which has a seperate form).
- Tens are formed by a number from 2 to 9 + -ran / -an - the latter suffix is used when the numeral ends in r.
- Tens and units are joined by a suffix -ke onto the ten.
- Ability is expressed by the conjugated verb kʰre (P2 ṅe, P3 ṅo) 'to be able to', followed by a deverbal noun in -mence.
- Permission is expressed by the suffix -cʼo. Lack thereof is expressed by the suffix -cʼom.
- Necessity is expressed by the suffix -kʼa. Lack thereof is expressed by the suffix -kʼam.
- Obligation is expressed by the adverb ňirke, which follows the verb. Lack thereof is expressed by the suffix -kʼam. No distinction is made between lack of necessity and lack of obligation.
Word order is SOVX with absolutive morphosyntax. Word order of noun phrases is:
- Relative clause
- Genitive NP
Relativisation of oblique arguments is done with retention strategy and the relativised argument directly before the relative verb. Evidentiality is optional on relativised verbs - if omitted, it's understood to be the same as the one of the main clause.