Zele/Sound changes

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These are the sound changes from Proto-Isles to Zele.

Proto-Isles phoneme inventory:

Bilabial Dental Palatal Velar Pharyngeal Glottal
Stops p t d k ɡ ʔ
Affricates ts dz
Fricatives s ħ
Nasals m n
Approximants w j


a i u
aj uj
aw iw
am im
an in un


Sound changes, approximately in order:


  • V1 > V2 / _(C)ħV2
  • At some point, probably before the voicing-after-accent change, exactly reduplicated syllables undergo haplology.
  • d > l / except initially
  • j > ʒ / _i
  • ħ > Ø / N_
  • ħ > h / a(C)_a
  • ħ > ʁ
  • ɡ > j / _i
  • ɡ > h
  • [+obstruent] > [+voice] / V[+accent]_[-obstruent] / This change may occur in some other environments as well.
  • s > Ø / _h
  • s > ʃ / except finally or before a stop
  • z > ʒ / except finally
  • [+affricate] > [+fricative]
  • t > ts / #_
  • d > t / #_
  • ʔ > Ø / _C

Diphthongs simplify:

  • aj, uj > e / _$
  • aw, iw > o / _$
  • im, in > ɛ / _$
  • un > ɔ / _$
  • am, an > ə̃ / _$
  • V > ə̃ / _Nə̃
  • ʔ > h / V_V
  • ʔ > Ø

Apocope:

  • V > Ø / VC_# / In words of two syllables, or polysyllabic words with no accent. Does not occur if the preceding consonant is /w/, /h/, or an unvoiced plosive.
  • Pitch accent is lost.
  • w > b
  • ʁ > Ø / C_, _C
  • Ø > h / V_V / breaks up vowel hiatus; persistent


Allophonic changes:

  • p > f / V_V


Zele phoneme inventory:

Labial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Stops p b t d k ɡ
Affricate ts
Fricatives (f) s z ʃ ʒ h
Nasals m n
Approximants l j ʁ


i u
e ə̃ o
ɛ ɔ
a


Zeluzh is recognisable as the reflex of Proto-Isles *dzuy dúy-i "dust sea".