| To Be Continued...|
Thedukeofnuke is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
| Imperial Ōmishiman |
|Period||c. 2500 YP|
|Writing system||Ōmishiman abugida|
|Classification|| Macro-Anatolionesian |
|Basic word order||SOV, topic-comment|
Imperial Ōmishiman is the term used to refer to the official language of the Empire of Ōmishima. The language as described in this article is the written and spoken standard of the 25th and 26th centuries YP.
It is a descendant of Proto-Anatolionesian.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Morphology
|stops||p · b||t · d||k · ɡ|
|affricates||ʦ · ʣ||ʧ · ʤ|
The standard transcription of Imperial Omishiman is as follows:
- The affricates /ʧ ʤ/ are written ch j
- The fricative /ʃ/ is written sh
- The tap /ɾ/ is written r
- The semivowel /j/ is written y
- All other phonemes are transcribed as IPA (or Latin-text equivalent)
- Gemination is represented by a doubling the consonant; long vowels are represented with a macron
- Double digraphs repeat only the first letter (e.g. the geminated form of sh is ssh)
Phonotactics and distribution
Syllable structure is (C)(j)V(ː)(C).
Any consonant may appear in onset position. Consonants in coda are restricted in principle to the archiphonemes /N Q/.
/N/ is a nasal that assimilates in place of articulation to a following consonant - for instance /aNfa/ > [amfa], /aNka/ > [aŋka]. Word-finally and before /h/, it is realised as [n]. It is transcribed as m before labials and n otherwise.
/Q/ simply geminates an adjacent consonant - for instance /aQfa/ > [affa], /aQka/ > [akka]. It has no independent surface realisation, and some analyses reject the existence of /Q/ and speak in terms of geminated consonants only.
There are no diphthongs; adjacent vowels form separate syllables.
Sound changes from Proto-Anatolionesian
To Old Ōmishiman (up to c. 200 YP)
- p > f / (except in clusters)
2. CLUSTER SIMPLIFICATION
- [+nasal]l > ʤ
- kʃ ʃt > ʧ
- gʃ ʃd > ʤ
- ʃk > ʃʃ
- ʃg > ʒʒ
- [+fricative] > Ø / #_[+stop]
- [+fricative][+nasal] > [+nasal +geminate] / V_
- [+fricative][+nasal] > [+nasal]
3. MERGER OF CORONALS
- θ > ʦ
4. VOWEL CHANGES
- eu > øː
- ou > au
- [+vowel +round] > [+front] /_ɲ
5. MERGER OF NASALS
- ɲ > nj / _V
- ɲ > in / V_
- ɲ > n
- Nasals assimilate in POA to a following consonant
- tw kw > p
- dw gw > b
- we > je
- w > Ø / [+labial]_
- w l > u / C_
- Cr > CC / V_
- r > Ø / C_
This produced the following phonemic inventory:
|stops||p · b||t · d||k · ɡ|
|affricates||ʦ||ʧ · ʤ||kx|
|fricatives||f||s||ʃ · ʒ||x|
|liquids||r · l|
|high||i · y||u|
|mid||e · ø||o|
There were also phonemic diphthongs /ai au/. All vowels and diphthongs had phonemic length.
To Middle Ōmishiman (up to c. 1600 YP)
- t d > ʦ ʣ / _i
2. LOSS OF FRONT ROUNDED VOWELS
- ø y > jo ju / _# (regardless of length)
- ø y > e i / (regardless of length)
- x > j / C_ (including /kx/)
- ʦj ʣj sj xj > ʧ ʤ ʃ ʃ
- j > Ø / [+affricate]_, [+palatal]_
4. ASSIMILATION OF OBSTRUENTS
- Sibilants assimilate to following sibilants
- Stops and affricates assimilate to following stops/affricates
5. PROSTHESIS AND EPENTHESIS
- ʦ ʣ ʧ ʤ > ʦu ʣu ʧi ʤi / _C, _#
- [+stop] > [+stop]e / _C, _#
- CC > CCe / _C, _#
- s ʃ ʒ > su ʃi ʒi / _#
6. LENITION OF FRICATIVES
- V[+sibilant] > Vː / _$
- x > k / V_V
- x > h
To Imperial Ōmishiman (up to c. 2500 YP)
1. SONORANT MERGERS
- l > n / _$
- l r > ɾ
- m > n / _#
- f > w / V_V
3. VOWEL BREAKING
- e o > je wo / (regardless of length)
4. VOWEL SIMPLIFICATION
- w > Ø / _i, _u (regardless of length)
- ai au > eː oː
- aːi aːu > ai au
- je wo > e o / (regardless of length)
5. MERGER OF VOICED PALATALS
- ʒ > ʤ
Imperial Ōmishiman has a suffixing, lightly fusional nominal morphology with nouns marked for a relatively large number of cases (12, according to most analyses) but not for number. Comparative studies have shown that the suffixes are mainly if not entirely derived from fused postpositions.
The locative, lative, perlative, and ablative cases are traditionally grouped as the 'locative cases'. Some analyses do not consider the comitative to be a true case; however, since it is subject to rules of assimilation like the other cases, that view is not followed in this description.
The citation form of a nominal is the nominative. The base for declining a nominal is, however, the nominal root. Normally the citation form is predictable from the root. For a root ending in a vowel or n, the citation form is the same as the root; otherwise an epenthetic vowel is added to the end, which is i for roots in ch j sh, u for ts dz s, and e for all other consonants.
About one in four nominals has an irregular root, indicated in the lexicon. The convention used is that <root>-V indicates a root used before vowels, and <root>- indicates a root used with all suffixes.
The form used for adding suffixes depends on the word and the suffix. Normally the root is used before suffixes starting with vowels (or having both postvocalic and postconsonantal forms), and the citation form before suffixes starting with consonants; however, for some words the root is used with all suffixes.
The case suffixes are listed in the following table:
There are some regular rules to be followed when declining a nominal:
- To form the topic case of a word whose root ends in a stop or nasal, labialise the final (unvoiced stops become p, voiced stops become b, and nasals become m) and add the suffix –a.
- Long root-final vowels become short before the lative suffix –ike.
- Before the suffixes –toshi, –ka, and –to, a root-final stop or affricate assimilates to the stop in the suffix. For instance, wawats+ka becomes wawakka.
- To form the instrumental case of a word whose root ends in Cy, geminate the consonant before the y and add the suffix –u.
- To form the essive case of a word whose root ends in t or k, delete that consonant and add the suffix –chite; for a word whose root ends in s or sh, delete that consonant and add the suffix –sshite.
The table below provides some examples of nominal declension. Sha, mōn, and kake are all regular nominals; tsan, fā, and kēn have irregular roots. (While kake has a citation form different from its root, the final –e is epenthetic and predictable.)