Kozzaŋ Fasa

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Kozzaŋ Fasa
[ˈkoz.zɐŋ ˈfasɐ]
Period c. 1000 YP
Spoken in Ketwxsas Islands
Total speakers 1,000,000
Writing system unknown
Classification Isles languages
    Kozzaŋ Fasa
Basic word order SOV
Morphology some fusion
Alignment NOM-ACC
Created by Radius

Kozzaŋ Fasa is a language of the Isles family, spoken on the Ketwxsas Islands around 1000 YP.


  • Proto-Isles (c. -2000 YP)
    • Mûtsipsa' (c. -100 YP)
      • Kozzaŋ Fasa (c. 1000 YP)



Labial Alveolar Velar Glottal
Plosive p t d k
Fricative   f s z x h
Nasal m n ŋ
Liquid ʟ


Front Central Back
High Unrounded   i /i/ w /ɯ/
High Rounded y /y/ u /u/
Mid e /e/ o /o/
Low a /a/

All phonemes are spelled as in IPA, save that the velar lateral is spelled l and the unrounded high back vowel is spelled w.

Sound Changes from Mûtsipsa'

For reference, Mûtsipsa' allophony

  1. Initial geminates were simplified to single consonants except in liaison when following a vowel-final syllable.
  2. Voiceless consonants became voiced after a voiced consonant.
  3. /m/ was [m] word-initially and after consonants, [w] when preceding /j/ or /ɰ/, and [ŋ_m] elsewhere.
  4. /p t k ts/ were aspirated syllable-initially.
  5. [t n] assimilated to the dental articulation of a following dental consonant.
  6. /i y ɯ u e o iy/ were realised as [ɪ ʏ ʊ˒ ʊ ɜ ɔ ɪʏ] when unstressed, except for long versions of these vowels.
  7. /a/ assimilated to the vowel of the next syllable in the following ways: [a] before /i e/, [ɑ] before /ɯ/, [ɶ] before /y/, [ɑ] before /u o/. In the absence of any of these environments (i.e. word-final syllables, or followed by another /a/) it was realized as [ɐ] if stressed and [ə] if unstressed.
  8. Primary stress was located on the first heavy syllable, or if there were none in a word, the penultimate syllable.

Changes to Kozzaŋ Fasa

  1. All /p t k/ gained aspiration regardless of position, while /ts lost aspiration unconditionally. All further references to [p t k] in this list should be understood as voiceless aspirates.
  2. Dental consonants shifted to an alveolar articulation.
  3. [ŋ_m] simplified to [ŋ], and [m] shifted to [ɰ] everywhere except initial position (i.e. after consonants). Geminate /m:/ became the cluster [ŋɰ] in medial position and a geminate [ŋ:] finally.
  4. [ɣ] and [ɦ] (from voiced /x h/) shifted to [ɰ] and 0 respectively.
  5. [b] and [v] (from voiced /p f/) changed into [f], and [g] similarly shifted to [x].
  6. Clusters of [xɰ] and [hɰ] simplified to [f].
  7. The unstressed lax vowels [ɪ ʏ ʊ˒ ʊ ɜ ɔ ɪʏ] re-merged into their stressed realizations.
  8. Following the lightening of some syllables and some dialect mixing, the the pitch patterns of words ceased to be regulated as precisely as in Mûtsipsa', changing instead to a generalized pattern of high pitch on the first syllable falling to low by the third, and rising back to a mid-level pitch thereafter.
  9. [ʔ] softened to [h] everywhere except in initial position.
  10. Initial [ʔ] shifted to [t] before [x f].
  11. [ɰ] hardened to [x] when following a voiceless consonant.
  12. The affricates [pf ts kx] simplified to [f s x] respectively.
  13. [h] was fronted to [x] when following any high or mid back vowel.
  14. The sequence [ɯɰɯ] simplified to [ɯ:]
  15. The pattern of high pitch falling to low was "reset" at the primary stress, resulting in most words having two peak pitches - initially, and at the stress - both followed by a fall to low pitch if there was enough room to do so. The accent of a word ceased to have any other realization than this peak in pitch.
  16. Sequences of a vowel (of any length) followed by a coda [j ɰ] simplified to long [i: ɯ:] respectively, and the diphthong [iy] to [y:] in all positions.
  17. Remaining instances of [ɰ] lateralized to [ʟ], and remaining instances of [j] hardened to [dz].
  18. Initial and final geminate cononants simplified to single consonants.
  19. [dz] simplified to [z] in all positions.
  20. Unstressed initial vowels were deleted before single intervocalic consonants. The next syllable, if not already stressed, gained the word-initial pitch peak.
  21. Unstressed short vowels between single intervocalic consonants were likewise deleted, and likewise, the pitch rules were re-applied to the new word shape instead of being being distorted by the deletion.
  22. Clusters of a plosive followed by a nasal metathesized, resulting in a homorganic nasal before the plosive. All other nasal consonants before plosives also assimilated to the plosive's point of articulation.
  23. Voiced [d z] shifted to voiceless [t s] whenever adjacent to a voiceless consonant.
  24. Vowel length transferred to following single intervocalic consonants, if any, resulting in a short vowel followed by a long consonant.
  25. All other long vowels were shortened.
  26. Glottal stops were deleted from initial position.
  27. [h] was deleted from all consonant clusters and in final position, remaining only initially and between vowels.
  28. Haplology of consecutive identical or near-identical syllables occurred, unless this two-syllable sequence comprised the entire word root. Geminate consonants were often left behind when the haplology occurred medially (for example, iitidadu > ittiddu, not ittidu). Haplology did not occur in such a manner as to delete any stressed vowel, and once again, pitch rules re-applied to the word's new shape.
  29. Roots consisting of only a single vowel were strengthened by the addition of an initial [k].
  30. Unstressed [y] changed to [i] in final position.


  1. The allophonic changes in quality to /a/ present in Mûtsipsa' remained active allophonic rules throughout the period of Kozzaŋ Fasa's development and continue to be exhibited.
  2. The changes to the pitch rules have resulted in a true pitch-accent system with no independent lexical stress system.
  3. This sound change list produces a reasonably sound description of the prestige dialect of Southern Ketwxsas, but other dialects have experienced some different and additional changes.

Further changes in the dialect of Dokirdix

  1. Rule 24 above instead geminated all consonants after long vowels, even if they were final or part of a consonant cluster.
  2. Rules 19 and 26 - 30 above are absent.
  3. Rules 20 and 21 above occurred in the opposite order.
  4. Geminate consonants broke into clusters: pp, tt, kk, dd broke into fp, st, xk, zd; ff, ss, zz, xx, hh broke into pf, ts, dz, kx, ?h; mm, nn, ŋŋ broke into mb, nd, ŋg; and ll into lŋ.
  5. Unless adjacent to a high vowel, [k] retracted to [ʔ]; remaining initial glottal stops also fronted to [k] before a high vowel.
  6. Similarly [h] and [x] merged, being realized as [x] when adjacent to a high vowel and [h] otherwise.
  7. Back vowels underwent a reorganization: [o] merged into /a/, then [ɯ] shifted to [ɤ].
  8. [z] rhoticized to [ɹ].