Buruya Nzaysa/Texts

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The legend of Emperor Tsinakan

Main article: Tsinakan text


Nzɔ de’áxa Tsənaxa, ño lo sɛtsa’ɔk, ño lo de’áxa u Kasaga, ño lo mɛya ayru Tol o Əbe kwə, sa nzɔ xa mpaskale:

Steyə rabɛ lu ñire lu mvunə poxe o lu pɛlɔ ah lo mɛwɛ axe, maxə ɔra latsi əbɔwə səyo. Naxa lo latsi wemə xa mve: "Nzɔ mɛwɛ ah, ɔdɔwə ɔ de’áxa katsu. Na oba latsi səyodo esə sopsə. Dal tsetsu nə no. O xə loru rɔma lu pɛlɔ ah lo mɛwɛ ah puh mvunə witsu, ɔdɔwə ɔ dəpse."

Rabɛ lu mvunə poxe o lu pɛlɔ ah lo mɛwɛ axe, e, ñe lo mɛya ayru Tol o Əbe kwə, ñire wɛtuldɔ lu botsu axe ada lu latsi rɔma ə səyona, ne e ada lu gɛyse ayru Obáse lolmu. Neya waño gəño, o ne bani, o neya puh Omɔ́yxɔy lu to axe dalmə. Neya mve: "Lɛñɔ Omɔ́yxɔy yɔsa, ño’ɔ lo təña ah lo vi, oldɔ buna: Steyaxə tse latsi ə tsuto ntɛ lo pawɔ ome ño u dəpse. Tsetsu taxa lu la ayru botso. Ma xə esə! Oldɔwa lu mpunə əño!"

Ɔdɔwa Obáse ɔra lɛwi axe buna. Nɛ ə suña, o nɛ puh lo to axe ɔ katsu tsapse. Rabɛ nzo rɔ lɛ, neya ɔra latsi rɔma ə səyona esə sopsə. Neya esə əvre. Neya oba ñaysə o bɔ o xɛvra kwə kə’ɛ́ta, o neya tsə ada la Kasaga pili.

Interlinear gloss

Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
de’áxa
king
Tsənaxa,
Tsənaxa
ño
as.3
lo
DEF.NOM
sɛtsa’ɔk,
emperor
ño
as.3
lo
DEF.NOM
de’áxa
king
u
of.3
Kasaga,
Kasaga
ño
as.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛya
brother
ayru
of.3.ANIM
Tol
Sun
o
and
Əbe
Moon
kwə,
with.3
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
xa
this.ACC
mpaskale:
announce
The king Tsənaxa, as the emperor, as the king of Kasaga, as the brother of Sun and Moon, announces this:
Steyə
PROG.AUX-3
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ñire
until.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mvunə
hold.VN
poxe
for.1
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
pɛlɔ
chair
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛwɛ
father
axe,
of.1
maxə
NEG.AUX-3PL>1
ɔra
all
latsi
foreign_land
əbɔwə
CESS.AUX
səyo.
be_hostile
During the before of my holding the throne of my father, all the foreign countries did not stop being hostile to me.
Naxa
PFV.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
latsi
foreign_land
wemə
neighbour
xa
this.ACC
mve:
say
The neighbouring foreign countries said this:
"Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
mɛwɛ
father
ah,
of.3
ɔdɔwə
RES.COP-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
de’áxa
king
katsu."
powerful
"As for his father, he certainly was a powerful king."
"Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
oba
many
latsi
foreign_land
səyodo
be_hostile-AGT
esə
EMPH.AUX
sopsə."
conquer
"He did conquer many hostile foreign countries."
"Dal
but
tsetsu
then
PFV.AUX-3SG
no."
die.
"But then he died."
"O
and
this.NOM
loru
3SG.ANIM.NOM
rɔma
REL
lu
DEF.ACC
pɛlɔ
chair
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛwɛ
father
ah
of.3
puh
for.3
mvunə
hold.VN
witsu,
now
ɔdɔwə
RES.COP-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
dəpse."
child
"And this one who holds the chair of his father now, he is a child."
Rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mvunə
hold.VN
poxe
for.1
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
pɛlɔ
chair
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛwɛ
father
axe,
of.1
e,
1SG.NOM
ñe
as.1
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛya
brother
ayru
of.3.ANIM
Tol
Sun
o
and
Əbe
Moon
kwə,
with.3
ñire
until.3
wɛtuldɔ
even
lu
DEF.ACC
botsu
attack.VN
axe
of.1
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
latsi
foreign_land
rɔma
REL
ə
1SG.ACC
səyona,
be_hostile.VN
ne
PFV.AUX-1SG
e
1SG.NOM
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
gɛyse
feast
ayru
of.3.ANIM
Obáse
Obáse
lolmu.
attend
When I held the throne of my father, I, as the brother of Sun and Moon, even before my attack on the foreign countries that were hostile to me, I attended the feasts of Obáse.
Neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
waño
3PL.ACC
gəño,
celebrate
o
and
ne
PFV.AUX-1SG
bani,
pray
o
and
neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
puh
for.3
Omɔ́yxɔy
Divine_Mother
lu
DEF.ACC
to
hand
axe
of.1
dalmə.
present
I celebrated them, and I prayed, and I raised my hand towards the Divine Mother.
Neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
mve:
say
I said:
"Lɛñɔ
"2SG.NOM
Omɔ́yxɔy
Divine_Mother
yɔsa,
lady
ño’ɔ
as.2
lo
DEF.NOM
təña
light
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
vi,
star
oldɔ
OBL.AUX-2SG
buna:"
listen:
"Divine Lady, light of the stars, listen to me:"
"Steyaxə
PROG.AUX-3PL>1
tse
that.NOM
latsi
foreign_land
ə
1SG.ACC
tsuto
insult
ntɛ
by.3
lo
DEF.NOM
pawɔ
name.VN
ome
of.1
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
dəpse."
child
"Those foreign countries are insulting me by calling me a child."
"Tsetsu
then
taxa
INCH.AUX-3PL>3
lu
DEF.ACC
la
land
ayru
of.2.HON
botso."
attack
"What is more, they are beginning to attack your land."
"Ma
NEG.AUX-3SG
this.NOM
esə!"
EMPH.AUX
"This cannot be!"
"Oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
mpunə
heathen
əño!"
kill
"Kill the heathen!"
Ɔdɔwa
RES.AUX-3SG>3
Obáse
Obáse
ɔra
all
lɛwi
word
axe
of.1
buna.
listen
Obáse listened to all my words.
PFV.AUX-3SG>1
ə
1SG.ACC
suña,
support
o
and
PFV.AUX-3SG>1
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
to
hand
axe
of.1
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
katsu
strength
tsapse.
give
She supported me, and she gave strength to my hand.
Rabɛ
during.3
nzo
TOP.ACC
ten
lɛ,
year
neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
ɔra
all
latsi
foreign_land
rɔma
REL
ə
1SG.ACC
səyona
be_hostile.VN
esə
EMPH.AUX
sopsə.
conquer
Within ten years, I conquered all the foreign countries that were hostile to me.
Neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
esə
EMPH.AUX
əvre.
destroy
I destroyed them.
Neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
oba
many
ñaysə
slave
o
and
ox
o
and
xɛvra
sheep
kwə
with.3
kə’ɛ́ta,
capture
o
and
neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
tsə
that.ACC
ada
to.3
la
land
Kasaga
Kasaga
pili.
send
I captured many slaves and oxen and sheep, and I sent those to the land Kasaga.

The North Wind and the Sun

Nzɔ Alsɔ’ə́vle o Tol kwə, naxa natsu ntsətə rɛ esə yəru katsu nɛwɛ, xaru, tseru. Tsetsu, nə ada wilu u məvo rɔma ɔ kɛlbo xɛvrine wədəna oskə. Nah mura rɛ ɔdɔwə xaru katsu nɛwɛ, rɔma esə mvosu rɛ wəya lo ru lu kɛlbo ah salaspo.

Ta Alsɔ’ə́vle ntɛ ɔra katsu ah utse. Dal ɔdɔwə lo ru lesəgɔ, o sa lu kɛlbo ah ñire bədu ntaskɔda. Pɛga, əbɔwə Alsɔ’ə́vle utse. Na ada Tol mve: "Witsu, oldɔ losə." Ta Tol ntɛ ɔra bogə ah əftah. O ntɛ nzɔ, ɔdɔwa lo ru lu kɛlbo ah salaspo, o taxena ni lu ɔtse əbu.

Na Alsɔ’ə́vle ada Tol mve: "Nte’a, stɔwə ah katsu sopsə." Na Tol xa loya: "Ntenamɛ ah katsu, esa u mova nzawe o tsɛñɛru lu isa demit solvo."

Interlinear gloss

Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
Alsɔ’ə́vle
Wind-North
o
and
Tol
Sun
kwə,
with
naxa
PFV.AUX-3PL>3
natsu
someday
ntsətə
discuss
SUB.ACC
esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
yəru
which_person.NOM
katsu
strong
nɛwɛ,
more
xaru,
this_person
tseru.
that_person
The North Wind and the Sun, they once discussed which of them was stronger, the one or the other.
Tsetsu,
then
PFV.AUX-3SG
ada
to.3
wilu
this_place
u
INDEF.NOM
məvo
traveller
rɔma
REL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
kɛlbo
cloak
xɛvrine
wool
wədəna
wear.VN
oskə.
come
Then a traveller, who wore a woolen cloak, came along.
Nah
PFV.AUX-3PL
mura
decide
SUB.ACC
ɔdɔwə
RES.COP-3SG
xaru
this_person
katsu
strong
nɛwɛ,
more
rɔma
REL
esə
EMPH.AUX
mvosu
cause.VN
SUB.ACC
wəya
FUT.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
ru
man
lu
DEF.ACC
kɛlbo
cloak
ah
of.3
salaspo.
put_away
They decided that this one was stronger who caused the man to put away his cloak.
Ta
INCH.AUX-3SG
Alsɔ’ə́vle
Wind-North
ntɛ
with.3
ɔra
all
katsu
strength
ah
of.3
utse.
blow
The North Wind began to blow as strong as he could.
Dal
but
ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
ru
man
lesəgɔ,
shiver
o
and
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
kɛlbo
cloak
ah
of.3
ñire
until.3
bədu
tight
ntaskɔda.
wrap_around
But the man shivered, and he pulled his cloak tighter.
Pɛga,
finally
əbɔwə
CESS.AUX-3SG
Alsɔ’ə́vle
Wind-North
utse.
blow
In the end, the North Wind stopped blowing.
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
ada
to.3
Tol
Sun
mve:
say
He said to the Sun:
"Witsu,
now
oldɔ
OBL.AUX-2SG
losə."
try
"Now you must try."
Ta
INCH.AUX-3SG
Tol
Sun
ntɛ
with.3
ɔra
all
bogə
warmth
ah
of.3
əftah.
shine
The Sun began to shine as warm as he could.
O
and
ntɛ
with.3
nzɔ,
TOP.NOM
ɔdɔwa
RES.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
ru
man
lu
DEF.ACC
kɛlbo
cloak
ah
of.3
salaspo,
put_away
o
and
taxena
INCH.AUX-3.REFL
ni
in.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɔtse
river
əbu.
swim
And with this, the man put away his cloak, and he began to swim in the river.
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
Alsɔ’ə́vle
Wind-North
ada
to.3
Tol
Sun
mve:
say
The North Wind said to the Sun:
"Nte’a,
truly
stɔwə
EMPH.AUX-2SG>1
ah
of.3
katsu
strength
sopsə."
defeat
"Indeed, you defeat me with regard to strength."
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
Tol
Sun
xa
this.ACC
loya:
answer
The Sun replied:
"Ntenamɛ
GER-compare
ah
of.3
katsu,
strength
esa
EMPH.AUX-3SG>3
u
INDEF.NOM
mova
exchange
nzawe
smart
o
and
tsɛñɛru
agreed
lu
DEF.ACC
isa
most
demit
profit
solvo."
bring
"Compared to force, a smart win-win deal brings more profit."

Six geese

Nzɔ noxaspo Tsɔmɔla, rɔma nzo u wa məmova iyɔ ño mlaña nonə lolmɔ, ɔdɔwə ada lu ñuylu kə, mpu nona ɔ sudusa nowɛ puh lo arawa barɛda. O lu ɔyalu ah u ɛbo kwə u kolduma laste, rɔma ntɛ u rɔnzobe kwɛsta puh lo rolñe lɛñanɛ tətsɔ ah nzəxrɛda, nə nzɔ tselu ntɔnadɛ.

"Lɛñɔ yɔsa, dəña’o pɔ’ɔwa lu si lɔyse olto nɛwɛ adɔ mɔra," na Tsɔmɔla ntɛ u ləmu mve. "Puh nzɔ mlaña navɔ rɔma e nzo olə bɔra, esah puh rəga."

Ntuysɔlɛ, nə lo ɔyalsi xañɔ mpu ta tsə mevuna ruyfɔ kwɛ’a, o rabɛ xa, steyah oba ɔrɛvo ntɛ əbətsa tsɔve. Dal tsetsu na lo asa puh loru lu lɔyse bɛgɔ mɔrala dalmə, o ɔdɔwa Tsɔmɔla xa ɛru, o na mve: "Ole’o məgi ntsa. Dal witsu, dəña’o pɔ’ɔwa poxe lu si sədə tsapse."

Interlinear gloss

Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
noxaspo
merchant
Tsɔmɔla,
Tsɔmɔla
rɔma
REL
nzo
TOP.ACC
u
INDEF.NOM
wa
few
məmova
business_partner
iyɔ
important
ño
as.3
mlaña
guest
nonə
INT.AUX
lolmɔ,
visit.VN
ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX-3SG
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ñuylu
marketplace
kə,
walk
mpu
because
nona
INT.AUX-3SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
sudusa
meat
nowɛ
perfect
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
arawa
dinner
barɛda.
acquire
The merchant Tsɔmɔla, who was expecting a visit from a group of important business guests, went to the marketplace in order to get some good meat for dinner.
O
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɔyalu
market_stand
ah
of.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ɛbo
peasant
kwə
with
u
INDEF.NOM
kolduma
face
laste,
healthy
rɔma
REL
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
rɔnzobe
voice
kwɛsta
loud
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
rolñe
twelve
lɛñanɛ
goose
tətsɔ
fat
ah
of.3
nzəxrɛda,
call.VN
PFV.AUX-3SG
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
tselu
there
ntɔnadɛ.
stop_for
He stopped at the stall of a ruddy-cheeked peasant, who was advertising twelve well-fattened geese in a loud voice.
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
yɔsa,
lady
dəña’o
please
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
si
six
lɔyse
poultry
olto
thin
nɛwɛ
most
adɔ
of.2
mɔra,"
select
"Dear lady, please select the six thinnest of your birds,"
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
Tsɔmɔla
Tsɔmɔla
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ləmu
smile.VN
mve.
say
Tsɔmɔla said with a smile.
"Puh
for.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
mlaña
guest
navɔ
boring
rɔma
REL
e
1SG.NOM
nzo
TOP.ACC
olə
OBL.AUX
bɔra,
feed
esah
EMPH.AUX-3PL
puh
for.3
rəga."
suffice
"They will be good enough for those boring guests I have to feed."
Ntuysɔlɛ,
GER-wonder
PFV.AUX-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
ɔyalsi
market_woman
xañɔ
move
mpu
because
ta
INCH.AUX-3SG>3
tsə
that.ACC
mevuna
task
ruyfɔ
weird
kwɛ’a,
prepare
o
and
rabɛ
during.3
xa,
this.ACC,
steyah
PROG.AUX-3SG
oba
many
ɔrɛvo
stand-AGT
ntɛ
by.3
əbətsa
amusement
tsɔve.
watch
The marketwoman turned to comply with that peculiar request, wondering about it while the people standing by watched with amusement.
Dal
but
tsetsu
then
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
asa
woman
puh
for.3
loru
3SG.ANIM.NOM
lu
DEF.ACC
lɔyse
poultry
bɛgɔ
puny
mɔrala
select-PAT
dalmə,
present
o
and
ɔdɔwa
RES.AUX-3SG>3
Tsɔmɔla
Tsɔmɔla
xa
this.ACC
ɛru,
prevent
o
and
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
mve:
say
But when she presented Tsɔmɔla with the pathetic poultry she had selected, he interrupted her and said:
"Ole’o
OBL.AUX-1SG>2
məgi
thank
ntsa."
very
"Thank you very much."
"Dal
but
witsu,
now
dəña’o
please
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
poxe
for.1
lu
DEF.ACC
si
six
sədə
other
tsapse."
give
"And now, please give me the six other ones."

Tsɔmɔla "the Cunning One" < tso- (hyperprobabilitive) + molan "awake, alert"

Instructions for a marriage ceremony

I.

Witsu ta lo runah lu ɛflɛ kiya rɔma loru xa ɔdɔwə mvəma ada lu isavru tsapse. O sa nzɔ isavru xa puh lo mvintu ah lo uyse’abo ntaskɔda, o sa nzɔ xa mpaskale:

"Nzɔ e, [əmi ah isavru], mah noñenə kəvi podɔ, [əmi ah nɛtsi], ñe u əbətsa ga u kɛfol, ñe u laste ga u balbo, ñe u ɔtso ga u mɛvə, ni ɔ tol ga ɔ mpəlɔ. O eseya podɔ osu rɛ we’o ntɛ lo ɔra mɔtsa o ŋkwayfo axe ñedɛlu o suña. Nte’a, mvəbo lu witsu o ɛtsu kwə, tsone’o lɛño tsena, o tsoneya podɔ ɔ begu tsapse."

O tsetsu skɛga, sa nzɔ uyse’abo xa mpaskale:

"Nzɔ e, [əmi ah nɛtsi], mah noñenə kəvi podɔ, [əmi ah isavru], ñe u əbətsa ga u kɛfol, ñe u laste ga u balbo, ñe u ɔtso ga u mɛvə, ni ɔ tol ga ɔ mpəlɔ. O eseya podɔ osu rɛ we’o ntɛ lo ɔra mɔtsa o ŋkwayfo axe ñedɛlu o suña. Nte’a, mvəbo lu witsu o ɛtsu kwə, tsone’o lɛño tsena, o tsoneya podɔ ɔ begu tsapse."

II.

Tsetsu sa lo runah mve: "Gaso’o bani." O ntɛ xə tah lo ñe tsadavo fiya bani ga mvəgɛ:

"Lɛñɔ Toya, pɔ’ɔ poxe ləmo rabɛ lu ɛte."
"Lɛñɔ Əbeya, pɔ’ɔ poxe xɔmátsi rabɛ lu mɔromə."

"Lɛñɔ Buliya, pɔ’ɔwa poxe suña rɛ gasañə oba afe mvotsi."
"Lɛñɔ Iwaya, pɔ’ɔwa poxe ɛtsu lu mlusɔmɛ aymɛ nzəwoga la’e."

"Lɛñɔ Alsɔya, pɔ’ɔwa ɔ axa nzɔnə solvo, o stɔwə puh lo kolduma aymɛ ɔ nzaləd tsapse."
"Lɛñɔ Nolɔya, pɔ’ɔwa ɔ kwela mvoyɔ́skovo solvo, o stɔwə puh lo mɔtsa aymɛ ɔ sɛtsasa tsapse."

"Lɛñɔ Obáse yɔsa, ño’ɔ lo təña ah lo vi, pɔ’ɔwa lu tsena aymɛ ñedɛlu."
"Lɛñɔ Tsənaxa de’áxa, ño’ɔ lo sasama ah lo ŋkana, pɔ’ɔwə iyɔda, ntɛ u katsu o uvɔ kwə."

"Esə xə, mvəbo lu witsu o ɛtsu kwə."

Interlinear gloss

PART ONE

Witsu
now
ta
INCH.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
runah
priest
lu
DEF.ACC
ɛflɛ
necklace
kiya
gold
rɔma
REL
loru
3SG.NOM
xa
this.ACC
ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX
mvəma
bless-VN
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
isavru
bridegroom
tsapse.
give
Now the priest gives the golden necklace, which he has blessed, to the bridegroom.
O
and
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
isavru
bridegroom
xa
this.ACC
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mvintu
shoulder
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
uyse’abo
bride
ntaskɔda,
wrap_around
o
and
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
xa
this.ACC
mpaskale:
declare
And the bridegroom puts it around the bride's shoulders, and speaks thus:
"Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
e,
1SG.NOM
[əmi
[name
ah
of.3
isavru],
husband]
mah
today
noñenə
INT.AUX-1.REFL
kəvi
bind
podɔ,
for.2
[əmi
[name
ah
of.3
nɛtsi],
wife]
ñe
as.1
u
INDEF.NOM
əbətsa
happy
ga
or
u
INDEF.NOM
kɛfol,
sad
ñe
as.1
u
INDEF.NOM
laste
healthy
ga
or
u
INDEF.NOM
balbo,
sick
ñe
as.1
u
INDEF.NOM
ɔtso
rich
ga
or
u
INDEF.NOM
mɛvə,
poor
ni
in.3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tol
sun
ga
or
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
mpəlɔ."
rain
"Today I, [name of bridegroom], bind with you, [name of bride], in happiness and sadness, in health and illness, in wealth and poverty, in sunshine and rain."
"O
and
eseya
EMPH.AUX-1SG>3
podɔ
for.2
osu
promise
SUB.ACC
we’o
FUT.AUX-1SG>2
ntɛ
by.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ɔra
all
mɔtsa
soul
o
and
ŋkwayfo
body
axe
of.1
ñedɛlu
accompany
o
and
suña."
support
"And I promise that I will live by your side and support you with all my soul and all my body."
"Nte’a,
truly
mvəbo
between.3
lu
DEF.ACC
witsu
now
o
and
ɛtsu
always
kwə,
with.3
tsone’o
HAB.AUX-1SG>2
lɛño
2SG.ACC
tsena,
love
o
and
tsoneya
HAB.AUX-1SG>3
podɔ
for.2
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
begu
honor
tsapse."
give
"Truly, now and forever I will love you and give you honor."
O
and
tsetsu
then
skɛga,
likewise
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
uyse’abo
bride
xa
this.ACC
mpaskale:
declare
And in the same way, the bride speaks thus:

(Apart from the names, the bride's vow is identical to the bridegroom's vow, and will not be glossed again here.)


PART TWO

Tsetsu
then
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
runah
priest
mve:
say
Then the priest says:
"Gaso’o
PERM.AUX-2PL
bani."
pray
"You may pray."
O
and
ntɛ
like.3
this.NOM
tah
INCH.AUX-3PL
lo
DEF.NOM
ñe
two
tsadavo
engaged-AGT
fiya
together
bani
pray
ga
or
mvəgɛ:
sing
And thus pray or sing both of them together:
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Toya,
sun-HON
pɔ’ɔ
COND.AUX-2SG
poxe
for.1
ləmo
smile
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɛte."
day
"Sun, may you smile upon us in the daytime!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Əbeya,
moon-HON
pɔ’ɔ
COND.AUX-2SG
poxe
for.1
xɔmátsi
guide
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mɔromə.
night
"Moon, may you guide us in the night!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Buliya,
earth-HON
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
poxe
for.1
suña
support
SUB.ACC
gasañə
PERM.AUX-3SG<1
oba
many
afe
fruit
mvotsi.
grow
"Earth, may you help us to grow many fruits!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Iwaya,
Iwa_river-HON,
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
poxe
for.1
ɛtsu
always
lu
DEF.ACC
mlusɔmɛ
houseboat
aymɛ
of.1PL
nzəwoga
safely
la’e."
carry
"River Iwa, may you always safely carry our houseboat!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Alsɔya,
wind-HON,
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
axa
air
nzɔnə
good
solvo,
bring
o
and
stɔwə
NULL.AUX-2SG>1
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
kolduma
face
aymɛ
of.1PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
nzaləd
freshness
tsapse."
give
"Wind, may you bring good air and refresh our faces!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Nolɔya,
road-HON,
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
kwela
message
mvoyɔ́skovo
make_glad-AGT
solvo,
bring
o
and
stɔwə
NULL.AUX-2SG>1
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɔtsa
soul
aymɛ
of.1PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
sɛtsasa
good_luck
tsapse."
give
"Road, may you bring good news and give us good luck!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Obáse
Obáse
yɔsa,
lady
ño’ɔ
as.2
lo
DEF.NOM
təña
light
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
vi,
star
pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
tsena
love.VN
aymɛ
of.1PL
ñedɛlu."
accompany
"Mother Obáse, light of the stars, may you accompany our love!"
"Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
Tsənaxa
Tsənaxa
de’áxa,
king
ño’ɔ
as.2
lo
DEF.NOM
sasama
lord
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ŋkana,
world
pɔ’ɔwə
COND.AUX-2SG>1
iyɔda,
lead
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
katsu
strength
o
and
uvɔ
confidence
kwə."
with.3
"Lord Tsənaxa, ruler of the world, may you lead us with strength and confidence!"
"Esə
EMPH.AUX-3SG
xə,
this.NOM,
mvəbo
between.3
lu
DEF.ACC
witsu
now
o
and
ɛtsu
always
kwə."
with.3
"So be it, now and forever!"

This description of a marriage ceremony in Buruya is taken from a handbook for priests of the traditional Ndak faith; the manuscript dates to c. 210 YP. (Based on the text of Conlang Relay 14.)

A recipe from Buruya

Ogu rɛ stɔwa ɔ tola salɔvo u rima mɛsi kwɛ’a, nodɔwa xa nzɛ:

So’ɔwa nzo namə sanzáta ɔdɛ, so’ɔwa ño lo oba xagala mvɔ nanɔ, o so’ɔwa ni ɔ rimavo rɛlga kwə dəbu kusə’a uflava ñire rɛ ta nzɔ ɔ mvosta ñesova nzɛwə. Ɔdɔ’ɔwa owa lu rimavo sañawe o mvonóra. Puysa’ɔwa ntɛga wa dəbu tɛfta o so’ɔwa skɛga ɔ wɛna aldo uflava: ɔ bapsɛ o saxə o sɔntu o yastɛ o ñitsɔrə kwe. Pɔ’ɔwa mɔra, ni oma gastɔwa ɔ xɛrɔ pewada. So’ɔwa ɛxɛ ntɛ u ɔ’i o xalu o wəsku o xiso kwə mvɔwa mvosalɔ. Oldɔwa mɔla rɛ puysa’ɔwa lu tola ntɛ u bagɛbo xat leda nəlga. Rabɛ rɛ ɔdɔwah lo wɛna ɔ nzɔnə, so’ɔwa bu lu sudusa ni lu rimavo ñawe, so’ɔwa bu nəlga, o so’ɔwa ɔ tulsu on ɔ kwe nabaña u bɔsalɔ tɛfta. Stɔwa nzo kepəña kwə u sɔda ga nigiwo mɛsu tul.

Interlinear gloss


Ogu
so_as_to.3
SUB.ACC
stɔwa
EMPH.AUX-2SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tola
meal
salɔvo
delicious
u
of.3
rima
Rima
mɛsi
Meshi
kwɛ’a,
prepare
nodɔwa
INT.AUX-2SG>3
xa
this.ACC
nzɛ:
do
In order to make a delicious meal of Meshi-style Rima, you need to do this:


So’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
nzo
TOP.ACC
namə
some
sanzáta
pork_meat
ɔdɛ,
take
You take some pork meat,
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
ño
as.3
lo
INDEF.NOM
oba
many
xagala
portion
mvɔ
small
nanɔ,
cut
you cut it into small pieces,
o
and
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
ni
in.3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
rimavo
pan
rɛlga
hot
kwə
with.3
dəbu
oil
kusə’a
olive
uflava
fry
ñire
until.3
SUB.ACC
ta
INC.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
mvosta
color
ñesova
amber
nzɛwə.
receive
and you fry it in a hot pan with olive oil until it starts to take on an amber-like color.
Ɔdɔ’ɔwa
RES.AUX-2SG>3
owa
from.3
lu
DEF.ACC
rimavo
pan
sañawe
retrieve
o
and
mvonóra.
CAUS-leave_temporarily
Then you remove it from the pan and put it aside.
Puysa’ɔwa
CONT.AUX-2SG>3
ntɛga
then
wa
few
dəbu
oil
tɛfta
join
o
and
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
skɛga
likewise
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
wɛna
vegetable
aldo
slice
uflava:
fry
Next, you add a little more oil and fry some sliced vegetables:
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
bapsɛ
onion
o
and
saxə
garlic
o
and
sɔntu
carrot
o
and
yastɛ
gourd
o
and
ñitsɔrə
sweet_potato
kwe.
with.3
onions, garlic, carrots, gourd, and sweet potato.
Pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
mɔra,
select
ni
if/then
oma
also
gastɔwa
PERM.AUX-2SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
xɛrɔ
Xɛrɔ
pewada.
use
If you like, you can also use some Xɛrɔ mushrooms.
So’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
ɛxɛ
everything
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ɔ’i
salt
o
and
xalu
pepper
o
and
wəsku
turmeric
o
and
xiso
coriander
kwə
with.3
mvɔwa
sufficiently
mvosalɔ.
CAUS-be_delicious
You season everything nicely with salt, pepper, turmeric and coriander.
Oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
mɔla
take_care
SUB.ACC
puysa’ɔwa
CONT.AUX-2SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
tola
food
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
bagɛbo
spoon
xat
wood
leda
completely
nəlga.
turn.
Take care to keep stirring the food with a wooden spoon.
Rabɛ
during.3
SUB.ACC
ɔdɔwah
RES.COP-3PL
lo
DEF.NOM
wɛna
vegetable
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
nzɔnə,
good
When the vegetables are ready,
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
bu
again
lu
DEF.ACC
sudusa
meat
ni
in.3
lu
DEF.ACC
rimavo
pan
ñawe,
put
you put the meat back into the pan,
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
bu
again
nəlga,
turn
you stir again,
o
and
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tulsu
cinnamon
on
and
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
kwe
piece
nabaña
tiny
u
of.3
bɔsalɔ
ginger
tɛfta.
join
and you add some cinnamon and a little bit of ginger.
Stɔwa
EMPH.AUX-2SG>3
nzo
TOP.ACC
kepəña
spicy_food
kwə
with.3
u
INDEF.NOM
sɔda
flatbread
ga
or
nigiwo
rice
mɛsu
near.3
tul.
eat
You can eat this spicy meal with flatbread or rice.

This is a recipe found in one of the oldest known cookbooks of Akana, dating to the early 5th century YP. (Written on December 17-19, 2014. A few days later I actually tried out this conworld recipe, and let me tell you: it's delicious!)

The maiden on the meadow

Sə atsa o lu mɛslu u kara puysa mpɛ, dal taxena mɔysa tu’o. Steyə o tselu nzɔ yɔsa əlmɔ kwɛno. Na ɔ ɔgi xat ño u reyo meko xananɔ, rɔma o lu tere ah lu mɛslu mvoñu. Esə xə ño u katsu ntsa muda! Esə xə ño u nuve ntsa muda! Ntenamɛ, pɔwə lo yɔsa ño u ɛtsɛ o gasu idə. Dal nte’a, ɔdexa owa ɔ ivrɛ rumɛ rɛ sa nzɔ ŋkə ɔ mɔtsa mañi mvunɛ, rɛ esa ñalta ah katsu o nuve ɔ reyo ñolu.

Steyə rabɛ lu kwɛnona ah nzɔ yɔsa o lu mɛslu, nə u ru lire o lu tere məlu. Ɔdɔwə nzɔ əbɔwə kwɛno; steyə rapsə puh lo mlaña nzɛda witsu. Ñalta, na lu ɛne ah tsɔmva, o ta nzɔ ləmo.

Interlinear gloss

NULL.AUX-3SG
atsa
still
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mɛslu
meadow
u
INDEF.NOM
kara
mist
puysa
CONT.AUX
mpɛ,
sit
dal
but
taxena
INCH.AUX-3.REFL
mɔysa
recede
tu’o.
somewhat
Mist is still lingering on the meadow, but it is starting to recede somewhat.
Steyə
PROG.AUX-3SG
o
at.3
tselu
that_place
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
yɔsa
maiden
əlmɔ
beautiful
kwɛno.
walk_around
A beautiful maiden is walking around there.
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ɔgi
sculpture
xat
wood
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
reyo
fox
meko
lookalike
xananɔ,
carve
rɔma
REL.AUX-3SG>3
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tere
gate
ah
of.3
lu
DEF.NOM
mɛslu
meadow
mvoñu.
set_up
She has carved a wooden statue of a fox, which she has placed at the gate of the meadow.
Esə
EMPH.AUX-3SG
this.NOM
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
katsu
strong
ntsa
very
muda!
look
This one looks very strong!
Esə
EMPH.AUX-3SG
this.NOM
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
nuve
proud
ntsa
very
muda!
look
This one looks very proud!
Ntenamɛ,
GER-compare
pɔwə
COND.AUX-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
yɔsa
maiden
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ɛtsɛ
weak
o
and
gasu
timid
idə.
seem
In comparison, the maiden might seem weak and timid.
Dal
but
nte’a,
truly
ɔdexa
RES.AUX-1PL>3
owa
from.3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ivrɛ
narration
rumɛ
know
that.ACC
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ŋkə
same
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
mɔtsa
soul
mañi
remarkable
mvunɛ,
hold
But in fact we know from word of mouth that the same maiden has a remarkable soul,
that.ACC
esa
EMPH.AUX-3SG>3
ñalta
indeed
ah
of.3
katsu
strength
o
and
nuve
pride
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
reyo
fox
ñolu.
match
that she indeed matches a fox in strength and confidence.
Steyə
PROG.AUX-3SG
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
kwɛnona
walk_around.VN
ah
of.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
yɔsa
maiden
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mɛslu,
meadow
PFV.AUX-3SG
u
INDEF.NOM
ru
man
lire
young
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tere
gate
məlu.
arrive
While the maiden was walking around on the meadow, a young man has arrived at the gate.
Ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX-3SG
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
əbɔwə
CESS.AUX
kwɛno;
walk_around
steyə
PROG.AUX-3SG
rapsə
instead
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mlaña
visitor
nzɛda
flirt
witsu.
now
She has stopped walking; she is now flirting with him instead.
Ñalta,
indeed
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɛne
hair
ah
of.3
tsɔmva,
let_loose
o
and
ta
INCH.AUX-3SG
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ləmo.
smile
Actually, she has untied her hair, and she begins to smile.

(This text was written on Jan 22, 2011 as part of Conlang Relay 18. Translated from David Edwards' Feayran {broken link → partial backup}.)

A traveller's report

Nzɔ ɛma bura.

Sah ni tsə tavlɛ nzɔ ɛma bura roni, ño u rudi mvomu ri ta’oh rabɛ lu mɛsə ada pɛmo, o ño u rifə mvomu ri wɛ’oh owa lu ivrɛ ome ñugɛ oltəña. Tiya podɔ ovla rɛ sah emodo ño u lamu o mɛgɔ kwə ntsa muda.

Ɛyrɔxa rumɛ rɛ saxa ɔ rɔ kəlu ah lamu modo, o rɛ saxa ɔ raxolbo yɛni ah asi ñolu. Saxa mɛsu lo əmo ɔ ñe bitsi mvɔ mvunɛ, dal saxa ño lo xol ayru tsɛga ɔ munanɔ ño u tali. Sə lo əmo ayru ɔ tətsɔ ntsa, o saxa lo soldu ɔ suni ah ulpi sopsə. Sə lo mab ɔ ñavra mvomu ri esa ñalta leda ɔ ru sewe inzɔ, o sa ɔ tselɔ ño u silvo olda. Nte’a, esah nzɔ mvɔwa ño u kili o rifə kwə muda xutsɔ olah ɔra maldɔ o əña kwə u nzɔ payu o lesəgɔ.

Tsonah rabɛ lu ɛte gɔla lu ɛnalu əno mpu lo rəlse, dal tah rabɛ lu tolbɔ ada lu sade oskə ogu rɛ saxa ɔ tola dəsmoh, o saxa ɔra əña rɔmaxa mɛsɛ alme nzugi. O pɔwah nzɔ ɛma ɔ ani ntsa, ni wəyaxa wɛtuldɔ lu nzəwo ayru u tilɛ ga u əña sədə kunə o kili nimə́luyə o wəyaxa lu əñali ayru nzugi. ntɛ ri maxa lo mɛwɛnomɔ xa esə ɛru. Pɔwaxa ñalta lu ñavo ŋkə same rapsə, ni wəyaxa nzɔ waru skɛga əño o tul; o mah tsa ntɛvɔ́ve esə rɛvle.

Sah nzɔ ɛma ɔ marob mvomu ri rabɛ lu amɔ’a ayru ogu rɛ saxa ɔ sudusa ga sɔmɛ mɛsu dəsmoh, rɔmaxa desuga rabɛ lu mɔromə nzɛ, tsonaxa lo ntəwa ayru ɔ tewalu ñavra ni lu buli tsugə, ño ri pexa ɔ raxolbo yɛni tətsɔ mvəbo tselu ɔdɛ.

Ɛyrɔxa rumɛ rɛ rolah ewitsa nzo ɛma xo’a. Pɔwaxa lo maldɔ ɔ tewalu ŋkə olna’a, ni wəyaxa o tselu ɔ esevo mvoñu ogu rɛ esaxa lu ɛma same mpu wə mvəbo xa nolɔ ŋkə nzɔ oskə bu. Saxa lo xo’avo ɔ ɛde ɔpsoga ni lu buli ñawe, on o lu əmo ah tsa ɔ ñəbo nanɔvo tsiba, o saxa ntɛga ɛxɛ ntɛ u pɛlbɛ ntaskɔda xutsɔ ɔdɔwə lo ɛma rugɛ o maña tsa ena. Rabɛ rɛ sə ada tselu oskə bu wə wa lu ñəbo otɛ ntɛ u ñalɔ́nzi mvomu ri ɔdɔwa tsa leda lu mvusmo ayru nanɔ, owa lu mɔdɛ ada lu ntəwa ayru, o ri ɔdɔwə ntise nzɔ ɛma no. O ntɛga, ta lo adavo nzəxrə, o wəyaxa lo xo’avo rumɛ rɛ ɔdɔwə lo ɛma ɔ omva, o wəya ada tsa oskə o lɛysa.

Puysaxa ntɛga rɛ saxa lu smɛnɔ owa lu ni ah lo ɛma sañawe, mpu esə xə ɔ orono rafa ntsa. Dənɛrɛ pɔlə ɔ ru u ɔ tsə ñalvo pɛnə, o pɔwa kɛ’u xagala mvɔ tsɛga u xə orono savla ni ɔdɔwə ntise ɔ laste. Ntɛxavu, pɔwə ɔ asa ntɛ u ñu’o steyə mvotsɛsə, o pɔwa skɛga kɛ’u xagala savla, ni ɔdɔwə uvo lo dəpse nzəwoga məlu. Saxa oma lu sudusa ah nzɔ ɛma puh lo tola ayru pewada, mpu esə xə salɔ, o saxa lo maldɔ xa dəñɛ ntsa.

Interlinear gloss


Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɛma
serpent
bura.
notable
About the great serpents.


Sah
NULL.AUX-3PL
ni
in.3
tsə
that.ACC
tavlɛ
far_away_region
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɛma
serpent
bura
notable
roni,
dwell,
In that region dwell great serpents,
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
rudi
giant
mvomu
enough_for.3
ri
SUB.NOM
ta’oh
INCH.AUX-2PL
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mɛsə
meet.VN
ada
to.3
pɛmo,
fear,
so much like giants that you begin to be afraid when you encounter them,
o
and
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
rifə
scary
mvomu
enough_for.3
ri
SUB.NOM
wɛ’oh
FUT.AUX-2PL
owa
after.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ivrɛ
story
ome
from.1
ñugɛ
about.3
oltəña.
be_fascinated.
and so scary that you will be fascinated after my story about them.
Tiya
INT.AUX-1SG>3
podɔ
for.2
ovla
describe
SUB.ACC
sah
NULL.COP-3PL
emodo
how_much
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
lamu
long
o
and
mɛgɔ
mighty
kwə
with.3
ntsa
very
muda.
look.
I'm going to describe to you how much they look very long and powerful.


Ɛyrɔxa
OPT.AUX-2PL>3
rumɛ
know
SUB.ACC
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ten
kəlu
step
ah
of.3
lamu
long
modo,
count,
You will want to know that they measure ten paces in length,
o
and
SUB.ACC
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
raxolbo
cask
yɛni
wine
ah
of.3
asi
thickness
ñolu.
match.
and that they match a barrel of wine in thickness.
Saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
mɛsu
near.3
lo
DEF.NOM
əmo
head
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ñe
two
bitsi
leg
mvɔ
short
mvunɛ,
hold,
Near the head they have two short legs,
dal
but
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ño
as.3
lo
DEF.NOM
xol
foot
ayru
of.3.ANIM
tsɛga
only
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
munanɔ
claw
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
tali.
hawk.
but as their feet only claws like a hawk.
NULL.COP-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
əmo
head
ayru
of.3.ANIM
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tətsɔ
big
ntsa,
very,
Their head is very big,
o
and
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
soldu
eyes
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
suni
apple
ah
of.3
ulpi
size
sopsə.
defeat.
and the eyes surpass apples in size.
NULL.COP-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
mab
mouth
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ñavra
large
mvomu
enough_for.3
ri
SUB.NOM
esa
EMPH.AUX-3SG>3
ñalta
indeed
leda
completely
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ru
man
sewe
tall
inzɔ,
swallow,
The mouth is so large that it can actually swallow a tall man whole,
o
and
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tselɔ
tooth
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
silvo
dagger
olda.
be_armed_with.
and it is armed with teeth like daggers.
Nte’a,
truly,
esah
EMPH.AUX-3PL
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
mvɔwa
so_much
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
kili
dangerous
o
and
rifə
ugly
kwə
with.3
muda
look
They are truly so fierce-looking and ugly
xutsɔ
therefore
olah
OBL.AUX-3PL
ɔra
all
maldɔ
person
o
and
əña
animal
kwə
with.3
u
from.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
payu
worry
o
and
lesəgɔ.
tremble.
that all people and animals must be worried and trembling because of them.


Tsonah
HAB.AUX-3PL
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɛte
day
gɔla
under.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɛnalu
ground
əno
stay
mpu
due_to.3
lo
DEF.NOM
rəlse,
hot_weather,
During the day they stay under the ground because of the heat,
dal
but
tah
INCH.AUX-3PL
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tolbɔ
evening
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
sade
outside.3
oskə
come
ogu
so_as_to.3
SUB.ACC
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tola
meal
dəsmoh,
search_for,
but in the evening they start to come out in order to search for food,
o
and
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ɔra
all
əña
animal
rɔmaxa
REL.AUX-3PL>3
mɛsɛ
meet
alme
without_exception
nzugi.
devour.
and they devour every animal that they come across, without exception.
O
and
pɔwah
COND.COP-3PL
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɛma
serpent
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ani
hungry
ntsa,
very,
And if these serpents are very hungry,
ni
if/then
wəyaxa
FUT.AUX-3PL>3
wɛtuldɔ
even
lu
DEF.ACC
nzəwo
shelter
ayru
of.3.ANIM
u
INDEF.NOM
tilɛ
tiger
ga
or
u
INDEF.NOM
əña
animal
sədə
other
kunə
tough
o
and
kili
wild
nimə́luyə
approach
they will even approach the shelter of a tiger or another strong and wild animal
o
and
wəyaxa
FUT.AUX-3PL>3
lu
DEF.ACC
əñali
cub
ayru
of.3.ANIM
nzugi.
devour,
and they will devour their cubs,
ntɛ
with.3
ri
SUB.NOM
maxa
NEG.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛwɛnomɔ
parent
xa
this.ACC
esə
EMPH.AUX
ɛru.
prevent.
with the parents not being able to prevent it.
Pɔwaxa
COND.AUX-3PL>3
ñalta
indeed
lu
DEF.ACC
ñavo
adult
ŋkə
same
same
bring_down
rapsə,
instead.3,
Actually, if they catch the adults instead,
ni
if/then
wəyaxa
FUT.AUX-3PL>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
waru
3PL.ANIM.ACC
skɛga
likewise
əño
kill
o
and
tul;
eat;
they will kill and eat them just the same;
o
and
mah
NEG.AUX-3PL
tsa
that.NOM
ntɛvɔ́ve
in_vain
esə
EMPH.AUX
rɛvle.
resist.
and they can't resist at all.


Sah
NULL.COP-3PL
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɛma
serpent
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
marob
heavy
mvomu
enough_for.3
ri
SUB.NOM
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
amɔ’a
travel.VN
ayru
of.3.ANIM
ogu
so_as_to.3
SUB.ACC
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
sudusa
meat
ga
or
sɔmɛ
water
mɛsu
near.3
dəsmoh,
search_for,
These serpents are so heavy that when they are traveling in order to search for meat or water,
rɔmaxa
REL.AUX-3PL>3
desuga
usually
rabɛ
during.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mɔromə
night
nzɛ,
do,
which they usually do at night,
tsonaxa
HAB.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
ntəwa
tail
ayru
of.3.ANIM
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tewalu
furrow
ñavra
wide
ni
into.3
lu
DEF.ACC
buli
soil
tsugə,
press,
their tail leaves a wide furrow in the soil,
ño
as.3
ri
SUB.NOM
pexa
COND.AUX-1PL>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
raxolbo
cask
yɛni
wine
tətsɔ
big
mvəbo
through.3
tselu
that_place
ɔdɛ.
pull.
as if we had pulled a large barrel of wine along that way.


Ɛyrɔxa
OPT.AUX-2PL>3
rumɛ
know
SUB.ACC
rolah
HAB.PASS.AUX-3PL
ewitsa
how
nzo
TOP.ACC
ɛma
serpent
xo’a.
hunt.
You will want to know how these serpents are hunted.
Pɔwaxa
COND.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
maldɔ
person
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
tewalu
furrow
ŋkə
same
olna’a,
find,
If the people find such a furrow,
ni
if/then
wəyaxa
FUT.AUX-3PL>3
o
at.3
tselu
that_place
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
esevo
trap
mvoñu
establish
ogu
so_as_to
SUB.ACC
esaxa
EMPH.AUX-3PL>3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɛma
serpent
same
bring_down
they will set up a trap at that place in order to bring down the serpent
mpu
because
FUT.AUX-3SG
mvəbo
through.3
xa
this.ACC
nolɔ
path
ŋkə
same
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
oskə
come
bu.
again.
because it will come back along the same path.
Saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
xo’avo
hunter
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ɛde
pole
ɔpsoga
deep-ADV
ni
in.3
lu
DEF.ACC
buli
soil
ñawe,
put,
The hunters place a pole deep in the ground,
on
and
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
əmo
head
ah
of.3
tsa
that.NOM
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ñəbo
blade
nanɔvo
sharp
tsiba,
attach,
and to the head of that they attach a sharp blade,
o
and
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ntɛga
then
ɛxɛ
everything
ntɛ
with.3
u
INDEF.NOM
pɛlbɛ
sand
ntaskɔda
cover
and then they cover everything with sand
xutsɔ
therefore
ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
ɛma
serpent
rugɛ
be_misguided
o
and
maña
NEG.AUX-3SG<3
tsa
that.NOM
ena.
see.
so that the serpent will be tricked and cannot see it.
Rabɛ
during.3
SUB.ACC
NULL.AUX-3SG
ada
to.3
tselu
that_place
oskə
come
bu
again,
When it comes back to that place,
FUT.AUX-3SG
wa
against.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ñəbo
blade
otɛ
run
ntɛ
with.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ñalɔ́nzi
speed
it will run against the blade with speed
mvomu
enough_for.3
ri
SUB.NOM
ɔdɔwa
RES.AUX-3SG>3
tsa
that.NOM
leda
completely
lu
DEF.ACC
mvusmo
belly
ayru
of.3.ANIM
nanɔ,
cut,
such that it will cut open its belly completely,
owa
from.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mɔdɛ
heart
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ntəwa
tail
ayru,
of.3.ANIM,
from the heart to the tail,
o
and
ri
SUB.NOM
ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX-3SG
ntise
immediately
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɛma
serpent
no.
die.
and the serpent will die immediately.
O
and
ntɛga,
then,
ta
INCH.AUX-3PL
lo
DEF.NOM
adavo
crow
nzəxrə,
shout,
And then the crows will start to shout,
o
and
wəyaxa
FUT.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
xo’avo
hunter
rumɛ
know
SUB.ACC
ɔdɔwə
RES.COP-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
ɛma
serpent
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
omva,
dead_body,
and the hunters will know that the serpent is dead
o
and
wəya
FUT.AUX-3PL
ada
to.3
tsa
that.NOM
oskə
come
o
and
lɛysa.
collect.
and they will come back to collect its body.


Puysaxa
CONT.AUX-3PL>3
ntɛga
then
SUB.ACC
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
lu
DEF.ACC
smɛnɔ
gall
owa
from.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ni
in.3
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ɛma
serpent
sañawe,
extract,
Next, they proceed to extract the gall from the inside of the serpent,
mpu
because
esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
this.NOM
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
orono
medicine
rafa
valuable
ntsa.
very.
because it is a very precious medicine.
Dənɛrɛ
namely
pɔlə
COND.PASS.AUX-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ru
man
u
from.3
ɔ
INDEF.NOM
tsə
dog
ñalvo
berserk
pɛnə,
bite,
For if a man is bitten by a rabid dog,
o
and
pɔwa
COND.AUX-3SG>3
kɛ’u
one_of
xagala
portion
mvɔ
small
tsɛga
only
u
from.3
this.NOM
orono
medicine
savla
drink,
and if he drinks only a small portion of this medicine,
ni
if/then
ɔdɔwə
RES.COP-3SG
ntise
immediately
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
laste.
healthy.
he will be cured immediately.
Ntɛxavu,
furthermore,
pɔwə
COND.AUX-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.NOM
asa
woman
ntɛ
with.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ñu’o
pain
steyə
PROG.AUX
mvotsɛsə,
give_birth,
Also, if a woman is hard in labour,
o
and
pɔwa
COND.AUX-3SG>3
skɛga
likewise
kɛ’u
one_of
xagala
portion
savla,
drink,
and if she likewise drinks a portion,
ni
if/then
ɔdɔwə
RES.AUX-3SG
uvo
soon
lo
DEF.NOM
dəpse
child
nzəwoga
safely
məlu.
arrive.
the child will soon arrive safely.
Saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
oma
additionally
lu
DEF.ACC
sudusa
meat
ah
of.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ɛma
serpent
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
tola
meal
ayru
of.3.ANIM
pewada,
use,
They also use the flesh of the serpent for their meals,
mpu
because
esə
EMPH.AUX-3SG
this.NOM
salɔ,
be_delicious,
o
and
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
lo
DEF.NOM
maldɔ
person
xa
this.ACC
dəñɛ
enjoy
ntsa.
very.
because it is delicious in taste, and the people are very fond of it.

Based on Marco Polo's account of alligators in the Chinese province of Yunnan (~1298), in The Travels of Marco Polo, Book 2, Chapter 49. Translated into Buruya Nzaysa on July 17-25, 2013.


A mouse wants to see the giants

Nzɔ yɛski əye o dəxa menavo kwə, nah natsu ada lu dɛñəsa oskə. Nah o ɔ təñu ñavra o kunə məlu, rɔma mɛsu xə u sose nabaña ronɛ. Na ada kənu: "Xɛwa sa lo la tavlɛ sade lu dɛñəsa nzo ño rɛtsə mvunɛ? Maña mvuga nzɔ tsexɛ owa tselu nə ena." Ŋkena lo mɔrɛ mɛsu lo mvɔ ñawe, o na mve: "Usa! Ewa so’ɔwa nəbe?" Na lo nabaña ada lu əye loya: "Seya nzo rudi sewe owa lu la sade lu dɛñəsa nəbe. Maña matsu xə rudi nə ena, ləh lo ɔtse rɔmah mɛsu tse nzɔ ronɛ. Esə ɔyənɔ! Ese me’ɛxe!"

Ŋkena lo kañɛ mɛsu lo mvɔ ñawe, o na ada ivri: "Neya lu la sade lu dɛñəsa lolmu, o ɔdeya tsɔve rɛ sah nte’a o tselu u rudi roni." Na lo nabaña ada lu kañɛ kənu: "Dəña’o, pɔ’ɔxə dediga ada lu əmo ah lo dɛñə solvo, pɔ’oh?" Na lo kañɛ mve: "Pexa nzo nzɛ, ni ɔdɔ’ɔ ɔ yɔsko?" O na lo mɔrɛ mpaskale: "We ɔ kalɛste. Pɔ’ɔ o lu boña axe mvəbo lu tɛde mpɛ, ese’o ada lu əmo ah lo dɛñə solvo." O ntɛga, ɔdɔwa lu mvɔ ni lu səlu la’e.

Interlinear gloss

Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
yɛski
bird
əye
black
o
and
dəxa
spirit
menavo
invisible
kwə,
with.3,
nah
PFV.AUX-3PL
natsu
someday
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
dɛñəsa
hill-COLL
oskə.
come
A black bird and an invisible spirit came to the hills one day.
Nah
PFV.AUX-3PL
o
at.3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
təñu
stone
ñavra
large
o
and
kunə
solid
məlu,
arrive
They arrived at a large and solid rock,
rɔma
REL.AUX-3SG
mɛsu
near.3
this.NOM
u
INDEF.NOM
sose
mouse
nabaña
tiny
ronɛ.
dwell.VN
near which lived a tiny mouse.
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
ada
to.3
kənu:
ask
He asked them:
"Xɛwa
what.ACC
sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
la
land
tavlɛ
far
sade
behind.3
lu
DEF.ACC
dɛñəsa
hill-COLL
nzo
TOP.ACC
ño
as.3
rɛtsə
characteristic
mvunɛ?"
hold
"What kind of things are characteristic of the distant land behind the hills?"
"Maña
NEG.AUX-1SG<3
mvuga
already
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
tsexɛ
that_thing
owa
from.3
tselu
that_place
PFV.AUX
ena."
see
"I have not seen any things from that place so far."
Ŋkena
PFV.AUX-3.REFL
lo
DEF.NOM
mɔrɛ
dark
mɛsu
near.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mvɔ
small
ñawe,
put
o
and
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
mve:
say
The bird (lit. the dark one) placed himself near the mouse (lit. the small one) and said:
"Usa!
hello
Ewa
which.ACC
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
nəbe?"
have_in_mind
"Hello! Which things do you have in mind?"
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
nabaña
tiny
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
əye
black
loya:
answer
The mouse (lit. the tiny one) answered to the bird (lit. the black one):
"Seya
NULL.AUX-1SG>3
nzo
TOP.ACC
rudi
giant
sewe
tall
owa
from.3
lu
DEF.ACC
la
land
sade
behind.3
lu
DEF.ACC
dɛñəsa
hill-COLL
nəbe."
have_in_mind
"I am thinking about the tall giants from the land behind the hills."
"Maña
NEG.AUX-1SG<3
matsu
never
this.NOM
rudi
giant
PFV.AUX
ena,"
see
"I have never seen these giants,"
"ləh
neither/nor
lo
DEF.NOM
ɔtse
river
rɔmah
REL.AUX-3PL
mɛsu
near.3
tse
that.NOM
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ronɛ."
dwell.VN
"nor the river near which they live."
"Esə
EMPH.AUX-3SG
ɔyənɔ!
be_unfair
Ese
EMPH.AUX-1SG
me’ɛxe!"
feel_wronged
"This is unfair! I am not satisfied!"
Ŋkena
PFV.AUX-3.REFL
lo
DEF.NOM
kañɛ
hidden
mɛsu
near.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mvɔ
small
ñawe,
put
o
and
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
ada
to.3
ivri:
tell
The spirit (lit. the hidden one) placed himself near the mouse (lit. the small one) and told him:
"Neya
PFV.AUX-1SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
la
land
sade
behind.3
lu
DEF.ACC
dɛñəsa
hill-COLL
lolmu,"
visit
"I have visited the land behind the hills,"
"o
and
ɔdeya
RES.AUX-1SG>3
tsɔve
observe
SUB.ACC
sah
NULL.AUX-3PL
nte’a
truly
o
at.3
tselu
that_place
u
INDEF.NOM
rudi
giant
roni."
dwell
"and I have observed that giants are indeed living there."
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
nabaña
tiny
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
kañɛ
hidden
kənu:
ask
The mouse (lit. the tiny one) asked the spirit (lit. the hidden one):
"Dəña’o,
please
pɔ’ɔxə
COND.AUX-2PL>1
dediga
maybe
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
əmo
head
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
dɛñə
hill
solvo,
carry
pɔ’oh?"
COND.AUX-2PL
"Please, maybe you could carry me to the head of the hill, could you?"
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
kañɛ
hidden
mve:
say
The spirit (lit. the hidden one) said:
"Pexa
COND.AUX-1PL>3
nzo
TOP.ACC
nzɛ,
do
ni
if/then
ɔdɔ’ɔ
RES.COP-2SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
yɔsko?"
happy
"If we did that, would you be happy?"
O
and
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɔrɛ
dark
mpaskale:
declare
And the bird (lit. the dark one) announced:
"We
FUT.COP-1SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
kalɛste."
one_who_takes_charge
"I will take charge of this (lit. I will be one who takes charge)."
"Pɔ’ɔ
COND.AUX-2SG
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
boña
back
axe
of.1
mvəbo
between.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tɛde
wing
mpɛ,"
sit
"If you sit on my back between the wings,"
"ese’o
EMPH.AUX-1SG>2
ada
to.3
lu
DEF.ACC
əmo
head
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
dɛñə
hill
solvo."
carry
"I can carry you to the head of the hill."
O
and
ntɛga,
next
ɔdɔwa
RES.AUX-3SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
mvɔ
small
ni
into.3
lu
DEF.ACC
səlu
sky
la’e.
lift
And then he lifted the mouse (lit. the small one) up into the sky.

(This text was written on June 24, 2012 as part of Conlang Relay 19. Translated from Logan Kearsley's Mev Pailom.)

Lemming philosophy

Tɛh ɔ ñalisa u ru ɔdɔ, ni pɔ’ɔ wə ɛ’i se’ə. Esəña smada nzɔ uysava nada.

Səh ɔ yɔsko; səh ɔ toxasa. Ma’ɔwa nzo ñəmona olmat. Sə lo ruyo puh nzɔ xɔsɔ bəduga lu letsədə ah. Sə ɛru ɔ ñanɛvo tsəñe u ɛru. Tsonexa puh lo maldɔ sədə ɔ gəsta ñavra on oba dəpse kwə kətsɔda. Tsonexa lu mvɔnza puh lo avo aymɛ mvəbo oba ru ñeda. Esə ɔ nzɔñu rɛ səh ɔ toxasa!

Puh u spɛ’ayla sədə, gasə dediga u mvəskɛ puh lo avo ah ɔ nzesu. Dal sə nzɔ ñəmona lu mvɔnza rɛbɛ aymɛ. Sə ɔ lotsɛ ri tsonexa puh lo ñayɔsko o avo aymɛ kwə ñalta lu pimə ah u maldɔ sədə ñuməgi. Esə nzɔ lu lotsɛ. Dal skena u namə dedi meko ntɛxavu dalmə. Xutsɔ ɔdɔ’ɔwa podɔ ŋkə esə mɔra o mura.

Sə lu restɛ xɛpu adɔ. Ma ɛru ɔ rudɔ nonə. Ma nzɔ ntɛ u sɔnza mɔwa, dal ntɛ u tsɛñɛru. Tsonah atsa ntɛ xə’ə oba maldɔ ɔdɔ no.

Interlinear gloss

Tɛh
INCH.COP-1PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ñalisa
too_many
u
from.3
ru
man
ɔdɔ,
RES.AUX
ni
if/then
pɔ’ɔ
COND.AUX-2SG
FUT.AUX
ɛ’i
OPT.AUX
se’ə.
jump
When we become too many people, you will want to jump.
Esəña
EMPH.AUX-1SG<3
smada
recently
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
uysava
desire.VN
nada.
feel
I am certainly feeling this desire recently.
Səh
NULL.COP-1PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
yɔsko;
fortunate
səh
NULL.COP-1PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
toxasa.
multitude
We are lucky; we are numerous.
Ma’ɔwa
NEG.AUX-2SG>3
nzo
TOP.ACC
ñəmona
responsibility
olmat.
be_familiar_with
You are not familiar with this responsibility.
NULL.COP-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
ruyo
solve.VN
puh
for.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
xɔsɔ
challenge
bəduga
almost
lu
DEF.ACC
letsədə
opposite
ah.
of.3
The solution to that challenge is almost the opposite of it.
NULL.COP-3SG
ɛru
everyone
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ñanɛvo
relative
tsəñe
distantly_connected
u
from.3
ɛru.
everyone
Everyone is a distant relative of everyone.
Tsonexa
HAB.AUX-1PL>3
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
maldɔ
person
sədə
other
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
gəsta
family
ñavra
wide
on
and
oba
many
dəpse
child
kwə
with.3
kətsɔda.
donate
We are used to giving a large family and many children to other people.
Tsonexa
HAB.AUX-1PL>3
lu
DEF.ACC
mvɔnza
folk_wisdom
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
avo
thrive.VN
aymɛ
of.1PL
mvəbo
between.3
oba
many
ru
man
ñeda.
share
We are used to sharing the knowledge for our prosperity with many people.
Esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
nzɔñu
virtue
SUB.ACC
səh
NULL.COP-1PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
toxasa!
multitude
It is a good thing that we are numerous!
Puh
for.3
u
INDEF.ACC
spɛ’ayla
nation
sədə,
other
gasə
PERM.COP-3SG
dediga
possibly
u
INDEF.NOM
mvəskɛ
necessary
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
avo
thrive.VN
ah
of.3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
nzesu.
different
For other nations, that which is necessary for their prosperity might be different.
Dal
but
NULL.COP-3SG
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ñəmona
responsibility
lu
DEF.ACC
mvɔnza
folk_wisdom
rɛbɛ
appropriate
aymɛ.
of.1PL
But this responsibility is our proper tradition.
NULL.COP-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
lotsɛ
truth
ri
SUB.NOM
tsonexa
HAB.AUX-1PL>3
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ñayɔsko
happiness
o
and
avo
thrive.VN
aymɛ
of.1PL
kwə
with.3
ñalta
indeed
lu
DEF.ACC
pimə
sacrifice.VN
ah
of.3
u
INDEF.NOM
maldɔ
person
sədə
other
ñuməgi.
rely_on
It is true that we indeed depend on the sacrifice of others for our happiness and prosperity.
Esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
lu
DEF.ACC
lotsɛ.
truth
This is the truth.
Dal
but
skena
EMPH.AUX-3.REFL
u
INDEF.NOM
namə
some
dedi
option
meko
replacement
ntɛxavu
also
dalmə.
present
But some alternative options also present themselves.
Xutsɔ
therefore
ɔdɔ’ɔwa
RES.AUX-2SG>3
podɔ
for.2
ŋkə
same
esə
EMPH.AUX
mɔra
select
o
and
mura.
decide
So you can choose and decide for yourself.
NULL.COP-3SG
lu
DEF.ACC
restɛ
choose.VN
xɛpu
alone
adɔ.
of.2
It is your own choice.
Ma
NEG.COP-3SG
ɛru
everyone
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
rudɔ
archetype
nonə.
INT.AUX
Not everyone is going to be a role model.
Ma
NEG.AUX-3SG
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
sɔnza
theory
mɔwa,
begin
dal
but
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
tsɛñɛru.
mutual_agreement
This does not begin with doctrine, but with mutual agreement.
Tsonah
HAB.AUX-3PL
atsa
as_it_stands
ntɛ
by.3
xə’ə
this_way
oba
many
maldɔ
person
ɔdɔ
RES.AUX
no.
die
In the end, many people die this way.

(This text was written on Sept 03, 2012 as part of the CBB Relay. Translated from Maraxxus' Maxédri.)

Advice from the father

U itsiru u lo mɛwɛ.

Ño u gəru axe, pɔ’ɔ mɛsuga nɛwɛ adɛ oskə. Ɔdɔ’ɔwa mura rɛ oldɔwa xa gəsta adɔ noñə, o nodɔwa ada tsə dɛñə tavlɛ amo. Tiya oño rɛ olnone dediga ño u manavo podɔ nzɛ, o none’o puh lo sɔga adɔ ɔ itsiru tsapse ñire lu noñə adɔ.

Tuse, esə uvi rɛ wɛ’ɔwa ɔ yuska mɛsɛ. Oldɔwa puh tsa lu itsiru ome ma ivri, alu esa mve rɛ nona’o əvre. Wəya lu aski adɔ meyu, dal ma əño.

Tuse, wɛ’oña nzɔ suni ena mɛsu lu ɔlu rɔma lo yuska o tsɔve, alu pɔwah o tselu wɛtuldɔ me suni ma mvotsi. Wɛ’oña nzɔ suni ena rɔmah ño u əbe təña o tola idə.

Tuse, oldɔwa məmat rɛ tsona lo əbe ɔ suni ah təña sopsə. Oldɔwa məmat rɛ tsonə u suni desu ɔ nawə. Oldɔwa leda ɛru rɛ pɔwaxa nzɔ suni ntuya lu aski adɔ nodɛ, mpu esaxa nzɔ ŋkə ñalta ɔ ogava o ntalu kwə mvoso.

Tuse, pɔxədo mɛsu nzo suni pato mpadɛ, ni ɔdɔ’ɔwa tselu ma noñə ño u omva. Lɛñɔ gəru axe, oldɔwa xa məmat: Pɔxədo mɛsu nzo suni pato mpadɛ, ni ɔdɔwa’o lo yuska ma esə botso.

Tsa, tsonexa u nzɔ suni ntuya mve rɛ sah ɔ algɔ, mpu saxa ɔ maldɔ nzəwoga kutsa. Pɔwah nzo suni mañi o tselu agɛ, ni stɔwa nte’a rumɛ rɛ wəyaxa ɔra maldɔ nzəwoga kutsa.

Lɛñɔ gəru axe, pɔ’ɔ nɛski buna: Ta lu kwərə mpi, mpu wə skɛga lo aski adɔ noñə.

Interlinear gloss

The yuska (Old Eastern Miwan: bjūzga) is a mythical creature from Miwan folklore, which is said to live in the depths of the Ici Forest south of Buruya. It is twice as large as a man, and it eats people, attacking them by jumping down from a tree.
U
INDEF.NOM
itsiru
advice
u
from.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mɛwɛ.
father
Advice from the father.


Ño
as
u
INDEF.NOM
gəru
son
axe,
of.1
pɔ’ɔ
COND.AUX-2SG
mɛsuga
near-ADV
nɛwɛ
more
adɛ
to.1
oskə.
come
As a son of mine, you might want to come closer to me.
Ɔdɔ’ɔwa
RES.AUX-2SG>3
mura
decide
SUB.ACC
oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
xa
this.ACC
gəsta
family
adɔ
of.2
noñə,
leave
You have decided that you must leave this family of yours,
o
and
nodɔwa
INT.AUX-2SG>3
ada
to.3
tsə
that.ACC
dɛñə
mountain
tavlɛ
far_away
amo.
travel
and that you plan to travel to those mountains far away.
Tiya
INCH.AUX-1SG>3
oño
think
SUB.ACC
olnone
OBL=INT.COP-1SG
dediga
maybe
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
manavo
mentor
podɔ
for.2
nzɛ,
do
It occurs to me that maybe I should be a mentor to you,
o
and
none’o
INT.AUX-1SG>2
puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
sɔga
ears
adɔ
of.2
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
itsiru
advice
tsapse
give
ñire
before.3
lu
DEF.ACC
noñə
leave.VN
adɔ.
of.2
and that I want to give you some advice before you leave.


Tuse,
you_know
esə
EMPH.AUX-3SG
uvi
happen
SUB.ACC
wɛ’ɔwa
FUT.AUX-2SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
yuska
yuska
mɛsɛ.
meet
You know, it may happen that you encounter a yuska.
Oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
puh
for.3
tsa
that.NOM
lu
DEF.ACC
itsiru
advice
ome
from.1
ma
NEG.AUX
ivri,
tell
Don't let him know about my advice,
alu
despite
esa
EMPH.AUX-3SG>3
mve
say
SUB.ACC
nona’o
INT.AUX-3SG>2
əvre.
destroy
even though he might threaten to destroy you.
Wəya
FUT.AUX-3SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
aski
horse
adɔ
of.2
meyu,
shock
dal
but
ma
NEG.AUX-3SG>3
əño.
kill
He will frighten your horse, but he will not kill it.


Tuse,
you_know
wɛ’oña
FUT.AUX-2SG<3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
suni
apple
ena
see
mɛsu
near.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɔlu
place
rɔma
REL.AUX-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
yuska
yuska
o
at.3
tsɔve,
watch
You know, you will see apples near the place where the yuska is lurking,
alu
despite
pɔwah
COND.AUX-3PL
o
at.3
tselu
that_place
wɛtuldɔ
even
me
no
suni
apple
ma
NEG.AUX
mvotsi.
grow
even if there might be no apples growing at that place.
Wɛ’oña
FUT.AUX-2SG<3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
suni
apple
ena
see
rɔmah
REL.AUX-3PL
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
əbe
moon
təña
bright
o
and
tola
food
idə.
seem
You will see apples that look like a bright, edible moon.


Tuse,
you_know
oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
məmat
remember
SUB.ACC
tsona
HAB.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
əbe
moon
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
suni
apple
ah
of.3
təña
brightness
sopsə.
defeat
You know, you should remember that the moon is brighter than an apple.
Oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
məmat
remember
SUB.ACC
tsonə
HAB.COP-3SG
u
INDEF.NOM
suni
apple
desu
normal
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
nawə.
red
You should remember that a real apple is red.
Oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
leda
completely
ɛru
prevent
SUB.ACC
pɔwaxa
COND.AUX-3PL>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
suni
apple
ntuya
fake
lu
DEF.ACC
aski
horse
adɔ
of.2
nodɛ,
reach_for
You should by all means prevent the fake apples from touching your horse,
mpu
because
esaxa
EMPH.AUX-3PL>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
ŋkə
same
ñalta
actually
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ogava
suffering
o
and
ntalu
death
kwə
with.3
mvoso.
cause
because those same apples actually cause suffering and death.


Tuse,
you_know
pɔxədo
COND.AUX-2.REFL
mɛsu
near.3
nzo
TOP.ACC
suni
apple
pato
evil
mpadɛ,
keep_positioned
You know, if you stay close to the evil apples,
ni
if/then
ɔdɔ’ɔwa
RES.AUX-2SG>3
tselu
that_place
ma
NEG.AUX
noñə
leave
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
omva.
dead_body
you will not have to leave that place as a dead person.
Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
gəru
son
axe,
of.1,
oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
xa
this.ACC
məmat:
remember
You, son of mine, you should remember this:
Pɔxədo
COND.AUX-2.REFL
mɛsu
near.3
nzo
TOP.ACC
suni
apple
pato
evil
mpadɛ,
keep_positioned
If you stay close to the evil apples,
ni
if/then
ɔdɔwa’o
RES.AUX-3SG>2
lo
DEF.NOM
yuska
yuska
ma
NEG.AUX
esə
EMPH.AUX
botso.
attack
the yuska will not be able to attack you.


Tsa,
yes
tsonexa
HAB.AUX-1PL>3
u
from.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
suni
apple
ntuya
fake
mve
say
SUB.ACC
sah
NULL.COP-3PL
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
algɔ,
sweet
Yes, those fake apples are said to be sweet,
mpu
because
saxa
NULL.AUX-3PL>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
maldɔ
person
nzəwoga
safely
kutsa.
defend
because they protect people.
Pɔwah
COND.AUX-3PL
nzo
TOP.ACC
suni
apple
mañi
special
o
at.3
tselu
that_place
agɛ,
exist
If those special apples are at hand,
ni
if/then
stɔwa
EMPH.AUX-2SG>3
nte’a
really
rumɛ
know
SUB.ACC
wəyaxa
FUT.AUX-3PL>3
ɔra
all
maldɔ
person
nzəwoga
safely
kutsa.
defend
you can be sure that they will protect everybody.


Lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
gəru
son
axe,
of.1
pɔ’ɔ
COND.AUX-2SG
nɛski
by_the_way
buna:
listen
By the way, son of mine, you might want to listen:
Ta
INCH.AUX-3SG
lu
DEF.ACC
kwərə
goat
mpi,
cry
mpu
because
FUT.AUX-3SG
skɛga
likewise
lo
DEF.NOM
aski
horse
adɔ
of.2
noñə.
leave
The goat is starting to cry, because your horse is also leaving.

(This text was written on April 5, 2013 as part of the LCC5 Relay. Translated from Sylvia Sotomayor's sodna-lɛni.)

To the friend at the river

Puh lo tivo mɛsu lo ɔtse.

Weya uvo lu ɔtse noñə, lɛñɔ tivo axe.
Weya podɔ ɔ pilila xowa.
Wɛ’ɔ ɔ uysɔbo,
alu stɔ gɔla lu vi ñada,
o ɔdɔlaña lu ɔtse u lo təña ah tse ño u ɛflɛ nira kwətu.

Ño’ɔ u tsɔbo, oldɔ o wilu əno,
dal ese ni lu mo roni.
O tselu, mah me xɛvra ləh xɛvrine ləh təña u lo ɔtse ala agɛ.
Weya tsɛga ɔ ñəbo mvunɛ,
rɔmeya ntɛ tse lu guvlu o lu pilila xoñi.

Esə lo pilila lu kɛ xɛtɔy xɛpu axe,
o sah lo təña ah lo mo ñugɛmə əftah.
Wɛxenə puysa kənu:
Pe bu natsu mɛsu lo ɔtse roni?
Pe bu natsu gɔla lu vi ñada?

Dal ste’ɔwa ntidə ɔ nadana nzesu ñugɛ xa ñɔlna mvunɛ.

Interlinear gloss

Puh
for.3
lo
DEF.NOM
tivo
friend
mɛsu
near.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ɔtse
river
To the friend at the river.


Weya
FUT.AUX-1SG>3
uvo
soon
lu
DEF.ACC
ɔtse
river
noñə,
leave
lɛñɔ
2SG.NOM
tivo
friend
axe.
of.1
I will soon leave the river, my friend.
Weya
FUT.AUX-1SG>3
podɔ
for.2
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
pilila
letter
xowa.
write
I will write a letter to you.
Wɛ’ɔ
FUT.COP-2SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
uysɔbo,
jealous_person
You will become jealous,
alu
despite
stɔ
EMPH.AUX-2SG
gɔla
under.3
lu
DEF.ACC
vi
star
ñada,
sleep
even though you sleep under the stars,
o
and
ɔdɔlaña
RES.PASS.AUX-3SG<3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɔtse
river
u
from.3
lo
DEF.NOM
təña
light
ah
of.3
tse
that.NOM
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ɛflɛ
necklace
nira
silver
kwətu.
be_bright
and the river is illuminated by their light like a silver necklace.


Ño’ɔ
as.2
u
INDEF.NOM
tsɔbo,
shepherd
oldɔ
OBL.AUX-2SG
o
at.3
wilu
this_place
əno,
stay
As a shepherd, you must stay down here,
dal
but
ese
EMPH.AUX-1SG
ni
in.3
lu
DEF.ACC
mo
town
roni.
dwell
but I will be living in the city.
O
at.3
tselu,
that_place
mah
NEG.AUX-3PL
me
no
xɛvra
sheep
ləh
nor
xɛvrine
wool
ləh
nor
təña
light
u
from.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ɔtse
river
ala
without.3
agɛ.
exist
At that place, there will be neither sheep nor wool nor any light from the river.
Weya
FUT.AUX-1SG>3
tsɛga
only
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
ñəbo
knife
mvunɛ,
hold
I will only have a knife,
rɔmeya
REL.AUX-1SG>3
ntɛ
by.3
tse
that.NOM
lu
DEF.ACC
guvlu
seal
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
pilila
letter
xoñi.
tear_apart
with which I can open the seal on the letter.


Esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
pilila
letter
lu
DEF.ACC
one
xɛtɔy
property
xɛpu
alone
axe,
of.1
The letter is my only possession,
o
and
sah
NULL.AUX-3PL
lo
DEF.NOM
təña
light
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mo
town
ñugɛmə
around.1
əftah.
shine
and the lights of the city shine around me.
Wɛxenə
FUT.AUX-1.REFL
puysa
CONT.AUX
kənu:
ask
I will keep asking myself:
Pe
COND.AUX-1SG
bu
again
natsu
sometime
mɛsu
near.3
lo
DEF.NOM
ɔtse
river
roni?
dwell
Can I live near the river again someday?
Pe
COND.AUX-1SG
bu
again
natsu
sometime
gɔla
under.3
lu
DEF.ACC
vi
star
ñada?
sleep
Can I sleep under the stars again someday?


Dal
but
ste’ɔwa
PROG.AUX-2SG>3
ntidə
apparently
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
nadana
emotion
nzesu
different
ñugɛ
about.3
xa
this.ACC
ñɔlna
situation
mvunɛ.
hold
But apparently you have different feelings about this.

(This text was written on Nov 27, 2014 as part of Tumblr Conlang Relay 4. Translated from Helen's Àboshì.)

The strange river

Sə ño nzɔ xə uvi: Wɛ’ɔ ño u mpɛsa xañɔ, mvəbo lu nolɔ rɔŋkena u mpɛsa ntuya o tsə əbu. Oldɔwa lu ludɛ noñə. Pɔ’ɔwa tɔdɔlga lu kwɛbo axa nodɛ, ni ɔdɔ’ɔwa xoñi o əvre, ño ri pɔwa ntənódɛ u mpɛsa tsə əvre.

Esə ɔ iyɔ ri oyədo ni lu ñunɛ ah lo nolɔ ah lo mpɛsa mpadɛ. Nzɔ nolɔ rɔŋkena lo mpɛsa ntuya o nzo əbu. Ma ɔ əlu ləh xuñe ala mvunɛ, dal spə rapsə ño u ətavo rɛtsə u Ŋkɛla’ad leyɔ. Tsoŋkena sade lu tso exɛ u tere nəlga. Sa tsa tere nzo nolɔ ah lo mpɛsa to’anu o lu ɔlu rɔma nzɔ lu ludɛ o noñə. Oldɔ mvəbo lu tere amo, o esə ɔ mvəskɛ ri oldɔ ño u pauvo ntɛ u kwɛña xañɔ. Pɔ’ɔwa lu tere nodɛ, ni ɔdɔlə lu kwɛbo axa xoñi o əvre.

Gaso’ɔ xowa owa rɛ nɔ mvəbo lu tere kə. Noneya ɛru ñugɛ lu xɔsɔ podɔ ivri: ñugɛ lu kwɛbo mañi, ñugɛ rɛ oldɔwa ewitsa tsə pewada, ñugɛ lu tere rɔma ntənə́lga lo kwɛbo əvre, o ñugɛ lu stonza ah lo kusavo pato — wɛ’ɔwa uysa rɛ so’ɔwa puh xə mevuna ɔ uvɔ olda.

Interlinear gloss

NULL.AUX-3SG
ño
as.3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
this.NOM
uvi:
happen
It happens like this:
Wɛ’ɔ
FUT.AUX-2SG
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
mpɛsa
fish
xañɔ,
move
mvəbo
along.3
lu
DEF.ACC
nolɔ
path
rɔŋkena
REL.AUX-3.REFL
u
INDEF.NOM
mpɛsa
fish
ntuya
fake
o
at.3
tsə
that.ACC
əbu.
swim
You will move like a fish, along the route where fake fish swim.
Oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
ludɛ
riverbank
noñə.
leave
You must leave the riverbank.
Pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
tɔdɔlga
involuntarily
lu
DEF.ACC
kwɛbo
sphere
axa
air
nodɛ,
touch
ni
if/then
ɔdɔ’ɔwa
RES.AUX-2SG>3
xoñi
break
o
and
əvre,
destroy
ño
as.3
ri
SUB.NOM
pɔwa
COND.AUX-3SG>3
ntənódɛ
GER-touch
u
INDEF.NOM
mpɛsa
fish
tsə
that.ACC
əvre.
destroy
If you accidentally touch the bubble, you will break it and destroy it, like a fish would destroy it by touching it.


Esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
iyɔ
important
ri
SUB.NOM
oyədo
OBL.AUX-2.REFL
ni
in.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ñunɛ
middle
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
nolɔ
path
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mpɛsa
fish
mpadɛ.
keep_positioned
It is important that you keep yourself positioned in the middle of the route of the fish.
Nzɔ
TOP.NOM
nolɔ
path
rɔŋkena
REL.AUX-3.REFL
lo
DEF.NOM
mpɛsa
fish
ntuya
fake
o
at.3
nzo
TOP.ACC
əbu.
swim
The route where the fake fish swim.
Ma
NEG.AUX-3SG>3
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
əlu
bend
ləh
nor
xuñe
crossroad
ala
without.3
mvunɛ,
hold
dal
but
spə
PASS.AUX-3SG
rapsə
instead.3
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
ətavo
key
rɛtsə
characteristic
u
from.3
Ŋkɛla’ad
Ŋkɛla’ad
leyɔ.
shape
It does not have any bend or crossroad, but instead it is shaped like a key in the style of Ŋkɛla’ad.
Tsoŋkena
HAB.AUX-3.REFL
sade
behind.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tso
corner
exɛ
first
u
INDEF.NOM
tere
door
nəlga.
turn
Behind the first corner, a door rotates around itself.
Sa
NULL.AUX-3SG>3
tsa
that.NOM
tere
door
nzo
TOP.ACC
nolɔ
path
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
mpɛsa
fish
to’anu
obstruct
o
at.3
lu
DEF.ACC
ɔlu
place
rɔma
REL.AUX-3SG>3
nzɔ
TOP.NOM
lu
DEF.ACC
ludɛ
riverbank
o
at.3
noñə.
leave
That door blocks the route of fish at the place where it leaves the riverbank.
Oldɔ
OBL.AUX-2SG
mvəbo
through.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tere
door
amo,
travel
o
and
esə
EMPH.COP-3SG
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
mvəskɛ
necessary
ri
SUB.NOM
oldɔ
OBL.AUX-2SG
ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
pauvo
acrobat
ntɛ
by.3
u
INDEF.NOM
kwɛña
ring
xañɔ.
move
You must go through the door, and it is necessary that you move skillfully in a circle.
Pɔ’ɔwa
COND.AUX-2SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
tere
door
nodɛ,
touch
ni
if/then
ɔdɔlə
RES.PASS.AUX-3SG
lu
DEF.ACC
kwɛbo
sphere
axa
air
xoñi
break
o
and
əvre.
destroy
If you touch the door, the bubble will be broken and destroyed.


Gaso’ɔ
PERM.AUX-2SG
xowa
write
owa
after.3
SUB.ACC
PFV.AUX-2SG
mvəbo
through.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tere
door
kə.
walk
You are allowed to write after you have gone through the door.
Noneya
INT.AUX-1SG>3
ɛru
everybody
ñugɛ
about.3
lu
DEF.ACC
xɔsɔ
obstacle
podɔ
for.2
ivri:
tell
I will tell everyone about your challenges:
ñugɛ
about.3
lu
DEF.ACC
kwɛbo
sphere
mañi,
special
about the magical bubble,
ñugɛ
about.3
SUB.ACC
oldɔwa
OBL.AUX-2SG>3
ewitsa
how
tsə
that.ACC
pewada,
use
about how you have to use it,
ñugɛ
about.3
lu
DEF.ACC
tere
door
rɔma
REL.AUX-3SG>3
ntənə́lga
GER-turn
lo
DEF.ACC
kwɛbo
sphere
əvre,
destroy
about the door that destroys the bubble by means of its rotation,
o
and
ñugɛ
about.3
lu
DEF.ACC
stonza
spike
ah
of.3
lo
DEF.NOM
kusavo
wasp
pato —
evil
and about the sting of the terrible wasps —
wɛ’ɔwa
FUT.AUX-2SG>3
uysa
wish
SUB.ACC
so’ɔwa
NULL.AUX-2SG>3
puh
for.3
this.NOM
mevuna
task
ɔ
INDEF.ACC
uvɔ
confidence
olda.
be_armed
you will wish to be armed with confidence for this task.

(This text was written on Oct 28, 2013 as part of Conlang Relay 21. Translated from Jeffrey Jones' TIAL.)

The violent yuska

Lo yuska vono.

Na u ru nzo yuska mvunɛ. Ño u tsenɛ́ña ma pɛmo, mpu tsona ɛru rumɛ rɛ gasa tsɛga xə ru ŋkə nzo rələh.

Rabɛ kɛ’u ɛte, nona lo ru lu sɛtsasa ah kume, o na losə rɛ ste’a lu yuska rələh. Dal ntɛ xə ɔdɔwə lo yuska rowastɔ, o ta lu ru botso! Ste’a xə losə rɛ sə posmu. Nə kwɛstaga lo yuska nzəxrə, xutsɔ ɔdɔwah oba sədə oskə. Esaxa tse lu ru xo’a o əño o tul.

Interlinear gloss

Lo
DEF.NOM
yuska
yuska
vono.
aggressive
The violent yuska.
Na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
u
INDEF.NOM
ru
man
nzo
TOP.ACC
yuska
yuska
mvunɛ.
hold
A man had a yuska.
Ño
as.3
u
INDEF.NOM
tsenɛ́ña
wiseman
ma
NEG.AUX-3SG
pɛmo,
fear
mpu
because
tsona
HAB.AUX-3SG>3
ɛru
everyone
rumɛ
know
SUB.ACC
gasa
PERM.AUX-3SG>3
tsɛga
only
this.NOM
ru
man
ŋkə
same
nzo
TOP.ACC
rələh.
ride
As a learned man he was not afraid, because everyone knew that he was the only person who could ride it.
Rabɛ
during.3
kɛ’u
one_of
ɛte,
day
nona
INT.AUX-3SG>3
lo
DEF.NOM
ru
man
lu
DEF.ACC
sɛtsasa
fortune
ah
of.3
kume,
punch
o
and
na
PFV.AUX-3SG>3
losə
try
SUB.ACC
ste’a
PROG.AUX-3SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
yuska
yuska
rələh.
ride
One day the man decided to try his luck, and he tried to ride the yuska.
Dal
but
ntɛ
by.3
this.NOM
ɔdɔwə
RES.COP-3SG
lo
DEF.NOM
yuska
yuska
rowastɔ,
angry
o
and
ta
INCH.AUX-3SG>3
lu
DEF.ACC
ru
man
botso!
attack
But no, the yuska got angry and attacked the man!
Ste’a
PROG.AUX-3SG>3
this.NOM
losə
try
SUB.ACC
NULL.AUX-3SG
posmu.
escape
He tried to run away.
PFV.AUX-3SG
kwɛstaga
loudly
lo
DEF.NOM
yuska
yuska
nzəxrə,
scream
xutsɔ
therefore
ɔdɔwah
RES.AUX-3PL
oba
many
sədə
other
oskə.
come
The yuska screamed fiercely, so that many other yuskas would come.
Esaxa
EMPH-AUX-3PL>3
tse
that.NOM
lu
DEF.ACC
ru
man
xo’a
hunt
o
and
əño
kill
o
and
tul.
eat
They hunted the man down, killed him, and ate him.

(This text was written on Feb 24, 2010 as part of Conlang Relay 17. The story has been translated from Arthaey Angosii's Lhenazi, and adapted slightly to fit the setting of Buruya Nzaysa.)

Translation challenges

The following texts were written in response to translation challenges on the ZBB, mostly in order to develop syntactic constructions and to create more vocabulary. It should be noted that these texts do not necessarily reflect the culture of Buruya, although they have been adapted so they might.

The Road

Tsonə nzɔ nolɔ nɛwɛ nodɛ o nəlga ɛtsu.
Owa lu tere rɔma sə nzɔ o mɔwa, sə xañɔ.
Ɔdɔwɛ witsu ada tavlɛ nzɔ nolɔ xɔmátsi.
Oleya losə rɛ miya tsə əbɔwə wano.
Oleya losə rɛ puysi kwə lo xol dɔ’ɔ axe kə.
Ñire rɛ wəya nzɔ nolɔ ɔ xuñe mɛsɛ.
Ñire rɛ wəxena tɛfta oba əlu o mevuna kwə –
Dal yalu weya səmaga amo, ada wilu, ada tselu?
Miya xa esə mve.

  • Tsonə nzɔ nolɔ nɛwɛ nodɛ o nəlga ɛtsu.
    [ ˌtsʰo.nən zɔ ˈno.lɔ nɛ.wɛ ˈno.dɛ ʔo ˈnəɫ.ɡa ˈʔɛ.tsu ]
    AOR.AUX-3SG TOP.NOM road more reach_out and turn always
    The road always reaches out and turns.
  • Owa lu tere rɔma sə nzɔ o mɔwa, sə xañɔ.
    [ ˌʔo.wa lu ˈtʰe.ɾe ɾɔ.ma ˌsən zɔ ʔo ˈmɔ.wa sə ˈxa.ɲɔ ]
    from.3 DEF.ACC door REL NULL.AUX-3SG TOP at.3 begin, NULL.AUX-3SG move
    From the door where it begins, it moves.
  • Ɔdɔwɛ witsu ada tavlɛ nzɔ nolɔ xɔmátsi.
    [ ˌʔɔ.dɔ.wɛ ˈwi.tsu ʔa.da ˈtʰa.vlɛn zɔ ˌno.lɔ xɔˈma.tsi ]
    RES.AUX-3SG>1 now to.3 far_away TOP.NOM road guide
    Now to far away the road has guided me.
  • Oleya losə rɛ miya tsə əbɔ wano.
    [ ˌʔo.le.ja ˈlo.sə ɾɛ ˌmi.ja tsə ˈʔə.bɔ ˈwa.no ]
    OBL.AUX-1SG>3 try SUB.ACC NEG.AUX-1SG>3 that.ACC CESS.AUX follow
    I must try not to stop following it.
  • Oleya losə rɛ puysi kwə lo xol dɔ’ɔ axe kə.
    [ ˌʔo.le.ja ˈlo.sə ɾɛ ˌpʰuj.si kʷə lo ˈxoɫ dɔ.ʔɔ ˌʔa.xe ˌkʰə ]
    OBL.AUX-1SG>3 try SUB.ACC CONT.AUX-1SG with.3 DEF.NOM foot weary of.1 walk
    I must try to continue walking with my weary feet.
  • Ñire rɛ wəya nzɔ nolɔ ɔ xuñe mɛsɛ.
    [ ˈɲi.ɾe ɾɛ ˌwə.jan zɔ ˌno.lɔ ʔɔ ˈxu.ɲe ˌmɛ.sɛ ]
    until.3 SUB.ACC FUT.AUX-3SG>3 TOP.NOM road INDEF.ACC crossroads meet
    Until the road will meet another one.
  • Ñire rɛ wəxena tɛfta oba əlu o mevuna kwə –
    [ ˈɲi.ɾe ɾɛ ˌwə.xe.na ˈtʰɛf.ta ʔo.ba ˈʔə.lu ʔo ˈme.vu.na ˌkʷʰə ]
    until.3 SUB.ACC FUT.AUX-3REFL join many bend and task with.3
    Until many bends and tasks will combine.
  • Dal yalu weya səmaga amo, ada wilu, ada tselu?
    [ daɫ ˌya.lu we.ja ˈsə.ma.ɡa ˌʔa.mo | ʔa.da ˈwi.lu | ʔa.da ˈtsʰe.lu ]
    but where FUT.AUX-1SG>3 next travel, to.3 this_place, to.3 that_place?
    But where will I travel next, to here, to there?
  • Miya xa esə mve.
    [ ˈmi.ja xa ˌʔe.səm ˌve ]
    NEG.AUX-1SG>3 that.ACC EMPH.AUX say
    I cannot say that.

Original:
The road goes ever on and on
Down from the door where it began
Now far ahead the road has gone
And I must follow, if I can
Pursuing it with weary feet
Until it joins some larger way
Where many paths and errands meet
And whither then? I cannot say.
(J.R.R. Tolkien)

Another Upon Her Weeping

Nzo yɔsa nə o ɔtse mpɛ, o nə nzo mpi.
O naña ayru soldu pə, ɔ mpɛsɔmɛ.
Ntɛ xa lo ɔtse ola ta, o ɔpso nɛwɛ ntɛ.

  • Nzo yɔsa nə o ɔtse mpɛ, o nə nzo mpi.
    [ nzo ˈjɔ.sa ˌnə ʔo ˈʔɔ.tsem ˌpɛ | ʔo ˌnən zom ˈpi ]
    TOP.ACC lady PFV.AUX-3SG at.3 river sit, and PFV.AUX-3SG TOP.ACC weep.
    A lady by the river sat, and she did weep.
  • O naña ayru soldu pə, ɔ mpɛsɔmɛ.
    [ ʔo ˌna.ɲa ˌʔaj.ɾu ˈsoɫ.du ˌpʰə | ʔɔm ˈpɛ.sɔˌmɛ ]
    and PFV.AUX-3SG<3 of.3.ANIM eyes fall, INDEF.ACC teardrop.
    And from her eyes a teardrop fell.
  • Ntɛ xa lo ɔtse ola ta, o ɔpso nɛwɛ ntɛ.
    [ ntɛ ˌxa lo ˌʔɔ.tse ˈʔo.la ˌtʰa | ʔo ˈʔɔ.pso ˌnɛ.wɛn ˌtɛ ]
    by.3 this.ACC DEF-NOM river rise INCH.AUX-3SG, and deep more by.3.
    The river began to rise by this, and to become more deep.

Original:
She by the river sat, and sitting there,
She wept, and made it deeper by a tear.
(Robert Herrick, c. 1629)

Aphorisms

  1. Sexa ɔ dalsu dəñɛ, sexa lu vi tsɔve, puysi ada lu ntalu kə.
    [ ˌse.xa ʔɔ ˈdaɫ.su ˈdə.ɲɛ | ˌse.xa lu ˌvi ˈtsʰɔ.ve | ˈpʰuj.si ˌʔa.da lun ˈta.lu kə ]
    NULL.AUX-1PL>3 INDEF.ACC honey enjoy, NULL.AUX-1PL>3 DEF.ACC star watch, CONT.AUX-1PL to.3 DEF.ACC death walk.
    We taste honey, we watch the stars, we continue to walk towards death.

  2. Ɔdɔwə nzɔ ñudɔ mɔra mvuga, ntɛ lo rɛtsə u xaru rɔmaxa tsə alpu.
    [ ˌʔɔ.dɔ.wən zɔ ˌñu.dɔ ˈmɔ.ɾam ˌvu.ɡa | ˌntɛ lo ˈrɛ.tsə ʔu ˌxa.ru ˌrɔ.ma.xa tsə ˈʔaɫ.pu ]
    RES.AUX-3SG TOP future select already, with.3 DEF nature from.3 this_person REL.AUX-3PL>3 that.ACC manufacture.
    The future has been predetermined by the nature of those who manufacture it.

  3. Nzɔ xu’ɛ u ɔdɔvo, nonə lo sɛtsasa ni ntɔnadɛ natsu, o esa podɔ lu to ah dalmə.
    [ nzɔ ˌxu.ʔɛ ʔu ˈʔɔ.dɔ.vo | ˌno.nə lo ˌsɛ.tsa.sa nin ˈtɔ.na.dɛ ˌna.tsu | ʔo ˌʔe.sa ˌpʰo.dɔ lu ˈtʰo ʔax ˌdaɫ.mə ]
    TOP book from.3 event, INT.AUX-3SG DEF fate in.3 stop_for sometimes, and EMPH.AUX-3SG>3 for.2 DEF.ACC hand of.3 present.
    Fate may sometimes take a break to look around in the book of history, and it may even offer you its hand.

Two serpents

  • Tsonə nzɔ nzənama nte’a ño u ɔlatsa puh u ñe ɛma.
    [ ˌtsʰo.nən zɔn ˈzə.na.man ˌte.ʔa ˌɲo ʔu ˈʔɔ.la.tsa ˌpux ʔu ɲe ˈʔɛ.ma ]
    HAB.COP-3SG TOP live-VN truly as.3 INDEF.NOM struggle-VN for.3 INDEF two serpent
    Life is truly like a struggle of two serpents.
  • Esə xə ɔ miyɔdɔ, o ma lo ɔlu kwədamə rɔma nimə́luña.
    [ ˌʔe.sə ˈxə ʔɔ ˈmi.jɔ.dɔ | ʔo ˌma lo ˈʔɔ.lu ˌkʷʰə.da.mə ˌrɔ.ma niˈmə.lu.ɲa ]
    EMPH.COP-3SG this INDEF.ACC blind, and NEG.AUX-3SG>3 DEF.ACC place know REL-3SG>3 go_towards.VN
    This one is a blind one, and it does not know where it is going to.
  • Esə tse ɔ miyɔdɔ kwə, o ɔdɔxena ñire lu ntəwa ah pɛnə.
    [ ˌʔe.sə ˈtsʰe ʔɔ ˈmi.jɔ.dɔ ˌkʷə | ʔo ˌʔɔ.dɔ.xe.na ˌɲi.ɾe lun ˈtə.wa ʔax ˌpʰɛ.nə ]
    EMPH.COP-3SG that INDEF.ACC blind with.3, and RES.AUX-3.REFL at.3 DEF.ACC tail of.3 bite
    That one is a blind one too, and it is biting itself in its own tail.

Speaking about infinity

  • Ma’ɔwa ɔ lɛwi wə mɔra rɔmaxa lu wɛtə ah nuve sopsə.
    [ ˈma.ʔɔ.wa ʔɔ ˈlɛ.wi wə ˌmɔ.ɾa | ˌrɔ.ma.xa lu ˌwɛ.tə ʔax ˈnu.ve ˌso.psə ]
    NEG.AUX-2SG>3 INDEF.ACC word FUT.AUX select REL.AUX-3PL>3 DEF.ACC topic of.3 pride defeat.
    Do not select words that surpass the subject matter with regard to pride.
  • Ma’ɔwa lu "ñɛduga" ala lu "ntsa" mve, mpu ɔdɔ’ɔwa me lu lɛwi ñarə́ga sədə mesə dalmə rabɛ lu pawɔ obɔ nzo ñɛdu.
    [ ˌma.ʔɔ.wa lu ˈɲɛ.du.ɡa ˌʔa.la lun ˈtsam ve | mpu ˈʔɔ.dɔˌʔɔ.wa ˈme lu ˌlɛ.wi ɲaˈrə.ɡa ˌsə.də ˌme.sə ˈdaɫ.mə | ˌra.bɛ lu ˌpʰa.wɔ ˌʔo.bɔn zo ˈɲɛ.du ]
    NEG.AUX-2SG>3 DEF.ACC "infinitely" rather_than.3 DEF.ACC "very" say; because RES.AUX-2SG>3 no DEF.ACC word suitable other NEG-EMPH.AUX present during.3 DEF.ACC mention.VN from.2 TOP.ACC infinity.
    Do not say "infinitely" instead of "very"; because you will not be able to present another suitable word when you mention infinity.

Alegría

  • Pɔ’ɔwa me rɔnzobe ɛdə, ni ta’ɔ nzəxrə.
    [ ˌpʰɔ.ʔɔ.wa me ˈrɔn.zo.be ˌʔɛ.de | ni ˌtʰa.ʔɔn ˈzəx.ɾə ]
    COND.AUX-2SG>3 no voice have, if/then INCH.AUX-2SG shout.
    If you have no voice, then start to shout.
  • Pɔ’ɔwa me bitsi ɛdə, ni ta’ɔ otɛ.
    [ ˌpʰɔ.ʔɔ.wa me ˈbi.tsi ˌʔɛ.de | ni ˌtʰa.ʔɔ ˈʔo.tɛ ]
    COND.AUX-2SG>3 no leg have, if/then INCH.AUX-2SG run.
    If you have no legs, then start to run.
  • Pɔ’ɔwa me ñayo ɛdə, ni ta’ɔ ruyɔ.
    [ ˌpʰɔ.ʔɔ.wa me ˈɲa.jo ˌʔɛ.de | ni ˌtʰa.ʔɔ ˈru.jɔ ]
    COND.AUX-2SG>3 no hope have, if/then INCH.AUX-2SG invent.
    If you have no hope, then start to invent.

From the Cirque du Soleil show "Alegría".

A dialogue at the battlefield

  • "Oldɔxə ma da! Oldɔxa poxe adɔ lɛtsi tsapse!" na Yagu’aspo darə. "Ntɛ nzɔ, pədo gadɛ."
    [ ˈʔoɫ.dɔ.xə ma ˈda ‖ ˈʔoɫ.dɔ.xa ˌpʰo.xe ˌʔa.dɔ ˈlɛ.tsi ˌtsʰa.pse | na ˈja.ɡuˌʔa.spo ˌda.ɾə ‖ ntɛn ˌzɔ | ˌpʰə.do ˈɡa.dɛ ]
    "OBL.AUX-2PL>1 NEG.AUX fight! OBL.AUX-2PL>3 for.1 of.2 sword give!" PFV.AUX-3SG>3 Yagu’aspo warn. "by.3 TOP.NOM, COND.AUX-1PL>2 spare."
    "Do not fight us! Give us your swords!", warned Yagu’aspo. "With this, we might spare you."
  • Na Ruspɛra xa loya: "Stɔxa oskə o waño ɛsul!"
    [ ˌna ˈru.spɛ.ɾa xa ˈlo.ja ‖ ˌstɔ.xa ˈʔo.skə ʔo ˌwa.ɲo ˈʔɛ.suɫ ]
    PFV.AUX-3SG>3 Ruspɛra this.ACC answer: "EMPH.AUX-2PL>3 come and 3PL.ACC take!"
    Ruspɛra answered thus: "Indeed, come and take them!"

Yagu’aspo < *jakʷaudaspu < diàka wau daspu "ruler over warriors" ~ Xerxes < Xšayāršā "ruler over heroes"
Ruspɛra < rud peras "brave man" ~ Leonidas < Λεωνίδας, "son of a lion"

Introduction to a heroic tale

  • Nzɔ gəñota axe, ntəmə́mat ɔra ɔdɔvo rɔma rabɛ lu owa tsə əsu mañi ə spə, puysiya ma kupsiwa rɛ nah xə lotsɛ.
    [ nzɔ ˈɡə.ɲo.ta ˌʔa.xe | ntəˈmə.ma ˌtɔ.ɾa ˈʔɔ.dɔ.vo | ˌrɔ.ma ˈra.bɛ lu ˌʔo.wa tsə ˌʔə.su ˈma.ɲi ʔə ˈspə | ˌpʰuj.si.ja ma ˈkʰu.psi.wa | rɛ ˌnax xə ˈlo.tsɛ ]
    TOP.NOM cause_for_fame of.1SG, GER-remember all event REL during.3 DEF.ACC from.3 that.ACC night remarkable 1SG.ACC experience.VN, CONT.AUX-1SG>3 NEG.AUX believe SUB.ACC PFV.COP-3PL this true.
    As for my cause of fame, remembering all events that were experienced to me during the after of that remarkable night, I continue to not believe that these were true.
  • Esah xə ɔ lɛwitsɛ sɛpsɔ, xutsɔ rabɛ lu məmada axe wɛtuldɔ mah, ɔde ño u stasavo nada.
    [ ˈʔe.sax ˌxə ʔɔ ˈlɛ.wi.tsɛ ˌsɛ.psɔ | ˌxu.tsɔ ˈra.bɛ lu ˌmə.ma.da ˌʔa.xe ˈwɛ.tuɫ.dɔ ˌmax | ˌʔɔ.de ˌɲo ʔu ˈsta.sa.vo ˌna.da ]
    EMPH.COP-3PL this INDEF.ACC epic unique, therefore during.3 DEF.ACC remember.VN of.1SG even today, RES.AUX-1SG as.3 INDEF.NOM changed_person feel.
    These were indeed a unique epic, therefore even during my remembering them today, I feel like a changed person.

Want, must, should, may...

  • Nzɔ tsɛga, pe gaso ni olnone, dal pe ma esə ni ɛ’e, ni pe ma ɛ’i ni ole.
    [ nzɔ ˈtsʰɛ.ɡa | pe ˈɡa.so ni ˈʔoɫ.no.ne | ˌdaɫ pe ma ˈʔe.sə ni ˌʔɛ.ʔe | ˌni pe ma ˈʔɛ.ʔi ni ˌʔo.le ]
    TOP.NOM only, COND.AUX-1SG PERM.AUX if/then OBL=INT.AUX-1SG, but COND.AUX-1SG NEG.AUX EMPH.AUX if/then OPT.AUX-1SG, if/then COND.AUX-1SG NEG.AUX OPT.AUX if/then OBL.AUX-1SG.
    If I only may when I should, but cannot when I want, then I don't want when I must.
  • Dal pe gaso ni ɛ’e, ni pe ɛ’i ni olnone, o ntɛxavu pe esə ni ole.
    [ ˌdaɫ pe ˈɡa.so ni ˈʔɛ.ʔe | ˌni pe ˈʔɛ.ʔi ni ˈʔoɫ.no.ne | ʔon ˌtɛ.xa.vu pe ˈʔe.sə ni ˈʔo.le ]
    but COND.AUX-1SG PERM.AUX if/then OPT.AUX-1SG, if/then COND.AUX-1SG OPT.AUX if/then OBL=INT.AUX-1SG, and also COND.AUX-1SG EMPH.AUX if/then OBL.AUX-1SG.
    But if I may when I want, then I would when I should, and also I can when I must.
  • Nzɔ mpu, ñe wi rɔməh olə esə ruñasta, oləh gaso uysa.
    [ nzɔm ˈpu | ɲe wi ˌrɔ.mə ˌxo.lə ˈʔe.sə ˌru.ɲa.sta | ˌʔo.ləx ˌɡa.so ˈʔuj.sa ]
    TOP.NOM because, as.1 1PL.NOM REL.AUX-1PL OBL.AUX EMPH.AUX be_resilient, OBL.AUX-1PL PERM.AUX want.
    Because well, as those who are meant to always make it through, we must be allowed to want.