Miwan languages/Lexicon

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Combined Miwan Lexicon

There are four languages represented here:

  • Old Eastern Miwan (around 0 YP; the source of loans in Naidda)
    • Eastern Miwan (around 1000 YP; loaned into Puoni)
    • Southern Miwan (loaned into Pirikõsu throughout the period 500-1500 YP)
  • Forest Miwan (loaned into Pencek throughout the first millenium)


The lexemes are given in a near-IPA transcription. The Miwan languages have tone and/or phonation too, but that isn't worked out yet; it probably interacts/correlates with vowel length somehow.

(Asterisks mark roots or affixes that where identified from words which appear to be derived. Question marks indicate uncertain glosses.)

lexeme language part of speech gloss
a:ltiw Forest n. belly
a:nda: Forest adj. terrible
aʀa: Southern v. to beat, to punch
arazja Forest n. birch tree
aska:r Forest adj. haunted
askini: Forest adj. painful
asku Forest adj. polite
aspi:ga Forest n. corner
asti:sat Forest n. vagina
atilka Forest adj. ugly
azbu:tal Forest n. toothache
bizgi: Forest v. to sacrifice
bju:zga Old Eastern; Southern n. a legendary creature that eats people
bli:n Forest n. worm
blita Forest v. to kneel
*bu:r Old Eastern v. to shine
bu:rju Old Eastern n. "shine-er", dragonfly
*d- Old Eastern prefix derives patientive nouns from verbs
dje:zuf Old Eastern n. amber (prob. < Ngauro loan)
dje:zuvu Southern n. amber
dimbal Forest n. wife (vulgar)
di:ndi:n Forest; Southern n. metal
ditisu Forest; Southern int. "goodbye"
*di: Forest  ?prep. or adj.  ?away; not present
di:za: Forest v. to wilt ("to die away")
dre:χurfi: Old Eastern n. "flow-together speech"
*dwa Old Eastern n. food, meal
dwa:d Forest adj. ready
dwa:s Forest n. chest
*dwe:su Old Eastern v. to participate
dwe:suχati Old Eastern n. "not participating"
ezdunda Old Eastern n. splinter
farka Forest n. chin
fa:lwin Eastern n. meeting place
famva Eastern n. rose
fa:ʁili Eastern n. bad water; swamp
fi:kravwan Eastern n. ceremony
fja:ki Old Eastern v. to copulate
fli:li: Forest int. (expression of sexual desire)
fli:s Forest n. hip
flu Forest adj. worthless (vulgar)
fra:m Eastern n. berry
fu:ftu: Forest; Southern n. evil, abomination
fuʃawzu: Southern n. bat
*fur Eastern; Forest n. tree
furzin Eastern n. "tree-life"; elm tree
furzi:n Forest n. "tree-life"; elm tree
fwi:k Forest n. vagina; woman (vulgar; cf. 'cunt')
fwilja:n Eastern n. cooperation; teamwork
fwipju Eastern v., n., or adj. to move; motion; alive
grunat Forest n. son
guljad Forest v. to defeat
gu:s Forest v. to behave, to act
gwa: Forest v. to use
gwastu Forest, Old Eastern n. or v. dump; to throw away
gwa:ʔiti Old Eastern adj. "not important"
*-hi Southern suffix unable to be ...-ed
ibla Forest n. daisy
iki: Forest n. pivot, fulcrum
ili: Forest n. groin
ilka: Forest n. forearm
in Forest n. berry
i:nku:na: Forest n. disaster
intal Forest n. or adj. violence; violent
ipra:f Forest adj. disgusting, disturbing
is Forest n. spouse
iskefli Old Eastern n. lice
isti: Forest v. to have sex
i:stje:χu Old Eastern n. cotton
i:tul Forest n. petal
iz Forest n. head
ja:rik Old Eastern n. twine, string
ja:seχi Old Eastern; Southern n. treaty, compact, accord
jawma Southern adj. light blue
*jesk Old Eastern v. to whistle
jeskju Old Eastern n. "whistle-er", songbird
jeskju Southern n. messenger
-ju Old Eastern suffix agent nominalizer
jun Forest n. thigh
jus Forest n. music
ka:fti:w Forest adj. dark
kaleste: Old Eastern adj. alive
ka:lma: Forest adj. confusing
ki: Forest int. "oh!"
kim Forest n. recipe, spell, algorithm, prescription
ki:mat Forest n. comprehension
ki:mul Forest n. branch
kimvatri Eastern n. brook, small stream
ki:ʁnom Eastern n. robin
klu:n Forest n. wind
kuda:rm Forest adj. "very bad"
kwaχjur Old Eastern n. measles
kwintas Forest n. bird
kwuli: Forest int. "thank you"
la:skurna: Forest n. wasting disease (any)
*le:p Old Eastern adj. black
le:psuru Old Eastern n. "black water"
li Forest n. song
li:fku:ti Forest v. to roast
lufuk Forest n. pox, skin rash
*me Old Eastern v. to boil
*me:g Old Eastern v. to be loud, to be rowdy
me:gju Old Eastern n. "noise maker"
mija: Eastern n. cat, feline
minka Forest n. kink
mi:ti: Forest n. note, chord (music)
miw Old Eastern; Southern n. Miw
mul Forest adj. oblivious
*ne:s Old Eastern v.  ?to walk, to stroll, to amble
*ne:sju Old Eastern n. "walker(s)", leg(s)
ne:sjuten Old Eastern n. "many legs", centipede
nidri: Forest v. to feel warm towards
nidri:stu Forest v. to regret
nidʀiti Southern n. friendship; support (nidʀi-ti)
ni:glu Forest adj. feeble
ni:s Forest n. milk
*ŋwe: Old Eastern v. to give birth
ŋwe:χas Old Eastern v. "not give birth", to miscarry
pa:lintu: Forest n. bellybutton
*pa:n Eastern n. music
pa:ntun Eastern n. "music-red"; guitar
pasta Forest n. cloth, fabric
pif Forest int. "tsk-tsk"
pjaza:r Eastern n. magnolia
plaj Eastern n. bead
pri:f Forest n. calf (of leg)
pru:n Eastern v. to buy
pu:ni:m Eastern  ?n. or v. burrow, to burrow
quχak Old Eastern n. drama, excitement
*qwa: Old Eastern n. leaf
qwa:meti Old Eastern; Southern n. "leaf-boiling"; tea
qwe:san Old Eastern n. "leaf dream", drug trip (especially atropine)
ra:fa Forest n. penis (vulgar)
ragwi:k Forest n. gravel
rak Forest n. ankle
rakuri Forest n. oak tree
*re: Old Eastern v. to speak
re:sti Old Eastern n. "everyone speaking"
ru:mu:t Forest adj. rotten
ruz Forest n. cold, flu
ʁamkuri: Eastern n. oak tree
*(i)san Old Eastern  ?n. or v. dream; to dream
*sa:v Old Eastern  ?  ?reciprocal particle
sa:vre:χati Old Eastern n. "not speaking to each other"
*saχu Old Eastern adj. flat
saχudwa Old Eastern n. flatbread, tortilla ("flat-food")
sja:lan Old Eastern adj. wide
sla:m Forest n. crippled person (vulgar; cf. 'retard')
sli:nga Forest adj. uncertain
*-stu Forest suffix  ?cessative
*suru Old Eastern n. water
su:tra: Forest v. to lose, to misplace
su:χeflu Old Eastern n. bladder, sack, bag
swa: Forest v. to burp
*ʃu:vo Southern v. to cut
ʃu:voju Southern n. knife; "cutter"
ʃwada Southern n. oath, vow, promise
talgu: Forest v. to remember
tawgu:ju Southern n. storyteller, bard; "remember-er"
ta:mal Eastern n. cliff, bluff
-ten Old Eastern suffix "many, much"
*te:sen Old Eastern  ?v.  ?to be like a beehive...
te:senju Old Eastern n. beehive
-ti Old Eastern, Southern suffix action nominalizer
ti: Eastern; Forest  ?adj. funny
timpi:za Eastern n. necklace
ti:nda Forest adj. pleasant
tindahi Southern adj. unpleasant; not easily satisfied (tinda-hi)
ti:vur Eastern; Forest n. "funny-tree"; hickory tree
tiʔak Old Eastern n. spiderweb
tjerizme Old Eastern n. pine pitch
*traf Old Eastern n. fire
traften Old Eastern n. "much fire", bonfire
tʀaften Southern n. bonfire
trak Forest n. feast
*tu Old Eastern  ?n. or v. number; to count
tu:l Eastern n. acorn
tulka Forest n. cord, cable
*tun Eastern  ?adj. red
tuntun Eastern n. "red-red"; a cardinal
tur Forest n. acorn
tuχas Old Eastern n. "no number", myriad, multitude
tu:zi Old Eastern  ? hearsay particle
*twa:k Old Eastern  ?v. to fall down
twa:ksuru Old Eastern n. "fall-down-water", waterfall
twa:na Forest v. to screw over (vulgar)
twa:nka Forest n. gold
twe:ʔi Old Eastern n. willow
*twi Old Eastern adj. hot
twi:m Forest n. chant
twiχas Old Eastern  ?adj. "not hot"
twuz Forest n. palm of the hand
uf Forest n. shit (vulgar)
upla:f Forest v. to fry
urti Forest n. wall
urtim Forest n. yesterday
uslit Forest n. cheek
*utaw Southern v. to spot; to see from afar
utawju Southern n. hawk; "discoverer"
u:vu Southern n. honor
u:zbi: Forest adj. sticky
varja Eastern v. to dance
varja: Forest v. to dance
vijaste Old Eastern n. gourd, pumpkin
vi:ntu: Forest n. shoulder
vi:zwal Eastern n. pine tree
vi:zwar Forest n. larch tree
vuf Forest n. personal honor
vu:ntuval Eastern n. grove, stand of trees
vurka Forest n. snake
vuwan Eastern v. to fall, to drop
*wa Old Eastern v. to eat
wifki: Forest n. mouse
wu: Forest int. "hi"
-χas Old Eastern suffix negation
*χurfi: Old Eastern  ?v. to flow (together)
*za- Forest, Eastern  ?  ?locative prefix (induces lenition on following plosives; possibly ceased to be productive in Proto-Miwan or earlier)
*za: Old Eastern v. to die
zafwita: Eastern n. bird's nest; a mess or tangle
zafwi:ta Forest n. bird's nest
za:ju Old Eastern n. "die-er": dead, broken (c.f. "lemon")
za:ska: Forest n. war
zawozga Southern n. eagle
zi Forest n. apple
*zin Eastern n. life
*zi:n Forest n. life
zinti: Forest n. taboo
zugi:r Forest v. to swallow
*zuka Eastern n. fruit
zukatun Eastern n. "fruit-red"; tomato
zuma Forest v. to bite
zumi: Forest v. to chew
zwi:ki Eastern n. moon; month
*-ʔi Old Eastern suffix  ?"-less", "un-...-able"

See also

Miwan languages