Ìletlégbàku/Lexicon

From AkanaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

This is a list of words in Ìletlégbàku. It is by no means complete and does not give many idiomatic uses which occur.

Words are ordered alphabetically; accents are ignored in the sorting.

Abbreviations:

  • NL - Naəgbum Lukpanic
  • KpL - Kpitamoa Lukpanic
  • IL - Isi Lukpanic
  • Ish. - Isho'u 'Ohu
  • Doa. - Doayâu
  • n - noun
    • a - animate
    • i - inanimate
    • (Roman numeral) - classifier the noun takes
    • ip - inalienably possessed
    • ap - alienably possessed
    • coll - collective
  • qt - quantifier
  • pre - prefix
  • zt - zero-transitive verb (taking no arguments)
  • it - intransitive verb (taking one absolutive argument)
    • eit - ergative intransitive verb (taking one ergative argument)
  • mt - monotransitive verb (taking a direct object and subject)
  • dt - ditransitive verb (taking direct and indirect objects as well as a subject)
  • vsuf - verbal suffix
  • adv - adverb
  • prep - preposition
  • posp - postposition
  • dis - discourse particle
  • con - conjunction

There are only three irregularities to be aware of with regards to morphology:

  1. Whether e shows this pattern with i-affection and u-affection (P means a palatalised consonant, C means any consonant):
    • Plain: ...Pe, i-affected: ...Pi, u-affected: ...Ca (or Cu initially).
    • or this: Plain: ...Ce, i-affected: ...Pe, u-affected: ...Ca (or Cu initially)
  2. Whether a sh should de-palatalise to s or x.
  3. Whether a w should de-labialise to x (or sh palatalised).

Both of these are noted in the Morphology column. The first e pattern is indicated with e1, the second is indicated with e2. The consonant any sh depalatalises to will be written afterwards. If a w de-labialises to a fricative w will be written afterwards.

The letter -l indicates that a word is not affected by labialisation or palatalisation. This mostly applies to loanwords.

(461 words)

Word Morphology Type Gloss Etymology Etym. Gloss Notes
abu dt to pass on (as an inheritance) N.L. abe give
adì mt fear 7adi fear
agbà zt rain 7ago rain
aixisab -l n i X power, greatness N.L. airisab something within the blood
akpe e1 -l n i IV fog N.L. akpea fog
awop n i II carrot N.L. aloap carrot
àme e2 posp with 7àma with
àpe e2 n i X passion, enthusiasm ahpa anger, rage
àpéce e2 mt to be angry at ahpadza to be angry at
apawa -l n a VI lizard, crocodile N.L. apoa lizard, reptile
ashè e1 s n a IX (ip) wife (ap) woman 7àzè woman
Àyàyù n a IX refers to various other Ìletlégbàku-speaking tribes N.L. ãiãiə̃ "blood-painted" refers to their practice of painting their faces red
bàché e1 n i X holiness batshe holiness
bàxàungu it thunder unknown probably onomatopoeia
bàxàungu n i X thunder, lightning unknown probably onomatopoeia
buba n i V snow N.L. beba snow
bèbese e2 mt split bebesa split
becè e2 mt have, hold, carry, own bèdza have, carry, possess
besàgbù n i VII sharp edge, blade besògù sharp edge, blade
bese e2 mt cut besa cut
buimu it return, continue N.L. buime return, continue, flow (of tides)
busa it be strange N.L. busa crazy
byìxe e2 n a I (ip) meat, flesh, edible organs bľùxa meat, flesh, edible organs
ca con and tsa and
adv also, and tsah also, and
cáce e2 con moreover cáce moreover
cáce e2 posp as well as cáce moreover
cáce e2 adv because cáce because
càlè e2 mt stab, betray dzàlà stab
càme e2 pre red dzàma red
càudeyè e2 n a IX sea creature dzaldàjà bird Meaning was generalised to 'something that dàlàs (swims or flies), then made specific again
che e1 adv however dze7 however
chè e1 pron this (near me) dze this (near me)
ché e1 pron that tshe that
chècè e2 prep from (the inside of) dzehdza heart
chècè e2 n a VIII heart dzehdza heart
chèchì mt say dzedzi say
cheke e2 n i V earth tshèkhà earth
chegè e2 n i V sand tshehga sand
chegàwuchuté e2 n a IX seagull chegè + wuchu + té "sand-eater"
chègè e2 it sit dzega sit
chègecè e2 n i III seat dzegadza seat
cheguchù n i III saddle Iŋ. cegujú saddle blanket
cheidè e2 mt see, know dzeľda see, know
chéine e2 n i II horn tsheľna horn
chese e2 n i X dance, sacrifice dzèsa dance
chése e2 n i VIII dung tshesa dung
chésèpe e2 it defecate tshesahpa defecate
chéyàxù e2 n i III fortress tshejòhxù wall, rampart
chéye e2 n i V soil tsheja soil
chéyegì e2 n i V rubbish, junk tshejegi worthless items, inedible material
chí adv yesterday tshi yesterday
chíbù n i VIII worm (also a term of insult) tshibu worm
chíchì adv instead tshidzi instead
chìchì pre straight dzìdzi straight
chigè e2 vsuf continously dzi7ga continuously
chìgè e2 pre yellow dziga yellow
chiì n i VII bee dzì7ì bee
chiìké e2 n a IV honey, sweetness dzì7ìkha honey, sweetness
chiìké e2 pre sweet dzì7ìkha honey, sweetness
chine e2 pre together tshìňa together
chìne e2 n i VI fingernail dzìňa fingernail
chinè e2 pre thin tshìňà thin
chineté e2 mt build, put together, create tshìňatha build, put together, create
chìpé e1 n a IV water dziphe water
chite e2 mt teach tshihta teach
chíwe e2 pre dry tshi7la dry
cibè e2 n a I fruit tsuba fruit
cìpí mt gather, hunt, collect, fish dzuphu gather, hunt, collect, fish
cipí mt itch, irritate tshuphu itch, irritate
cìpígbayu n a IX fisherman, Lukpanic person dzuphugoju fisherman lukpài is more commonly used; it is perhaps a calque from Ish.
ciwi n a VI (ip) breast (ap) milk dzù7li breast
chiye e1 mt want dzije want
chiyele e2 n i X hope, wish dzijeła want, wish, desire
cìnu pre full, complete dzùnu full
cíupu e2 n a II (ip) arm tshulpu arm
cúpí n a VI deer tshophu deer
cútu eit lie down tshotu lie down
cútugè e2 mt put tshotuga place
pron that (near you) da that (near you)
dawe e1 n i X here da7le here
dàwè e2 it swim, run away dàlà swim, fly
dáxa it shout Ish. dáha shout
deyakúíise e2 n a VI wing dzaldàjò7u7iľsa wing
dìchè e2 n i X sky dudze sky
dàxè e2 mt to give an order, command dağa shout
dàxèté e2 n a IX leader dàxè + té 'giver of commands'
dàxecè e2 mt inform, warn dağadza call to
deb e2 it ebb N.L. deab ebb
dìxè e2 pre dangerous, taboo, forbidden duğa good Meaning probably developed because of connotations of sexual pleasure
Dànu n i III Doanu (a city) Lukpanic Doanu Doanu
dawasù n i X diplomatic errand Šet. dawaz want
di adv therefore, thus, in this way du7 therefore, in that case, thus, in this way
di n i X so, thus, like this du7 therefore, in that case, thus, in this way
dìchàkpe e1 -l n i IV cloud dìchè + N.L. akpe sky + fog
dui n a VI saltwater fish N.L. dui fish
dùbù pre thick dòbu thick
dùnge e1 -l n i III sail N.L. dũea large leaf; sheet; sail
èdè e2 dt give 7èda give
éi con because 7eľ because
ekáike e1 n i X game, competition N.L. eakaikea < PL *eakaikea < Emp. ékayé game, competition
ète e2 n i VIII feather 7èta feather
gàbè e2 n a IX foreigner (often derogatory), slave PL *gbagba human very early loanword, from before the language developed labialisation
Gàbètléke e2 n a IX the Lukpanic coast area gàbè + tléke foreigner + land gàbè, though extended to all foreigners, primarily refers to Lukpanics
gace e2 n a IX lover gatsa lover
gacé e2 n i V soil, dirt gatsha soil
gacé e2 mt stain, ruin, interfere gatsha make dirty
gàté e2 pre appropriate, proper gatha correct
gawa n a VI cow, cattle N.L. goap cow, cattle
gbabal n a IX council of elders N.L. gbabal some elders
gbìgè e2 it sleep guga sleep
gbìkpu posp after, behind guku after, behind
gbìxu n a VI wolf guxu wolf
gbùdù prep on top of gòdu on top of
gbùdù n a IX head gòdu head
gbùgbù mt cook gogu cook
gbùgbù n a II tail gogu tail
e1 con but ge but
gèchí pre dirty getshi dirty
géya it make felt Ish. géa Replaced native root gise
geye e2 n a IX child geľa child
geyekpi n a IX baby geľa + kpi child + dimunitive
gise e2 mt squeeze, press gisa squeeze, press
gitu n a VI whale N.L. gitəb whale
gwiwa e2 n a II leg gluwo leg
i posp if 7i if
ibida eit float N.L. ibida float
ibidáyéshì n i X flotsam ibida + yéshì 'that which floats'
ícé e2 mt fish 7itsha fish
idè e2 pre slow 7ida slow
igè e2 qt five 7uga five
íise e2 n a VI (ip) hand (ap) assistant, helper 7iľsa hand
ìke e2 n i VII (ip) tooth (ap) weapon 7ùka tooth
ìkèpe e2 mt bite 7ùkahpa bite
ìkeupe e2 mt eat vegetables, eat non-meat 7ùkalpa eat vegetables, eat non-meat
ìme e2 posp without 7ihma without
inma n i VII hibiscus N.L. iŋma hibiscus
ipukau n i III desert N.L. ipikau desert
Ishákúahu n i X the Isho'u 'Ohu language Ish. Isho'u 'Ohu language of Ishe
Ishe e1 -l n i III Isi (a city) I.L. Ishe Isi
Ite n i IV a river N.L. iəta river
itunung -l n i VII canoe N.L. itẽnẽ canoe
iutu -l n i X period of time between two solstices N.L. iutu year
Íwaku -l n i III Iəvaku (a city) PL *Iəvaku Iəvaku
iwa n i V vomit 7uwo vomit
iwaupe e2 it vomit 7uwolpa vomit
iye e1 n i X name 7ìje name
íye e2 n i X pain 7uja pain
iyékèdè e2 mt name 7ìje7èda name + give
íyékéye e2 it be in pain 7uja7aja be in pain
íyécè e2 mt hurt 7ujadza cause pain
íyécèle e2 n i X (ip) wound, injury (ap) mistake 7ujadzała wound, injury
kabatá n i X celebration (non-religious) N.L. koabatoa celebration (non-religious)
kagbùbecè e2 mt steal zedze7ogubèdza steal irregular shortening
kákpá it laugh khakho laugh
kákpágè e2 mt curse khakhoga mock
kákpákpu adv amusingly khakhoku amusingly
káke e2 pre black khà7a black
kápàkpù n i III forest khapòkù forest
kápe e2 n i VII tree khapa tree
káwa pre narrow khawo narrow
káye e2 n i IV fire khaja fire
káyékáye e2 it burn khaja7aja Was reanalysed as reduplicated káye, which explains the irregular development
káyelàkpù n i V coll ashes khajałòkù ashes
káyèpe e2 mt burn khajahpa burn
kib -l n i III house N.L. kib house
klàchè e1 n a VIII skin głàdze skin
klachè e1 mt mix gładze mix
klàme e2 n i I coll berries głàma berries
klakla n a VI frog unknown probably onomatopoeia
klexè e2 n a VI edible animal głè7hà game animal
kliké e2 pre short głukha short
kpaubu n i II rope N.L. kpaube rope
kpita n i I butter N.L. kpita butter
Kpitàu -l n i III Kpitamoa (a city) Kp.L. Pitão Kpitamoa from an earlier stage of the dialect
kpíugè e2 n i VII boat (often of a primitive native style) khulga boat
kpíupe e2 mt catch khulpa hunt, catch
kpíupeté e2 mt hunter kpíupe + té hunt + agentive
kpúwu mt tie, fasten kholu tie, fasten
kpùnuté mt assassinate N.L. kpaənu + té sleep + causative
kùmupun n i X shrine, sacred place N.L. kumupun shrine, sacred place
lagbà pre near łago near
laxè e2 n i VII (ip) eye (ap) guide łağa eye
làxè e2 n i X soul łàğa soul
làxwewa n a IX priest łàğlawo priest
leshì s n a VI horse łèzi horse
lìne e2 n i VI lake łìna lake
lìnmu n i VII wall (of a house) N.L. lĩme wall
lìwusu n i IX rich person (derogatory) N.L. Lĩuəsə 'people facing away from the sea' i.e. the Coastal Westerners
líye e2 n a VI snake; also a term of insult łija snake
Ludù n a IV the sea (i.e. the sea to the south, the only one they know of) N.L. lu + dù sea + augmentive
lukpài -l n a IX Lukpanic person N.L. lukpãi autonym
ma e2 n i X point (in space) ma location, place
màcè e2 n i VIII (ip) nose (ap) hunting dog màdzà nose
machè e1 n a IV sea madze sea
màgè e2 pre sharp mahga sharp
mámá n a IX mother (informal; for your own mother only) nursery word
máshè e2 it shine maze shine
Másheshè e2 n i VII a moon goddess mazèzè moon
mawa e2 pre blue N.L. mal blue Often not distinguished from green
máyam n i VII moon possibly N.L. am 'moon' The ma- prefix may be from the older stem for moon, másheshè
máye e1 pre rotten, (of humans) seriously ill maje rotten
mécè e2 n a VI dog medza dog
mece e2 qt four mètsa four
méwidù n a VI bear me7li + dù bear + augmentive
mìchì qt six mìdzi six
mìga pre unlucky Doa. mìga wet, unlucky
mìgbà pre wet mìgo wet
mimu pre warm N.L. mime warm
mìne e2 n a IX (ip) mother (formal) mìna mother
mili n a VI (ip) tongue miłi tongue
mili eit speak, talk miłi tongue
mítalùn n a IV stream N.L. mitalẽ stream, process
mítalùn n i X process N.L. mitalẽ stream, process
Mitàmal n i X Akana; the world N.L. mitãmal Akana; the world
maba pre big N.L. mab big
mawa n i III harbour N.L. moa harbour
makpa n i II tower N.L. moakpa < PL *moakpa < Tm. mǫʔpa summit, peak
mu vsuf completely mu completely
mul n i VII buckwheat N.L. mul buckwheat
mungisap n i IV paint N.L. maəŋisap paint
múshù mt sew mo7zu sew
mutìnge n a IX king N.L. mutĩea king (lit. 'all the elders')
mùxù n a VI sheep mòğu sheep
mùxu pre fat, rich, wide mòxu wide
na pron I, me, we, us na I, me, we, us
nábigab mt read N.L. noabigab read
nachè e1 adv rarely nadze rarely
nachè e1 pre tame nadze tame
naib n i III roof, terrace N.L. naib roof, terrace
nalal it lie, recline N.L. nalal lie, recline
nawà w qt eight ňağo eight
náwé n i III a style of sail Doa. nôe sail, wing
nawab mt letter, (in the plural) writing N.L. noab spot, sign, glyph
náye e1 vsuf frequently, habitually ňaje frequently
néishì s qt seven neľzi seven
nèna n i VII boat, ship (of an advanced, Lukpanic-style craft) N.L. neãna boat, ship
nexwe e2 pre white neğla white
nexwèklème e2 n a I coll mushrooms neğlàgłàma mushrooms
ngisapùm n i I stew, sauce N.L. ŋisapum stew, sauce
ngìmub n i III village N.L. ŋimeb cluster of buildings
nguwu n i I onion N.L. ŋulu onion
nipé e2 n i VI fog nipha fog
níshì s pre smooth ňizi smooth
nmep -l mt wage war on N.L. ŋmeap fight
nmiula n a VI kid (i.e. young goat) N.L. ŋmiula goat
nùbù it think nòbu think
nùgbù it left, west nògù left, west
Nugbùn n a III Naəgbum (a city) N.L. Negwẽ Naəgbum
nùkpu qt three nolku three
núu posp up towards no7u up towards
nùxù n a VI foot nòğu foot
pa adv then, next, and phà then, next, and
qt all pha all
pàiku -l it sail, navigate N.L. pãike sail, navigate
pápéte e2 mt shoot, hurl as a weapon phapha7ta shoot, hurl as a weapon
pápétéyéshì n i II thrown weapon pápéte + yéshì "that which is hurled as a weapon"
pàtàgbù n i II path, way pàtògù road, path
pàte e2 it find one's way pàta find one's way
páte e2 mt throw pha7ta throw
páwe e2 it swell, grow phala swell, grow, become tumescent
páwe e2 pre far phala far
peyagbù n i IX noble, aristocrat pèľogu fat person, rich person
péye e2 n i IV ball of dust, dirt phèľa cloud
píbai pre correct N.L. piəbai correct
pidasèni n a VI foal Iŋ. pydosànhí foal
pígè e2 n a IX chief puga chief
píli n i V tree bark phiłi tree bark
píte e2 pre weak phita small, weak
píwa it blow, breathe, live phiwo breathe, blow
píwaté n a VI living thing píwa + té "that which breathes"
píwagè e2 it become more important phiwoga inflate
píyi e2 n i VII seed phiji seed
plàme e2 it fart błàma fart
plápapa e2 n i VII butterfly unknown probably onomatopoeic
plawa eit walk pława walk
plawa mt go (to a place) pława walk
plawákagbù eit walk away pławo7ogu walk away
pukpa n i IV wine, alcohol N.L. pukpa wine, alcohol
púlaxa n i VII gift N.L. pulara < PL *pulaha < Tm. polaha gift
puwu n i III large road (in a city) N.L. puvu road
pyàgè e2 pre new pľàga new
pyàme e2 n i VII flower pľàma flower
sa pron each of us sa we, us (distributive)
sa posp inside, during, while sà7 inside, during, while
sabeye e2 mt fight sabaja fight
sadab mt freeze N.L. sadab freeze
sagàu mt destroy N.L. sagau split
saip n a X god N.L. saip god, spirit
sànupa mt ride Iŋ. sánhupo ride
sànupáyéshì n a VI battle-norse sànupa + yéshì "that which is ridden"
sènayu n i X story, legend, myth N.L. seanale folktale
sènayuté it tell a story N.L. seanale + té "make a story"
shàxwagu n a IX high priest Ish. shàhoago priest
shè e1 s posp down towards ze down towards
shecàchu adv quickly zedzotsu quickly
shèchè e1 it run zedze run
shèchekagbù it be a coward zedze7ogu run away
shèchì mt wash ğehdzi wash
sheishì n a VI neck ğeľzi neck
shème e2 pre evil zèma bad
sheshèwa n i VII star zezewo star
shetamól n i X the Šetâmol language Šetâmol Šetâmol the Šetâmol language
shète e2 mt sing zèta sing
shètì adv oddly, strangely sèhtì surprisingly
sheye e1 n i VII hill ğeje hill
sheyi n i VII stone ğeľi stone
shéyi n i X night seji night
sheyudù n i VII mountain ğeľudu mountain
shì s qt two zi two
shìbè e1 mt drink ğibe drink
shìdè e2 n i III webbing between the fingers, palm zìda webbing between the fingers, palm
shìdèpe e2 mt count zìdahpa count
shìgè e2 it stand zìgà stand
shìgecè e2 mt declare zìgàdza stick in the ground
shìpe e2 qt some, few zipa some
shíshì n i IV fat, grease ziľzi fat, grease
shishè e2 n i X day zize day
shìte e2 n i IV wind ğìta wind
shìwa it live ğiwo live
shìwa n i VII pine zìwo pine
shìwagè e2 mt give birth to ğiwoga give birth to
shiye e2 mt hear, understand zija hear
si con or su or
siam n i VII a type of flower, endemic to the Lukpanic area N.L. siəm flower
sìgè e2 it consider zuga float
sìgekécè e2 it float zuga7adza float downstream
sìnme e2 n a VI heron N.L. sĩmea heron
sita n i III beach N.L. sita beach
síxe e2 adv tomorrow su7xa tomorrow
sìxisutib n a IX small mythical wood-creatures, like fairies N.L. suẽrisetib person within the leaves
sìwe e2 pre round sùla round
súsà mt search, look for, investigate Doa. súsà be interested in, investigate
ta pron you ta you
pron each of you you (distributive)
mt do, make tha do, make
tabè e1 posp on, at, when tabe on, at, when
tagbà qt one tago one
tagè e2 n i V grass taga grass
tagewe e1 n a X grassland, plain taga7le grassland, plain
tagèwe e2 n i III cloth tagala cloth
táté e2 mt use thatha use
tadè e2 pre cold thàda cold
tawa e2 n a IX bird, ghost N.L. towa bird
táwa mt bend tawo bend
táwaté e2 mt craftsman táwa 'bend' + té "bender"
táwe e1 n i X there tha7le there
táye e2 n i IV milk thaja milk
tebungu -l n i IX farmer, peasant N.L. teabəŋə one who sows
tíbè e2 n i II root thuba root
tichù n i VII (ip) knee thùdzù knee
tike e2 n i III hut, tent tuka house, home
tipi pron few tupi few
típi n a IX (ip) daughter thì7pi daughter
tigbù mt have sex with thùgu have sex with
tinekè e2 n a IX (ip) uncle, brother, eldest son of the head of a family (ap) a term of respect used among males thùňà7à uncle, brother, eldest son of the head of the family
tingè e2 n a IX (ip) father, head of the family (ap) general term for a male superior thùŋà father, head of the family
tiniti n i VII metal unknown possibly from Ndak Ta ntindo, or onomatopoeic
tísè e2 n i VIII hair tiza hair
tisu it write N.L. tise write
tisiùm n i VII writing N.L. tisiem writing
tisuté n a IX scribe, writer tisu + té writer
tíwe e2 n i VIII wool thula wool
tíye e2 mt become thuja become
tla posp for dła for
tlagasùn n i X empire Šet. tlagazún throne
tlawè e2 vsuf repeatedly tłà7là repeatedly
tlégè e2 n a IX tribe dłe7ga tribe
tléke e2 n a X land dłe7a land
tlì pre long dłù
tlikpuke e2 n a IX coll family dłukuka family, longhouse
tlipé e2 mt find, discover tłuphe find, discover
tliwa n a IV blood tłuwo blood
tliwaté e2 mt wound, injure tliwa + té 'make blood'
tubù it fall thòbu fall
tubùgè e2 mt fell, chop down thòbuga fell, chop down
tugù n a I grape N.L. tugĩ grape
tugù it be small N.L. tugĩ be small (via. tugĩi 'grapelike', gerund of tugĩ 'grape')
tuip mt hunt N.L. tuep hunt
túkuwi n i X play, performance N.L. tukuli 'make, do perform' (with acc. suffix)
tum n i II buckwheat porridge N.L. tuem buckwheat porridge
tyetye e1 mt rub tľetľe rub
ubium n i VII sharp tool N.L. ubium sharp tool
ùmu n a IX foreign king Ish. ùmu king
uxu mt smell 7oxu smell
Wangelín n i III the Wañelin lake and the area around it Šet. Wañelín big lake
waku n i III building, house (in a city) N.L. vaku house, building
wechì pre steep, difficult wechì steep
wenè e2 n i X year wè7nà year
wete e2 it turn weta turn
wetékìce e2 mt meet, visit, talk to wete7ihtsa meet
wetunè e2 adv next year wetù7nà next year
wìchì n a VI freshwater fish ğudzi fish
wìgbàgbù e2 n a XI wealthy merchant ğùgogu rich person
wìgè e2 n a VI pig ğùga pig
winita n i V Lukpanic indigenous religion N.L. vinita ceremony
wìushì n i VII coll millet ğulzi millet
wiye e1 pre heavy ğuje heavy
wai n a VI refers to various types of medium-sized fish, e.g. perch, bass N.L. voai fish
waikpi n a VI gobies and other small shallow-water fishes N.L. voai + kpi fish + dimunitive
wupunga -l pre easy N.L. vipuŋa easy
wùbù n a IX prostitute ğohbu prostitute
wuchè e1 it die wodze die
wuchecè e2 mt kill wodzedza kill
wuchu mt eat (of herbivorous animals) wotsu eat (of herbivorous animals)
wuchúyéshì n i VI shrub, bush wuchu + yéshì that which herbivorous animals eat
wùdùgbù n a IX eagle ğogugu eagle irregular dissimilation
wùke e2 mt hit wolka hit
wuki adv the day after tomorrow woki the day after tomorrow
wùbù n a IX prostitute ğohbu prostitute
wùgbù pre swift, sharp, intelligent ğogu quick
wùgbuweyákagbù mt be very scared of ğogu7lawo7ogu escape from, run away from irregular dissimilation
wùgèpe e2 eit spit ğolgahpa spit
wula it gesture, make a sign N.L. vula gesture, make a sign
wupé e2 n i I beans wopha beans
wùugè e2 n i IV spit ğolga spit
wùugèpe e2 it spit ğolgahpa spit
wusai n i I fig N.L. vusai fig
wúwu n a VIII liver wo7xu liver
wùxu n i VI tool ğòxu tool
xàchè pre enormous ğàdze big
xagalùl n i III market N.L. ragalẽl much eating
xàne n i III leaf ğàňa leaf
xawe n i V coll salt ğa7le salt
xiba it fly N.L. riba fly
xikpu n i VII crab N.L. rikpe crab
xlìnge e2 pre green (and blue for many speakers) ğłùŋa green
xúigu n a VIII lung N.L. ruige lung
xùitali n i X the Lukpanic language N.L. Rĩitali the Lukpanic language (from 'flowing speech'
xùnmu n a IX enemy N.L. ruŋmu leader
xùxubupadu n i VII louse N.L. rĩ ruəbepade 'animal on top of the hair'
xuwageye e2 n a IX (ip) relative (ap) friend bèdzàno7xuwogaja relative irregular shortening
xwáte e2 mt milk ğla7ta milk
xwátéyéshì e2 n i VIII mature cow producing milk xwáte + yéshì "that which is milked"
Xwálùmù n i III Poalugbum (a city) Doa. Fólùmù Poalugbum
xwíti pre timid, nervous Doa. fíti weak, timid
xwítucu pre timidly, quietly xwíti + cu timid + adverbaliser
ya n a IX (ip) husband (ap) man ľa man
yace e2 qt many ľàtsa many
yace e2 n a I egg ľàtsa egg
yadè e2 pre old jada old
yàgè e2 n a VI (ip) ear ľahga ear
yagè e2 it play jaga play
yàme e2 n i VII sun jàma sun
yàméyéke e2 n a IX person, human jàmaja7a person, human
yàne e2 mt wound, hurt ľàňa wound, hurt
yànele e2 n i X (ip) crack, scratch ľàňała crack, scratch
yápe e2 it insult ľa7pa insult
yápe e2 mt attain, win, take by raiding ľa7pa attain, win, take by raiding
yase e2 n a I food jàsa food
yasèpe e2 mt eat jàsahpa eat
yaté e2 mt tend, garden, heal jatha tend, garden
yatépe e2 n i III garden jathapa garden
yawà w n i IV smoke ľağo smoke
yàwène e2 mt make an entrance to ľàlàňa dig
yéce e2 con and not jetsa and not
yécè e2 mt push jedza push
yèchì n i IV river jèdzi river
yegè e1 con but not jege but not
yékagbù mt leave je7ogu leave
yème e2 it navigate a boat jèma row
yéshì s mt take, marry jezi hold, own, marry
yéshu con nor jesu nor
yichì n i II arrow jidzi arrow
yíìce e2 it come ji7ihtsa come
yíìcécè e2 it take, get, extract ji7ihtsadza get
yíìcheté e2 mt summon yíìce + té come + causative
yìmè e1 n i X right, east ľùmè right, east
yìmè e1 pre right, east ľùmè right, east
yìme e2 n i III grind, mill ľùma grind, mill
Yìmìte n i IV a river yìmè + Ite east + Ite
yipé e2 mt wipe ľipha wipe
yùbù n i VII (ip) mouth (ap) messenger jòbu mouth
yùbùupe e2 mt suck jòbulpa suck
yugbù e2 mt bless jogu perform rituals
yuwu pre other jolu other
yùxu n a VI (ip) back ľòxu back
yùxu pre previous ľòxu back
yùxuwenè adv last year ľòxu + wè7nà back + year