Ayāsthi/Sound changes

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  • Take Adāta /a e i o u aː eː iː oː uː r/ as [ɑ ɛ i o u ɑː ɛː iː oː uː ɹ].
  • Except when otherwise stated, vowel shifts apply to long and nasalised variants; e.g. [i] is taken to mean [i iː ĩ ĩː] unless otherwise stated.

From Adāta to Adhāsth

  1. [x h] shifts
    • [x h] → [ɦ] / _V
    • [x h] → [ħ] / otherwise
  2. Lenition of other consonants
    • [b d g] → [p t k] / _#, except in monosyllables.
    • [b d g] → [β ð ɣ] / otherwise.
    • [z] → [z̞] / [ɑ ɑː]_
    • [z] → [ɹ] / _#
    • [s] → [h] / V_C, V_#, except V_[s].
    • [s] → [z] / V_V
    • [pʰ tʰ kʰ] → [pf ts kx] / V_, except V_#.
    • [pʰ tʰ kʰ] → [ɸ θ x] / otherwise.
    • [p t k] → [ɸ θ x] / V_, except when part of affricates [pf ts kx] or when word-final in a polysyllabic word.
  3. Nasal consonant shifts
    • Vowels are nasalised before [n m].
    • [m] → [ɴ] / [õ ũ õː ũː]_
    • [n] → [ɴ] / [ɑ̃ ɛ̃ ẽ ĩ ɑ̃ː ɛ̃ː ẽː ĩː]_C
  4. Palatalisation
    • [θ ð s z z̞ n] → [ɕ ʑ ʃ ʒ ʒ ɲ] / _[ɛ e i j]
  5. Synaeresis of diphthongs
    • [i u] → [j w] / _V or V_, unless stressed or long.
    • [i u] → [ji wu] / V_ otherwise.
    • [ɑ ɛ o u] → [æ e œ ɯ] / _j
    • [ɑ ɛ i] → [ɔ œ y] / _w
    • [ejɛ] → [eɛ]
    • [j] → ∅ / [æ e œ ɯ]_C
    • [w] → ∅ / [ɔ œ y]_C
  6. Vowel lowering
    • [i u] → [e o] / V_, when [ɑ æ œ ɔ o] is in the next syllable
  7. Vowel reduction / #_#, #_C#, _#, including nasalised forms, but not long forms, and never when stressed.
    • [ɑ ɛ e ɔ o œ] → [ə]
    • [i y] → [ɨ]
    • [u] → [ɯ]
  8. Schwa syncope & metathesis
    • [ɹə lə mə nə ɲə] → [əɹ əl əm ən əɲ] / #_#
    • [ə] → ∅ / VC_#, with ɡemination of the preceding consonant.
  9. Geminate consonant shifts
    • [pfː tsː kxː] → [pf ts kx]
    • [θː zː ʒː z̞ː] → [sθ sː ʃː ɹː]
  10. Rhotacisation
    • [o] → [ɔ] / _[ɹ]C, _[ɹ]#
  11. [ħ]-colouring
    • [i ə o] → [e ɑ ɔ] / _[ħ]C, _[ħ]#

From Adhāsth to Ayāsthi

  1. [ð ɕ ʑ] shifts
    • [ð ʑ] → [ʝ]
    • [ɕ] → [s]
  2. Resyllabification of geminate consonants
    • Cː → CC / V_V
  3. Further lenitions
    • [βi ʝu] → [βy ʝy], including long and nasalised forms.
    • [β ʝ ɣ] → [w j ɦ]
    • [z̞] → [ɹ] / _[ɑ æ], _C, _#, [ɹ]_
    • [z̞] → [z] / otherwise.
  4. [ɯ ɨ] merger
    • [ɯ] → [ɨ]
  5. Delabialisation of [u]
    • [u] → [ɯ] / including nasalised forms, but never long forms, nor when adjacent to [m p pf ɸ w y œ u o ɔ].
  6. Second synaeresis of diphthongs
    • [w] → [u] / _C
    • [j] → [i] / _C
    • [wj jw] → [yj yw]
    • [ə] → ∅ / _V, unless the following vowel is also [ə], but never if nasalised or long.
    • [ə] → ∅ / V_V, V_C, except if nasalised or long.
    • [ɨ] → ∅ / _[i y ɨ ɯ u]
    • [wi we] → [wy wœ]
    • [ju] → [jy]
  7. Dephonemisation of [j w] after high vowels
    • Note: the phones do not disappear but stop registering as phonemes, and continue to be automatically produced in these environments.
    • /j/ → ∅ / _[i y ɨ], [i]_, [y]_[e œ ɛ æ]
    • /w/ → ∅ / _[y u], [u]_, [y]_[o ɔ ɑ]
  8. Centralisation of /u u:/ after coronals
    • [ɯ u] → [ɨ ʉ] / [n t ts θ s z ɹ l ɲ ʃ ʒ]_
  9. Geminate consonant simplication
    • Cː → C / C_, _C
    • [sθ] → [θ] / C_, _C
    • [ɴː ɦː] → [ɴə ɦə]
    • [jː wː] → [ij uw] / _V
    • [jː wː] → [i u] / otherwise.
  10. Secondary vowel nasalisation
    • Vowels are nasalised before [m n ɲ ɴ].
    • [õ õː] → [ɔ̃ ɔ̃ː]
  11. Secondary reduction of vowels
    • [ə] → ∅ / VC_CV, especially when followed by a stressed syllable, including the nasalised form, but never if long.
    • ∅ → [ə] / CC_CC
    • [ʉ] → [ɨ]
    • [ɯː] → [ɨː]
    • [ɨ] → [ə] / _# except when preceded by [n t ts θ s z ɹ l ʃ ʒ k kx x w], and never when nasalised, lonɡ, or stressed.
    • [ɑː] → [ɑ] / _# except when nasalised or stressed.
  12. Secondary lenition of [n ɲ]
    • [n ɲ] → [ɴ] / _[x h ɦ ħ]
  13. Lenition of [ɴ j w x h ɦ ħ]
    • Whenever more than one copy of any of [ɴ j w x h ɦ ħ] appear consecutively, or when geminate, it is reduced to a single consonant.
    • [ħ] → ∅ / _#
    • [ħ] → [h] / otherwise.
    • [ɦ] → [ʔ] / C_, _C, _#
    • [ʔ] → ∅ / _#
    • [ʔ] → ∅ / _C, geminating the next consonant.
    • [ɴm ɴn ɴɲ] → [mm nn ɲɲ]
    • [ɴ] → ∅ / otherwise.
  14. Denasalisation of vowels
    • Vowels are denasalised if followed by [m n ɲ]
  15. Consonant cluster assimilation
    • [s z] → [ʃ ʒ] / [ʃ ʒ ɲ]_, _[ʃ ʒ ɲ]
    • [s ʃ] → [z ʒ] / _[z ʒ]
    • [z ʒ] → [s ʃ] / _[s ʃ]
  16. Diphthong simplifications
    • [ɛe] → [eː]
    • [ɑ] → [æ] / _[æ]
    • [ɑ] → [ɔ] / _[ɔ]
    • [ɑ] → [ɐ] / _[ɨ]
    • [o] → [ɔ] / _[ɔ]
  17. Synaeresis of geminate vowels
    • Geminate vowels become long vowels.
    • Nasalisation spreads when consecutive vowels merge.
    • If the first vowel was stressed before synaeresis, then the resulting long vowel has circumflex accent; otherwise it has acute accent.
    • [ɯː] → [uː]
    • [əː] → [ə]
  18. Paragoge
    • ∅ → [ɨ̆] / VːCː_#, VːCC_#

See also