| Kozzaŋ Fasa |
|Period||c. 1000 YP|
|Spoken in||Ketwxsas Islands|
|Classification|| Isles languages |
|Basic word order||SOV|
- Proto-Isles (c. -2000 YP)
- Mûtsipsa' (c. -100 YP)
- Kozzaŋ Fasa (c. 1000 YP)
- Mûtsipsa' (c. -100 YP)
|High Unrounded||i /i/||w /ɯ/|
|High Rounded||y /y/||u /u/|
|Mid||e /e/||o /o/|
All phonemes are spelled as in IPA, save that the velar lateral is spelled l and the unrounded high back vowel is spelled w.
Sound Changes from Mûtsipsa'
For reference, Mûtsipsa' allophony
- Initial geminates were simplified to single consonants except in liaison when following a vowel-final syllable.
- Voiceless consonants became voiced after a voiced consonant.
- /m/ was [m] word-initially and after consonants, [w] when preceding /j/ or /ɰ/, and [ŋ_m] elsewhere.
- /p t k ts/ were aspirated syllable-initially.
- [t n] assimilated to the dental articulation of a following dental consonant.
- /i y ɯ u e o iy/ were realised as [ɪ ʏ ʊ˒ ʊ ɜ ɔ ɪʏ] when unstressed, except for long versions of these vowels.
- /a/ assimilated to the vowel of the next syllable in the following ways: [a] before /i e/, [ɑ] before /ɯ/, [ɶ] before /y/, [ɑ] before /u o/. In the absence of any of these environments (i.e. word-final syllables, or followed by another /a/) it was realized as [ɐ] if stressed and [ə] if unstressed.
- Primary stress was located on the first heavy syllable, or if there were none in a word, the penultimate syllable.
Changes to Kozzaŋ Fasa
- All /p t k/ gained aspiration regardless of position, while /ts lost aspiration unconditionally. All further references to [p t k] in this list should be understood as voiceless aspirates.
- Dental consonants shifted to an alveolar articulation.
- [ŋ_m] simplified to [ŋ], and [m] shifted to [ɰ] everywhere except initial position (i.e. after consonants). Geminate /m:/ became the cluster [ŋɰ] in medial position and a geminate [ŋ:] finally.
- [ɣ] and [ɦ] (from voiced /x h/) shifted to [ɰ] and 0 respectively.
- [b] and [v] (from voiced /p f/) changed into [f], and [g] similarly shifted to [x].
- Clusters of [xɰ] and [hɰ] simplified to [f].
- The unstressed lax vowels [ɪ ʏ ʊ˒ ʊ ɜ ɔ ɪʏ] re-merged into their stressed realizations.
- Following the lightening of some syllables and some dialect mixing, the the pitch patterns of words ceased to be regulated as precisely as in Mûtsipsa', changing instead to a generalized pattern of high pitch on the first syllable falling to low by the third, and rising back to a mid-level pitch thereafter.
- [ʔ] softened to [h] everywhere except in initial position.
- Initial [ʔ] shifted to [t] before [x f].
- [ɰ] hardened to [x] when following a voiceless consonant.
- The affricates [pf ts kx] simplified to [f s x] respectively.
- [h] was fronted to [x] when following any high or mid back vowel.
- The sequence [ɯɰɯ] simplified to [ɯ:]
- The pattern of high pitch falling to low was "reset" at the primary stress, resulting in most words having two peak pitches - initially, and at the stress - both followed by a fall to low pitch if there was enough room to do so. The accent of a word ceased to have any other realization than this peak in pitch.
- Sequences of a vowel (of any length) followed by a coda [j ɰ] simplified to long [i: ɯ:] respectively, and the diphthong [iy] to [y:] in all positions.
- Remaining instances of [ɰ] lateralized to [ʟ], and remaining instances of [j] hardened to [dz].
- Initial and final geminate cononants simplified to single consonants.
- [dz] simplified to [z] in all positions.
- Unstressed initial vowels were deleted before single intervocalic consonants. The next syllable, if not already stressed, gained the word-initial pitch peak.
- Unstressed short vowels between single intervocalic consonants were likewise deleted, and likewise, the pitch rules were re-applied to the new word shape instead of being being distorted by the deletion.
- Clusters of a plosive followed by a nasal metathesized, resulting in a homorganic nasal before the plosive. All other nasal consonants before plosives also assimilated to the plosive's point of articulation.
- Voiced [d z] shifted to voiceless [t s] whenever adjacent to a voiceless consonant.
- Vowel length transferred to following single intervocalic consonants, if any, resulting in a short vowel followed by a long consonant.
- All other long vowels were shortened.
- Glottal stops were deleted from initial position.
- [h] was deleted from all consonant clusters and in final position, remaining only initially and between vowels.
- Haplology of consecutive identical or near-identical syllables occurred, unless this two-syllable sequence comprised the entire word root. Geminate consonants were often left behind when the haplology occurred medially (for example, iitidadu > ittiddu, not ittidu). Haplology did not occur in such a manner as to delete any stressed vowel, and once again, pitch rules re-applied to the word's new shape.
- Roots consisting of only a single vowel were strengthened by the addition of an initial [k].
- Unstressed [y] changed to [i] in final position.
- The allophonic changes in quality to /a/ present in Mûtsipsa' remained active allophonic rules throughout the period of Kozzaŋ Fasa's development and continue to be exhibited.
- The changes to the pitch rules have resulted in a true pitch-accent system with no independent lexical stress system.
- This sound change list produces a reasonably sound description of the prestige dialect of Southern Ketwxsas, but other dialects have experienced some different and additional changes.
Further changes in the dialect of Dokirdix
- Rule 24 above instead geminated all consonants after long vowels, even if they were final or part of a consonant cluster.
- Rules 19 and 26 - 30 above are absent.
- Rules 20 and 21 above occurred in the opposite order.
- Geminate consonants broke into clusters: pp, tt, kk, dd broke into fp, st, xk, zd; ff, ss, zz, xx, hh broke into pf, ts, dz, kx, ?h; mm, nn, ŋŋ broke into mb, nd, ŋg; and ll into lŋ.
- Unless adjacent to a high vowel, [k] retracted to [ʔ]; remaining initial glottal stops also fronted to [k] before a high vowel.
- Similarly [h] and [x] merged, being realized as [x] when adjacent to a high vowel and [h] otherwise.
- Back vowels underwent a reorganization: [o] merged into /a/, then [ɯ] shifted to [ɤ].
- [z] rhoticized to [ɹ].