User:Basilius/Proto-Isles sources of Ppãrwak sounds

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Ppãrwak sounds - an overview

Consonants

b - p - pp [p`] - t - tt [t`] - c [ʨ] - k - kk [k`] - q [ʔ]

m - n - r [ʀ]

th [θ] - s - sh [ʃ] - tz [ʦ] - h

w - y [j]


Vowels - short

i (í) - ĩ (ı̃́)

u (ú) - ũ (ṹ)

e (é)

a (á) - ã (ã́)

Vowels - long

ii (íi) ĩi (ı̃́i)

uu (úu) - ũu (ṹu)

aa (áa) - ãa (ã́a)

Diphthongs

wa - wi - im (+ wã wĩ em – found in corpus but not in the table)

(wá - wí - ím)


Tonemes

Non-high {A}, high {Á} (in both initial and non-initial syllables)


* * *

Sources of Ppãrwak Consonants


B

b < p
muubãbã e 'robe-INS' ~ muypama ; — muubã e 'robe-(ACC)' ~ muypawuys ; — battep 'say(-TEL-SENS)' ~ patiq ; — bwittep 'call(-TEL-SENS) ~ piwtiq ; — babattapã e 'say-IMPF-NOUN-INS' ~ pápatama.

b < m
muubãbã e 'robe-INS' ~ muypama ; — -bã (/-Cpã) (Instrumental) ~ -ma ; — bãqa 'from (space)' ~ *-ma-qas ; — bãquu 'from (time)' ~ *-ma-quy.


P


p < q

Word-finally:
mumuuttep 'dispute-IMPF-SENS' ~ múmuytiq; — ttaasap "compare" ~ taysaq; — ttattaasep 'compare-IMPF-SENS' ~ tátaysiq; — cwacwatzep 'wrap-IMPF-SENS' ~ yáyawtziq; — battep 'say-TEL-SENS' ~ patiq; — ttáp 'so-that' ~ táq; — bwittep 'call-TEL-SENS' ~ piwtiq; — ttwimap 'quick' ~ tiwmaq; — túukkup niqa 'river-DAT in' ~ dúykuqnim quy (rather -qas); — túp "you" ~ túq; — Háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq; — Shwápip 'stick (n.) (-"Genetive"?)' ~ tzáwpiq

Word-initially:
pik (resignation-particle) ~ qih; — pepe 'good-very' ~ qíqi

p < p
kkáape 'remove-SENS' ~ kaypins; — Shwápip 'stick (n.) (-"Genetive"?)' ~ tzáwpiq

p < m
-bã /-Cpã (Instrumental) ~ -ma; — (An erroneous protoform? babattapã e 'say-IMPF-NOUN-INS' ~ pápatama – should be pápataqma?)

p from unclear source due to morphological complications

Nominatives:
(i)p (Nominative ending) ~ (C)-i / (V)-yi; — húup e 'wind-NOM' ~ húyi; — huup 'and-NOM' ~ huyi; — háppap e 'sun-NOM' ~ hápayi ; — súup e 'which-NOM' ~ sáyi (súy-?); — shep e 'this-NOM' ~ síyi; — nãp e 'man-NOM' ~ nami

Other:
tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim (as if from -NOM-DAT?); — nepni e ' do-NOUN-ACC ' (-DAT?) ~ niwuys; — ttaattaasep 'compare-IMPF-PRES' ~ tátaysams (-p belongs to the stem, cf. ttaasap "compare")


PP


pp < p
ppap e 'sun-NOM' ~ hápayi; — hahappe 'shine-IMPF-SENS' ~ háhapi; — kkaappĩ 'remove-TEL-SENS' ~ kaypins; — háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq

Also, in the subjunctive suffix:
ppwak (Subj.) ~ -pawh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?


T


t < d
túu 'sea' ~ dúy; — túukkup niqa 'river-DAT in' ~ dúykuqnim quy (rather -qas); — tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim.

Other forms of 'hit':
tattuk 'hit'-Past-Telic ~ datuh; — táttuk 'hit'-Past-Atelic ~ dátuh; — tatattuk 'hit'-Past-Imperf ~ dádatuh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — tattek 'hit'-Present-Telic ~ datih; — tattũk 'hit'-Future-Telic ~ datuns.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
táttek 'hit'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattek 'hit'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — táttũk 'hit'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattũk 'hit'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?

t < t
túp "you" ~ túq; — -ti (?) 'daughter' > (female gender suffix) ~ **tí; — -ta (?) 'son' > (male gender suffix) ~ **tá.

t < unknown source
teya- (formal prefix) ~ ??


TT


tt < t
mumuuttep 'dispute-IMPF-SENS' ~ múmuytiq; — ttaasap "compare" ~ taysaq; — ttaattaasep 'compare-IMPF-PRES' ~ tátaysams; — ttattaasep 'compare-IMPF-SENS' ~ tátaysiq; — ttwittwise 'come-IMPF-SENS' ~ títiwsin; — ttwise 'come-TEL-SENS' ~ tiwsim; — battep 'say-TEL-SENS' ~ patiq; — babattapã e 'say-IMPF-NOUN-INS' ~ pápatama; — ttáp 'so-that' ~ táq; — ttuukii 'stop-TEL-SENS' ~ tuygim; — bwittep 'call-TEL-SENS' ~ piwtiq; — sheshemttep 'see-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísimtiq; — ttwimap 'quick' ~ tiwmaq; — ttwase 'go-TEL-SENS' ~ tawsim; — tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim.

Other forms of 'hit':
tattuk 'hit'-Past-Telic ~ datuh; — táttuk 'hit'-Past-Atelic ~ dátuh; — tatattuk 'hit'-Past-Imperf ~ dádatuh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — tattek 'hit'-Present-Telic ~ datih; — tattũk 'hit'-Future-Telic ~ datuns.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
ttek 'hit'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattek 'hit'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — táttũk 'hit'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattũk 'hit'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?


C


c < y
cwacwatzep 'wrap-IMPF-SENS' ~ yáyawtziq ; — ceye 'TOPICNOM' ~ yíyi ; — cãcãcãwu 'hard-very-very' ~ yáyayamu



K


k < g

ttuukii 'stop-TEL-SENS' ~ tuygim; — kishã 'love'-Past-Telic ~ gidzan.

Other forms of 'love':
kíshã 'love'-Past-Atelic ~ gídzan; — kikishã 'love'-Past-Imperf ~ gígidzan; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh; — kire 'love'-Present-Telic ~ gidzin; — kishá 'love'-Future-Telic ~ gidzams.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
kíre 'love'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — kikire 'love'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — kíshá 'love'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — kikishá 'love'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?

k < k

kwã (solidarity-particle) ~ káws.

k < h

swanũk 'strong' ~ sawnunh; — swanuk 'strong' ~ sawnunh (probably a typo); — nwiquk (sympathy-particle) ~ niwuh; — pik (resignation-particle) ~ qih; — -ppwak (Subj.) ~ -pawh.

Other forms in -ppwak:
tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?

tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim.

Other forms of 'hit':
tattuk 'hit'-Past-Telic ~ datuh; — táttuk 'hit'-Past-Atelic ~ dátuh; — tatattuk 'hit'-Past-Imperf ~ dádatuh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — tattek 'hit'-Present-Telic ~ datih.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
tattũk 'hit'-Future-Telic ~ datuns (analogy?); — táttek 'hit'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattek 'hit'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — táttũk 'hit'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattũk 'hit'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?


KK


kk < k
Shekkim 'North' ~ Síkim; — kkáape 'remove-SENS' ~ kaypins; — kkaappĩ 'remove-TEL-SENS' ~ kaypins; — kke (assertion-particle) ~ kíw; — túukkup niqa 'river-DAT in' ~ dúykuqnim quy (rather -qas).


Q


q < hiatus
hṹqe 'blow-ATEL-SENS' ~ húni; — nwiquk (sympathy-particle) ~ niwuh; — háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq; — shwã́qa 'tree' ~ tzáwnam.

q < q
shishiqse 'wash-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísiqsim (-qs- violates phonotactics as described; a typo?); — bãqa 'from (space)' ~ *-ma-qas; — shiqa 'in (space)' ~ *(C)-uys-qas; — niqa 'to (space)' ~ *-nim-qas; — bãquu 'from (time)' ~ *-ma-quy; — shiquu 'in (time)' ~ *(C)-uys-quy; — niquu 'to (time)' ~ *-nim-quy; — (q)e (noun marker) ~ (qi 'because'?).


M (not part of diphthong)


m < m
mumuuttep 'dispute-IMPF-SENS' ~ múmuytiq; — muubãbã e 'robe-INS' ~ muypama; — muubã e 'robe-(ACC)' ~ muypawuys; — ttwimap 'quick' ~ tiwmaq; — me 'Small' ~ mi.


N


n< n
swanũk 'strong' ~ sawnunh; — swanuk 'strong' ~ sawnunh (a typo); — nãp e 'man-NOM' ~ nami; — nãrwa e 'person-BEN' ~ namdzaw; — ní 'do-SENS' ~ ni; — ne (Copula) ~ ni; — není 'do-IMPF-SENS' ~ níni; — nwiquk (sympathy-particle) ~ niwuh; — -ni (Dative) ~ -nim; — súuni e 'which-DAT' ~ sáynim (súy-?); — háppani e 'sun-DAT' ~ hápanim; — tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim; — niqa 'to (space)' ~ *-nim-qas; — niquu 'to (time)' ~ *-nim-quy.


R


r < dz
-shwa /A(C)-rwa (Benefactive) ~ -dzaw; — nãrwa e 'person-BEN' ~ namdzaw; — kire 'love'-Present-Telic ~ gidzin; — kíre 'love'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — kikire 'love'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?


TH


th < tz
thaa 'then' ~ tzay.


S


s < s
ttwase 'go-TEL-SENS' ~ tawsim; — shishiqse 'wash-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísiqsim; — "that one" sá ~ sá; — súu "who / which" ~ súy; — súup e 'which-NOM' ~ sáyi ( súy-?); — súuni e 'which-DAT' ~ sáynim ( súy-?); — ttaasap "compare" ~ taysaq; — ttattaasep (ttaattaasep) 'compare-IMPF-SENS' ~ tátaysiq; — swanũk 'strong' ~ sawnunh; — swanuk 'strong' ~ sawnunh (a typo?); — ttwittwise 'come-IMPF-SENS' ~ títiwsin; — ttwise 'come-TEL-SENS' ~ tiwsim.


SH


sh < s
shekkim 'north' ~ síkim; — shep e 'this-NOM' ~ síyi; — sheshemttep 'see-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísimtiq; — shishiqse 'wash-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísiqsim; — shí "this one" ~ sí; — shiqa 'in (space)' ~ ? *(C)-uys-qas; — shiquu 'in (time)' ~ ? *(C)-uys-quy.

s < dz
-shwa (/A(C)-rwa) (Benefactive) ~ -dzaw; — kishã 'love'-Past-Telic ~ gidzan; — kíshã 'love'-Past-Atelic ~ gídzan; — kikishã 'love'-Past-Imperf ~ gígidzan; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh; — kishá 'love'-Future-Telic ~ gidzams.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
shá 'love'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — kikishá 'love'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?

sh < tz
shwápip 'stick (n.) (-"Genetive"?)' ~ tzáwpiq; — shwã́qa 'tree' ~ tzáwnam.


TZ


tz < tz
cwacwatzep 'wrap-IMPF-SENS' ~ yáyawtziq.


H


h < h
háa 'I' ~ háy; — hahappe 'shine'-IMPF-SENS ~ háhapi; — háppani e 'sun'-DAT ~ hápanim; — háppap e 'sun'-NOM ~ hápayi; — háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq; — hṹqe 'blow'-ATEL-SENS ~ húni; — huu 'and' ~ huy; — huup 'and'-NOM ~ huyi; — húup e 'wind'-NOM ~ húyi.


W (not part of diphthong)


w < m
cãcãcãwu 'hard-very-very' ~ yáyayamu.


Y


y < y
ceye (TOPICNOM) ~ yíyi.

y < unknown source
teya- (formal prefix) ~ ??


Sources of Ppãrwak Vowels




I (not part of diphthong)


i < i
shishiqse 'wash-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísiqsim; — pik (resignation-particle) ~ qih; — není 'do-IMPF-SENS' ~ níni; — ní 'do-SENS' ~ ni; — -ti (?) 'daughter' > (female gender suffix) ~ **tí; — Shwápip 'stick (n.) (-"Genetive"?)' ~ tzáwpiq; — shí "this one" ~ sí; — -i(C) ({-i}-Past) ~ -i(C); — -í(C) ({-e}-Present) ~ -i(C)?; — kishã 'love'-Past-Telic ~ gidzan; — kíshã 'love'-Past-Atelic ~ gídzan; — kikishã 'love'-Past-Imperf ~ gígidzan; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh; — kire 'love'-Present-Telic ~ gidzin; — kishá 'love'-Future-Telic ~ gidzams.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
kíre 'love'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — kikire 'love'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — kíshá 'love'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — kikishá 'love'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?

i < im
-ni (Dative) ~ -nim; — súuni e 'which-DAT' ~ sáynim (súy-?); — háppani e 'sun-DAT' ~ hápanim; — tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim; — niqa 'to (space)' ~ *-nim-qas; — niquu 'to (time)' ~ *-nim-quy; — -i(C) ({-e}-Future ) ~ -ims?; — -í(C) ({-ĩ}-Future) ~ -ims.

i < iw
-i(C) ({-wa}-Present) ~ -iw(C); — -i(C) ({-wi}-Present) ~ -iw(C).

i < unknown source
-(i)p (Nominative) ~ ?? (C)-i / (V)-yi; — tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim; — shiqa 'in (space)' ~ *(C)-uys-qas; — shiquu 'in (time)' ~ *(C)-uys-quy.



II


ii < im
ttuukii 'stop-TEL-SENS' ~ tuygim; — -ii(C) ({-im}-Present) ~ -im.



Ĩ (not part of diphthong)


ĩ < in
kkaappĩ 'remove-TEL-SENS' ~ kaypins; — -ĩ(C) ({-ĩ}-Past) ~ -in(C).

ĩ < im
-ĩ(C) ({-i}-Future) ~ -ims; — -ĩ(C) ({-im}-Future) ~ -ims.


ĨI

No examples



U


u < u
mumuuttep 'dispute-IMPF-SENS' ~ múmuytiq; — cãcãcãwu 'hard-very-very' ~ yáyayamu; — nwiquk (sympathy-particle) ~ niwuh; — túukkup niqa 'river-DAT in ~ dúykuqnim quy; — tattuk 'hit'-Past-Telic ~ datuh; — táttuk 'hit'-Past-Atelic ~ dátuh; — tatattuk 'hit'-Past-Imperf ~ dádatuh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — Háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq; — túp "you" ~ túq; — -u(C) ({-u}-Past) ~ -u(C).

u < un
-ú(C) ({-ũ}-Future) ~ -uns; — {swanuk 'strong' (a typo?) ~ sawnunh}.



UU


uu < uy
húup e 'wind-NOM' ~ húyi (rather y + something); — huu 'and' ~ huy; — huup 'and-NOM' ~ huyi (rather huy + something); — mumuuttep 'dispute-IMPF-SENS' ~ múmuytiq; — súu "who / which" ~ súy; — súup e 'which-NOM' ~ sáyi (súy-?); — súuni e 'which-DAT' ~ sáynim (súy-?); — muubãbã e 'robe-INS' ~ muypama; — muubã e 'robe-(ACC)' ~ muypawuys; — ttuukii 'stop-TEL-SENS' ~ tuygim; — túukkup niqa 'river-DAT in' ~ dúykuqnim quy; — túu 'sea" ~ dúy; — bãquu 'from (time)' ~ *-ma-quy; — shiquu 'in (time)' ~ *(C)-uys-quy; — niquu 'to (time)' ~ *-nim-quy; — -uu(C) ({-uu}-Past) ~ -uy(C).


Ũ


ũ < un
swanũk 'strong' ~ sawnunh; — -ũ(C) ({-ũ}-Past) ~ -un(C); — -ũ(C) ({-u}-Future) ~ -uns; — tattũk 'hit'-Future-Telic ~ datuns.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
táttũk 'hit'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattũk 'hit'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?

ũ < u
hṹqe 'blow-ATEL-SENS' ~ húni.


ŨU


ũu < un (??)
-ũu(C) ({-uu}-Future) ~ -uns.


E (not part of diphthong)


e < i
shekkim 'north' ~ síkim; — mumuuttep 'dispute-IMPF-SENS' ~ múmuytiq; — ttattaasep 'compare-IMPF-SENS' ~ tátaysiq; — není 'do-IMPF-SENS' ~ níni; — není 'do-IMPF-PRES' ~ nínims; — ne (Copula) ~ ni; — nepni e 'do-NOUN-ACC' ~ niwuys (as if from –NOM-DAT); — cwacwatzep 'wrap-IMPF-SENS' ~ yáyawtziq; — ceye (TOPICNOM) ~ yíyi; — shep e 'this-NOM' ~ síyi; — shep niqa 'this-(PLUR-)DAT at' ~ sítziwsnim qas (as if from –NOM-DAT); — battep 'say-TEL-SENS' ~ patiq; — hṹqe 'blow-ATEL-SENS' ~ húni; — bwittep 'call-TEL-SENS' ~ piwtiq; — sheshemttep 'see-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísimtiq; — hahappe 'shine-IMPF-SENS' ~ háhapi; — me 'Small' ~ Mi; — Pepe 'Good-very' ~ Qíqi; — -e(C) ({-a}-Present) ~ -i(C); — -e(C) ({-i}-Present) ~ -i(C); — -e(C) ({-u}-Present) ~ -i(C); — -e(C) ({-aa}-Present) ~ -i(C); — -e(C) ({-uu}-Present) ~ -i(C); — -e(C) ({-e}-Past) ~ -i(C)?; — (q)e (noun marker) ~ (qi 'because'?); — tattek 'hit'-Present-Telic ~ datih.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
táttek 'hit'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattek 'hit'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?

e < iw
kke (assertion-particle) ~ kíw.

e < in
ttwittwise 'come-IMPF-SENS' ~ títiwsin; — kkáape 'remove-SENS' ~ kaypins; — -e(C) ({-ĩ}-Present) ~ -in(C); — -e(C) ({-ũ}-Present) ~ -in(C); — kire 'love'-Present-Telic ~ gidzin.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
kíre 'love'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — kikire 'love'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?

e < im
ttwise 'come-TEL-SENS' ~ tiwsim; — ttwase 'go-TEL-SENS' ~ tawsim; — shishiqse 'wash-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísiqsim.

e < in or im
-e(C) ({-ã}-Present) ~ -(in/im)(C).

e < unknown source
tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim (morphology unclear); — ttaattaasep 'compare-IMPF-PRES' ~ tátaysams (morphology unclear); — teya- (formal prefix) ~ ??


A (not part of diphthong)


a < a
háppap e 'sun-NOM' ~ hápayi; — háppani e 'sun-DAT' ~ hápanim; — ttaasap "compare" ~ taysaq; — ttattaasep 'compare-IMPF-SENS' ~ tátaysiq; — battep 'say-TEL-SENS' ~ patiq; — babattapã e 'say-IMPF-NOUN-INS' ~ pápatama; — hahappe 'shine-IMPF-SENS' ~ háhapi; — ttwimap 'quick' ~ tiwmaq; — bãqa 'from (space)' ~ *-ma-qas; — shiqa 'in (space)' ~ *(C)-uys-qas; — niqa 'to (space)' ~ *-nim-qas; — -ta '(?) son > (male gender suffix)' ~ **tá; — -a(C) ({-a}-Past) ~ -a(C); — Háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq; — ttáp 'so-that' ~ táq; — sá "that one" ~ sá; — tatattekipni e 'hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT' ~ dádatuhnim; — tattuk 'hit'-Past-Telic ~ datuh; — táttuk 'hit'-Past-Atelic ~ dátuh; — tatattuk 'hit'-Past-Imperf ~ dádatuh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — tattek 'hit'-Present-Telic ~ datih; — tattũk 'hit'-Future-Telic ~ datuns.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
táttek 'hit'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattek 'hit'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — táttũk 'hit'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — tatattũk 'hit'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?.

a < unknown or uncertain source
-á(C) ({-ã}-Future) ~ -ims; — kishá 'love'-Future-Telic ~ gidzams; — kíshá 'love'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — kikishá 'love'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — teya- (formal prefix) ~ ??.


AA


aa < ay
ttattaasep 'compare-IMPF-SENS' ~ tátaysiq; — ttaattaasep 'compare-IMPF-PRES' ~ tátaysams; — Thaa 'Then' ~ Tzay; — kkáape 'remove-SENS' ~ kaypins; — kkaappĩ 'remove-TEL-SENS' ~ kaypins; — háa "I" ~ háy; — ttaasap "compare" ~ taysaq; — -aa(C) ({-aa}-Past) ~ -ay(C).

aa < a
ttaattaasep 'compare-IMPF-PRES' ~ tátaysams.


à (not part of diphthong)


ã < a
muubã e 'robe-(ACC)' ~ muypawuys; — muubãbã e 'robe-INS' ~ muypama; — cãcãcãwu 'hard-very-very' ~ yáyayamu; — -bã (/-Cpã) (Instrumental) ~ -ma; — babattapã e 'say-IMPF-NOUN-INS' ~ pápatama; — bãqa 'from (space)' ~ *-ma-qas; — bãquu 'from (time)' ~ *-ma-quy.

ã < am
nãp e 'man-NOM' ~ nami (nam + something); — nãrwa e 'person-BEN' ~ namdzaw; — shwã́qa 'tree' ~ tzáwnam; — -ã(C) ({-a}-Future) ~ -ams.

ã < an
kishã 'love'-Past-Telic ~ gidzan; — kíshã 'love'-Past-Atelic ~ gídzan; — kikishã 'love'-Past-Imperf ~ gígidzan; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh.

ã < an or am
-ã(C) ({-ã}-Past) ~ -(an/am)(C).


ÃA


ãa < am (?)
-ãa(C) ({-aa}-Future) ~ -ams.


WA


wa < aw
swanũk 'strong' ~ sawnunh; — swanuk 'strong' (a typo?) ~ sawnunh; — cwacwatzep 'wrap-IMPF-SENS' ~ yáyawtziq; — ttwase 'go-TEL-SENS' ~ tawsim; — Shpip 'stick (n.) (-"Genetive"?)' ~ tzáwpiq; — -shwa /A(C)-rwa (Benefactive) ~ -dzaw; — nãrwa e 'person-BEN' ~ namdzaw; — -wa(C) ({-wa}-Past) ~ -aw(C); — -ppwak (Subj.) ~ -pawh; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh.

Including examples where there is no actual protoform:
tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?

wa < a
Háppwaqup 'west(-"Genetive"?)' ~ hápawuq; — cwacwatzep 'wrap-IMPF-SENS' ~ yáyawtziq.



wã < aw
shwã́qa 'tree' ~ tzáwnam; — k (solidarity-particle) ~ káws.

wã < am (?)
-(C) ({-wa}-Future) ~ -ams.


WI


wi < iw
ttwittwise 'come-IMPF-SENS' ~ títiwsin; — ttwise 'come-TEL-SENS' ~ tiwsim; — bwittep 'call-TEL-SENS' ~ piwtiq; — ttwimap 'quick' ~ tiwmaq.

wi < i
ttwittwise 'come-IMPF-SENS' ~ títiwsin; — nwiquk (sympathy-particle) ~ niwuh.



wĩ < im(s) (?)
-(C) ({-wi}-Future) ~ -ims.


IM


im < im
Shekkim 'North' ~ Síkim; — -im(C) '{-im}-Past' ~ -im(C).


EM


em < im
sheshemttep 'see-IMPF-SENS' ~ sísimtiq.


Sources of Ppãrwak Tonemes



NON-HIGH



Initial non-high < HH


{A} {Á} + Atelic ~ ?; — babattapã e say-IMPF-NOUN-INS ~ pápatama; — cãcãcãwu hard-very-very ~ yáyayamu; — ceye TOPICNOM ~ yíyi; — cwacwatzep wrap-IMPF-SENS ~ yáyawtziq; — hahappe shine-IMPF-SENS ~ háhapi; — kikire 'love'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — kikishá 'love'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — kikishã 'love'-Past-Imperf ~ gígidzan; — kke assertion-particle ~ kíw; — kwã solidarity-particle ~ káws; — mumuuttep dispute-IMPF-SENS ~ múmuytiq; — není do-IMPF-SENS ~ níni; — není do-IMPF-PRES ~ nínims; — Pepe Good-very ~ Qíqi; — shekkim north ~ síkim; — shep e this-NOM ~ síyi; — shep niqa this-(PLUR-)DAT at ~ sítziwsnim qas; — sheshemttep see-IMPF-SENS ~ sísimtiq; — shishiqse wash-IMPF-SENS ~ sísiqsim; — tatattek 'hit'-Present-Imperf ~ ?; — tatattekipni e hit-IMPF-NOUN-DAT ~ dádatuhnim; — tatattuk 'hit'-Past-Imperf ~ dádatuh; — tatattũk 'hit'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — ttaattaasep compare-IMPF-PRES ~ tátaysams; — ttattaasep compare-IMPF-SENS ~ tátaysiq; — ttwittwise come-IMPF-SENS ~ títiwsin.


Initial non-high < HL


(q)e noun marker ~ (qi 'because'?); — {A} {A} + Telic ~ {A}; — battep say-TEL-SENS ~ patiq; — bwittep call-TEL-SENS ~ piwtiq; — huu And ~ huy; — huup and-NOM ~ huyi; — kire 'love'-Present-Telic ~ gidzin; — kireppwak 'love'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — kishá 'love'-Future-Telic ~ gidzams; — kishã 'love'-Past-Telic ~ gidzan; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — kishãppwak 'love'-Past-Subj. ~ gidzanpawh; — kkaappĩ remove-TEL-SENS ~ kaypins; — me Small ~ Mi; — muubã e robe-(ACC) ~ muypawuys; — muubãbã e robe-INS ~ muypama; — nãp e man-NOM ~ nami; — nãrwa e person-BEN ~ namdzaw; — ne Copula ~ ni; — nepni e do-NOUN-ACC ~ niwuys; — nwiquk sympathy-particle ~ niwuh; — pik resignation-particle ~ qih; — swanuk strong (a typo?) ~ sawnunh; — swanũk strong ~ sawnunh; — tattek 'hit'-Present-Telic ~ datih; — tattekppwak 'hit'-Present-Subj ~ ?; — tattuk 'hit'-Past-Telic ~ datuh; — tattũk 'hit'-Future-Telic ~ datuns; — tattukppwak 'hit'-Past-Subj ~ datuhpawh; — tattũkppwak 'hit'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — thaa then ~ tzay; — ttaasap "compare" ~ taysaq; — ttuukii stop-TEL-SENS ~ tuygim; — ttwase go-TEL-SENS ~ tawsim; — ttwimap quick ~ tiwmaq; — ttwise come-TEL-SENS ~ tiwsim.



HIGH



Initial high < HH


{Á} {A} + Atelic ~ {Á}; — háa "I" ~ háy; — háppani e sun-DAT ~ hápanim; — háppap e sun-NOM ~ hápayi; — háppwaqup west(-"Genetive"?) ~ hápawuq; — hṹqe 'blow'-ATEL-SENS ~ húni; — húup e wind-NOM ~ húyi; — kíre 'love'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — kíshá 'love'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — kíshã 'love'-Past-Atelic ~ gídzan; — sá "that one" ~ sá; — shí "this one" ~ sí; — shpip stick (n.) (-"Genetive"?) ~ tzáwpiq; — shwã́qa 'tree' ~ tzáwnam; — súu "who / which" ~ súy; — súuni e which-DAT ~ sáynim (súy-?); — súup e which-NOM ~ sáyi (súy-?); — táttek 'hit'-Present-Atelic ~ ?; — táttuk 'hit'-Past-Atelic ~ dátuh; — táttũk 'hit'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — ttáp so-that ~ táq; — túp "you" ~ túq; — túu sea ~ dúy; — túukkup niqa 'river-DAT in' ~ dúykuqnim quy.


Initial high < HL


{Á} {Á} + Telic ~ ?; — kkáape remove-SENS ~ kaypins; — ní do-SENS ~ ni.



Non-initial high tones

(all from unknown or uncertain source)


není 'do-IMPF-SENS' (3x) ~ níni; — není 'do-IMPF-PRES' ~ nínims; — kishá 'love'-Future-Telic ~ gidzams; — kíshá 'love'-Future-Atelic ~ ?; — kikishá 'love'-Future-Imperf ~ ?; — kisháppwak 'love'-Future-Subj ~ ?; — -á(C) ({-ã}-Future) ~ -ims; — -í(C) ({-ĩ}-Future) ~ -ims; — -ú(C) ({-ũ}-Future) ~ -uns; — -í(C) ({-e}-Present) ~ -i(C)?