Tmaśareʔ/Lexicon

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The following is a lexicon of Tmaśareʔ. Note that Proto-Western etymologies given in gray italics are somewhat doubtful, while those given in black italics can be securely reconstructed from comparison with other branches of the Western language family.

Abbreviations:

  • adv - adverb
  • dem - determiner proclitic
  • n - noun
  • n.coll - collective noun (does not usually form plurals)
  • n.ip - inalienably possessed noun (takes obligatory possessive prefixes)
  • par - grammatical or pragmatical particle
  • pp - postposition
  • pre - adjectivial prefix
  • pron - pronoun
  • qu - quantifier
  • v.it - intransitive verb
  • v.mt - monotransitive verb
  • v.dt - ditransitive verb

(747 words)

Tmaśareʔ morphology PoS gloss etymology
cącą adv repeatedly, frequently *tłãtłã
canę adv suddenly *dłanẽ
cǫke adv skillfully *tyũkʰe
ćkasco adv kindly, welcomingly *čekadza-cu 'greet' + adverbializer
ćocwo adv soon *čewcʰu
eńo adv again, repeatedly, back *wãyu
hayehco adv always, every day, forever *pʰa-γiše-cu 'every day' + adverbializer
hoʔma adv anyway, whatever *pʰa-ʔu ʔama 'with everything'
kahmo adv almost *kʰãbu (cf. PCW *khòbu 'similar')
kąta adv now, instantly, immediately *kãta
kęhco adv together, jointly *kʰiña-cu
keʔa adv still, ongoing Emp. keʔá 'continuously'
kohpco adv as a result, accordingly (kohpa- + -co: 'followingly')
koʔ adv indeed, really, completely; (with neg) not at all *kut
kwiną adv even, in fact *kʷaynã
kwiyehco adv one day (in the past) *kwi-γiše-cu 'the aforementioned day' + adverbializer
nehi adv alas! oh dear! (expression of regret) *nepʰi
nokmęti adv backwards, the other way around (noki 'turn (sth.)' + -mętV)
ńa adv normally, usually, traditionally *ñaye 'frequently'
ńęso adv finally *γĩsu
oca adv the day after tomorrow *watya
pińę adv maybe *piγĩ (cf. Emp. )
pǫkmǫ adv gradually *pũkʷũ (cf. Emp. puŋum)
poʔce adv on the contrary *puʔtłe
sahtę adv surprisingly *sałtĩ
senaco adv secretly, quietly Emp. senatsó
śaʔną adv intentionally, on purpose *šaʔẽ-łãγa 'mind-spirit'
śekmǫ adv only, merely *šekʷũ
tąctoco adv at the same time *tãtłi-tu-cu
twi adv yesterday *cʰuy
yelco adv else, otherwise *yelu-cu 'other' + adverbializer
yǫco adv sadly, unfortunately, a pity that *γema-cu 'bad' + adverbializer
yohą adv oddly, strangely, paradoxically, by some weird twist of fate *γaw-łãγa 'outside-spirit'
ha= dem all, every *pʰa-
ląc= dem many *lãca-
ra= (r=, t=) dem that *da-
śe= (ś=, ć=) dem this *dže-
twi= (tw=, tm=, toʔ=) dem some, a few *tupi-
ya= dem the aforementioned one(s) *ya- (anaphoric stem)
ye= (i=) dem no, none *ye 'not'
yel= dem the other one(s) *yelu-
ahńǫ pl aʔahńǫ n colour, dye *ʔałñũ
ahpa pl aʔahpa n anger, rage *ʔałpa
araka pl aʔraka n threat, menace, peril, danger, risk *ʔadya-kʰa 'fear-thing'
aśę pl aʔśę n woman *ʔašẽ
cahma pl cacahma n land, area *cʰama
calkwa pl cacalkwa n pile, heap *calkʷa
cehtǫ pl cecehtǫ n moment *čʰitũ
ceʔka pl ceceʔka n tribe, ethnicity *dłeʔka
ceʔla pl ceceʔla n middle, center Emp. tsetlá 'heart'
ciʔńę pl ciciʔńę n plain; open space *tleʔe-γẽ 'wide-place'
cmeskwi pl cecmeskwi n desert fox *dzama-medza-kʷi 'little red dog'
cnanǫ pl cacnanǫ n spear *dzalã-dzũ 'stab-tool'
cǫcca pl cocǫcca n family, clan *dłũ-tuca 'longhouse; patrilineage'
cohmę pl cocohmę n dawn *cʰũbẽ
coma pl cocma n story, legend Emp. tsomá
comalaho pl cocmalaho n storyteller (coma + -laho)
come pl cǫcme n axe *cũme
comǫ pl cocmǫ n content (of a bag or basket) *cubũ
cońę pl cocńę n bay *tłuγẽ (cf. Emp. tluyem)
cǫpa pl cocǫpa n language *cũpa
cowa pl cocwa n fruit *cuba
cpohmę pl cocpohmę n problem; issue of debate *cupʰu-γʷĩ 'irritation'
ćaće pl ćaśće n mix, collection *kłače
ćahkwoho pl ćaćahkwoho n hyaena *kʰeyakʷi-kʷułu 'sand-wolf'
ćale pl ćaćale n gorge *kłaγle (cf. Emp. tlawé)
ćanę pl ćaćnę n morning *kyanẽ (cf. PCW *dzìnè- 'wake up, rise')
ćassǫto pl ćaćassǫto n fortification, stronghold *kʰeyasłũ-tu 'wall' + abstract/collective
ćęćma pl ćećęćma n task, errand *čĩčĩwa
ćęco pl ćećęco n cloud *čĩcu
ćehą pl ćećehą n animal (mammals only) *kłepʰã 'wild animal, game'
ćehca pl ćećehca n sacrifice *čełdza 'heart'
ćehką pl ćećehką n ground, floor *čʰekʰã 'earth'
ćehńę pl ćećehńę n value; status; role *čʰẽdłẽ
ćehpo pl ćećehpo n deer *čʰepʰu
ćępe pl ćećępe n wood *klĩpe (cf. PCW *glìpe)
ćępesso pl ćećępesso n wall (made from wood) *klĩpe-słu
ćihtaca pl ćićihtaca n mentor, teacher *čʰiłta-daya
ćińǫ pl ćićińǫ n hook (back-formed from sohoćińǫ < *dzupʰu-γuči-dzũ 'fish-catcher')
ćkanǫ pl ćećkanǫ n bench *čeka-dzũ 'sit-tool'
ćkarakę pl ćećkarakę n woman of the house; hostess (of a social gathering) *čekadza-kĩ 'woman who makes people sit'
ćohcę pl ćoćohcę n ridge *čʰiwdłĩ (cf. Emp. tshútlim 'cliff')
ćohe pl ćoćohe n body of water *kyupʰe
ćohkwećmę pl ćoćohkwećmę n waterfall *kyupʰe-kʷečĩ-γʷĩ 'water-jump-vn'
ćopńę pl ćoćopńę n well, oasis *kyupʰe-γẽ 'water-place'
ćotwa pl ćoćtwa n pot *kławta
ćoʔna pl ćoćoʔna n goat *kyuʔna
ćwipę pl ćićwipę n winter *kłuypĩ
ehona pl ehehona n tip (of a spear or arrow) PL eahoana < Emp. éʔóná 'its tooth'
ęta pl ęʔta n feather *ʔẽta
hańa pl hąhńa n method, way of thinking, opinion, idea *łãγa 'spirit'
hapaʔtkwoćę pl hahpaʔtkwoćę n bow (hapaʔta- + kwoćę: 'shoot-sinew')
hąse pl hahąse n horse *łãši
heće pl heweće n sum; amount *beče
hehi pl hehehi n tree bark *pʰełi
heńaho pl hęhńaho n priest *łãγlawa
henaro pl hęhnaro n raincloud *pʰẽla-du 'cloud' (honorific)
hina pl hihna n lake *łina
hinahoso pl hihnahoso n shore (of a lake) *łina-γʷasu 'lake-edge'
hipę pl hihipę n promontory *łiγpĩ 'shoulder'
hiya pl hihiya n snake *łiya
hiʔna pl hihiʔna n valley *łiʔna
hoća pl hohoća n summer *łukya
hoccǫ pl hohoccǫ n alliance *pʰuda-cũ 'collection of chiefs'
home pl hohme n song, tune *łume
hora pl hopta n chieftain, leader *pʰuda
horańę pl hohorańę n territory (of a tribe) *pʰuda-γẽ 'chief-place'
ipyoʔ pl iʔpyoʔ n coin PL ipiub
kaca pl kakca n friend *kaca
kaho pl kakaho n knot *kʰalu-ła 'result of tying'
kahnǫ pl kakahnǫ n buckle, clasp *kʰalu-dzũ 'fasten-tool'
kahpa pl kakahpa n tree *kʰapa
kana pl kakna n circle; group of people *kana
kaya pl kahkya n fire *kʰaya
kayahcǫ pl kakyahcǫ n ashes *kʰayałacũ
kaʔęta pl kakaʔęta n blackbird *kʰãʔa-ʔẽta 'black feather'
kehka pl kekehka n rock, boulder, cliff *kʰełka 'stone'
kehna pl kekehna n horn *kʰelna
kehnasso pl kekehnasso n knife hilt *kʰelna-słu 'thet which is made from horn'
kehtnǫ pl kekehtnǫ n bed *kʰetu-dzũ 'tool for lying down'
kera pl kekera n thing, object, item, instance *kʰeda
kessa pl kehksa n dung *kʰesa
kętohnǫkkę pl kekętohnǫkkę n virgin *kʰiña-tʰawdzũ-k-kĩ 'knees-together-woman'
keyassǫ pl kehkyassǫ n rampart, earth wall *kʰeyasłũ 'wall'
kiho pl kikiho n drop, any small quantity of liquid *kʰiγʷa
kihpo pl kikihpo n worm, snail *kʰeybu
kilaho pl kikilaho n farmer *kʰeya-lawa 'soil-man'
kipceʔ pl kikipceʔ n desert *kʰibła-dłeʔa 'dry-land'
kmąʔki pl kakmąʔki n autumn *kʷãʔki
kmǫ pl kokmǫ n trade post PL gbum 'city'
koha pl kokoha n wave *kupʰa
kohta pl kokohta n boat *kʰułda
kokpa pl kokokpa n tide *ku-kupʰa 'waves'
kolo pl kokolo n hole, pit, cavity (in a 3-dimensional object) *kʰulu 'anus'
komą pl kokmą n mouse, rat, hamster (any rodent smaller than a hand) *kũγʷã
kono pl kokno n wit, wisdom, prudence Emp. konú 'head'
kǫpoke pl kǫkpoke n patch of arable land Emp. khampákéé 'arable soil'
koʔńǫka pl kokoʔńǫka n turtle *kuʔu-γũka 'shell-pig'
kpahcǫ pl kakpahcǫ n forest *kʰapacũ
ktaʔyaho pl kaktaʔyaho n shaman, healer *katʰa-ʔaya-wa 'he is true'
ktiwo pl kiktiwo n whale Emp. kitíwo
kwaha pl kakwaha n rain *ʔakʷa-ła 'rain' (v.) + resultative
kwece pl kekwece n pillar; support *kʷeči
kwela pl kekwela n child (someone who has not yet reached adulthood) *kʷela
kwelkę pl kekwelkę n girl *kʷela-kĩ
kwita pl kikwita n butter PL kpita
kwiyę pl kikwiyę n cave *kʷiyĩ (cf. Emp. kuyem 'vagina')
kwoćę pl kokwoćę n sinew *kʷučĩ
kwohcǫ pl kokwohcǫ n pack of wolves *kʷułu-cũ 'wolf' + collective
kwoho pl kokwoho n wolf *kʷułu
kworo pl kokworo n eagle *γʷekudu
la pl lala n man *la
ląca pl lanąca n egg *lãca
lano pl lalano n consequence, outcome, side effect Emp. lanó 'back'
lęmi pl lenęmi n wall (made from brick or stone) PL liŋmi 'wall'
lętohnǫ pl lenętohnǫ n shovel *lalaña-tʰuba-dzũ 'root-digger'
leʔcahma pl leleʔcahma n plateau, highlands *leʔe-cʰama 'high-land'
lǫćpa pl lonǫćpa n trade item, commodity *lũkla-pa 'that which is exchanged'
lokwanaʔ pl lolokwanaʔ n person of Lukpanic ethnicity PL lukpanab 'people facing towards the sea'
maci pl mǫci n bear *madłi
mahi pl mǫhi n shadow *małi
mahńę pl mǫhńę n moon, month *mašeγẽ
mąkwa pl mamąkwa n sorrow *mãkʷa
makwi pl mǫkwi n hiding-place, retreat *makʷi 'small place'
male pl mǫńe n sea, ocean *madže
malekehkwi pl mǫńekehkwi n beach; seashore *madže-kʰeyakʷi 'sea-sand'
mąso pl mamąso n bone *γʷãsu
mąsoma pl mamąsoma n grave *γʷãsu-ma 'bone-place'
mąspena pl mamąspena n period of cloudy weather *mãsu-pʰẽla 'wide cloud'
mawalohi pl mǫmalohi n provisions, supplies PL magoa lui 'salted meat'
męcahma pl memęcahma n pasture *mẽγu-cʰama 'sheep-land'
męcǫ pl memęcǫ n herd (of animals) *mẽγu-cũ 'collection of sheep'
meńaho pl memęńaho n shepherd *mẽγu-lawu 'sheep-man'
meńo pl mǫńo n sheep *mẽγu
mera pl mǫra n dog *medza
mętkomą pl memętkomą n bat *γʷĩta-kũγʷã 'wind-mouse'
meʔśonǫ pl memeʔśonǫ n needle *meʔšu-dzũ 'sewing-tool'
mićę pl mimićę n trifle *mičĩ
mihmę pl mǫhmę n absence; omission *miłe-γʷĩ
mińe pl wemińe n island *γʷẽdłe
mińi pl mǫńi n wind *mĩłi 'storm'
moha pl mǫha n harbour PL moa
mǫʔpa pl momǫʔpa n summit, peak *mũʔpa
nańo pl nęńo n platform, base *nãγu 'foot'
natanǫ pl nątanǫ n bridge *nat(a)-dzũ 'that which is above'
nąʔǫ pl nanąʔǫ n lake *dzãʔũ
nęhi pl nenęhi n belt *nĩpʰi
nęke pl nenęke n step (also a common measure of length) *nĩkʰe
nelćoma pl nenelćoma n mushroom *neγla-kłama 'white-berry'
niha pl nęha n fog *nipʰa
nǫće pl nonǫće n evening *nũčʰe
noho pl nonoho n flame, spark *nuwa (cf. Gez. nuː)
nolo pl nonolo n onion PL ŋulu
ńama pl ńęma n ocean-going ship PL neama 'boat, ship'
ńeska pl ńęska n gem, jewel Emp. ŋésékhá
ńeśtole pl ńęśtole n period of sunny weather *ñeši-dudže 'smooth sky'
ńipą pl ńępą n entrance *ñipã
ńǫka pl ńońǫka n pig *γũka
ńoma pl ńęma n pine *γĩwa
oha pl oʔoha n bean *wapʰa
olco pl oholco n place, location *γʷalcu
oso pl ohoso n side, edge; direction *γʷasu
oya pl eʔya n wound, injury *ʔuya 'pain'
pąmaʔ pl papąmaʔ n nail, peg PL paŋmap
pamikyaʔ pl paʔmikyaʔ n seafarer; trader PL pamikeab 'one who navigates'
pątanǫ pl pąptanǫ n road, path *pãta-dzũ
pątańę pl pąptańę n goal, target, destination *pãta-γẽ
pawi pl papawi n lock PL pagui 'door'
pcaha pl hipcaha n boy *pʰita-la 'little man'
pęco pl pepęco n feeling, emotion *pẽcu
pehńayommę pl pepehńayommę n eclipse of the sun *pʰĩbła-yama-γʷĩ 'sun-hiding'
pęka pl pepęka n dusk *pĩkʰa
peńi pl pąpńi n basket *pãdži
pǫki pl popǫki n bowl *pũki
pokwa pl popokwa n wine PL pukpa
polaha pl popolaha n gift *bliwla-ła
poma pl poʔma n flower *plama
pomi pl poʔmi n word, statement, speech, utterance *pũγʷi
poʔto pl popoʔto n mead PL bupitu
psanǫ pl hepsanǫ n knife *besadzũ
raya pl raraya n seagull *daγa-daya 'shouter' (reinterpreted as plural/deictic)
rohcoho pl rorohcoho n honesty; reputation *duγa-tłuwa 'good blood'
rośkaya pl rorośkaya n lightning *dudže-kʰaya 'sky-fire'
satńa pl saratńa n bird *dzaldayã
saye pl sasaye n night *sayi
soha pl soroha n leopard *dzuła
sohca pl sorohca n hunter *dzupʰu-daya 'hunt-person'
sohćehąnǫ pl sorohćehąnǫ n trap *dzupʰu-kłepʰã-dzũ 'animal-catcher'
solo pl sosolo n warrior Emp. sáwéló
sośę pl sosośę n hole (through a flat plane), gap (in a barrier) *suγšẽ
śehe pl śelehe n goal, objective; interests *džeγe
śeho pl śeśeho n star *šešewa (reinterpreted as plural)
śena pl śeśena n number, quantity *šĩda 'webbing between the fingers'
śeńa pl śeśeńa n spring *šẽγa
śeʔtama pl śeśeʔtama n channel, ditch, moat *šeʔta-ma 'flow-place'
śohkwi pl śośohkwi n harp *šuwa-kʷi 'little guts'
tahka pl tatahka n action, deed, effort *tʰa-kʰa 'do-thing'
tahńe pl tatahńe n cover, wrapping; blanket; cloak; sheath Emp. tlaŋe 'skin'
tahpa pl tatahpa n garden Emp. éthápá
taka pl tatka n grass (a blade or bushel of) *taka
takace pl tatkace n grassland, savannah *takadłe
takala pl tatkala n rope *takala
tesa pl teca n decoration; tuft; bunch Emp. tésá 'hair'
toca pl tocca n house, building *tuca
tockana pl totockana n village *tuca-kana 'circle of houses'
toha pl totoha n root *tʰuba
tohmę pl totohmę n cactus *tułbẽ
tohną pl totohną n headman (of a family) *tʰunã 'father'
tokę pl totkę n grape PL tugim
tolasso pl totolasso n thread, twine *tʰula-słu 'that which is made from wool'
tomo pl totmo n period of time, era, generation *taγmu
tomya pl totomya n sail PL dumea 'large leaf, sheet, sail'
twolata pl totwolata n scorpion Emp. twolláthá
wehpo pl wewehpo n slave, captive *γʷełbu
weka pl weweka n weight, burden, load Emp. wékhá
weli pl weweli n mountain *γʷeley
wellawi pl wewellawi n person of Wellawi ethnicity *γʷeley-lawi 'mountain-people'
weye pl weweye n hill *γʷeye
weʔną pl weweʔną n year *weʔnã
wona pl wowona n trend, tendency; requirement Emp. woná 'wind'
wosahi pl wowosahi n fig PL vusai
yąki pl yańąki n river *yãki
yalo pl yayalo n origin, source; instigator Emp. ealo 'parent'
yano pl yayano n bag *yãdzu
yąsa pl yańąsa n food, meal *yãsa 'meat'
yato pl yayato n brick PL eatu
yawi pl yayawi n part *yabi
yeći pl yeyeći n arrow *yeči
yećka pl yeyećka n quiver *yeči-kʰa 'arrow-thing'
yekmąsto pl yeyekmąsto n vulture *yeku-γʷãsu-du 'bone-eater' (honorific)
yelći pl yeyelći n fat, grease *γelši
yeńa pl yeyeńa n leaf *γaña
yeńaʔ pl yeyeńaʔ n human *yamayaʔa
yepę pl yehpę n pass (in mountains); shortcut *γepĩ
yeśe pl yeyeśe n day *γiše
yeʔlela pl yeyeʔlela n game, contest, competition Emp. yetlélá 'race'
yoći pl yoyoći n fish *γuči
yohę pl yoyohę n slope *γʷułĩ
yǫkolęmę pl yońǫkolęmę n sunburn *yama-kʰulĩ-γʷĩ 'sun-itching'
yolći pl yoyolći n millet *γulši
yǫnańa pl yońǫnańa n demon *γema-łãγa 'bad spirit'
yonayękwi pl yayonayękwi n bug, beetle, ant (any predominantly crawling insect) *yawẽ-dayẽ-kʷi 'little crawler'
yǫsso pl yayǫsso n ray of light *yama-słu 'that which is made of sunlight'
cańńę (no pl) n.coll childhood *dłãγñẽ
caśa (no pl) n.coll hair *tyaša
ceca (no pl) n.coll smoke *kłicʰa
cehtna (no pl) n.coll duration *čʰitũ-la 'moment' + collective
cmaha (no pl) n.coll copper *dzama-łaγa 'red eye'
cohto (no pl) n.coll courage, determination, vigor, energy *tłuwa-tu 'blood' + abstract
ćąkihkwa (no pl) n.coll dew *kyanẽ-kʰikʰiγʷa 'morning-drops'
ćehącǫ (no pl) n.coll game, catch, prey *kłepʰã-cũ 'game animal' + collective
ćeńę (no pl) n.coll tears *kyañĩ
ćihtaha (no pl) n.coll knowledge *čʰiłta-ła 'result of teaching'
ćohe (no pl) n.coll water *kyupʰe
epohka (no pl) n.coll tradition, custom, habit Emp. éphákhá
halańę (no pl) n.coll north *pʰala-γẽ 'far-place'
hiwahka (no pl) n.coll venom, poison *łiya-γʷałka 'snake-spit'
homa (no pl) n.coll old age *łima
hǫna (no pl) n.coll music *łume-la 'song, tune' + collective
kaʔlalo (no pl) n.coll cheese, butter Emp. khatlalló
kehkala (no pl) n.coll stone (the material) *kʰełka-la 'stone' + collective
kehkwi (no pl) n.coll sand *kʰeyakʷi
keya (no pl) n.coll soil *kʰeya
kńaćkamęno (no pl) n.coll village meeting *kʰiña-čeka-γʷĩ-du 'meeting' (honorific)
kwaco (no pl) n.coll strength, power; blood *kʷacu
kwahćo (no pl) n.coll the past *kʷʰayi-tu 'that which has gone by'
maloʔma (no pl) n.coll west *madže-ʔu ma 'place of the sea'
memęta (no pl) n.coll weather *γʷĩ-γʷĩta 'winds'
mętka (no pl) n.coll air *γʷĩta-kʰa 'wind-thing'
ńęʔka (no pl) n.coll honey *džĩʔĩkʰa
ohka (no pl) n.coll saliva *γʷałka
otweʔną (no pl) n.coll next year; the future *wetweʔnã
pśehąto (no pl) n.coll depth (pśe- 'deep' + -hą- adverbializer + -to abstraction)
role (no pl) n.coll sky *dudže
tahce (no pl) n.coll abroad *tʰadłe 'there (far away)'
taho (no pl) n.coll joy, fun, happiness *tʰału
takcǫ (no pl) n.coll grass (vegetation) *taka-cũ
taya (no pl) n.coll milk *tʰaya
tęko (no pl) n.coll dried meat *tẽku
tma (no pl) n.coll there *da-ma 'that place (near you)'
tola (no pl) n.coll wool *tʰula
twisǫ (no pl) n.coll ice, snow *tuysũ
welikma (no pl) n.coll east *γʷeley-kʷu ma 'place of the mountains'
wihoma (no pl) n.coll the world *γʷiwa-ma 'life-place'
wileyaʔ (no pl) n.coll bronze PL vileaəp
yeʔe (no pl) n.coll salt *γaʔle
yoma (no pl) n.coll sun *yama
yomoʔma (no pl) n.coll south *yama-ʔu ma 'place of the sun'
aśę pl aʔśę n.ip wife *ʔašẽ
celi pl ceceli n.ip beard *čiγli
ćąke pl ćąćke n.ip skin; hide, fur (of an animal) *kłãke
ćehca pl ćećehca n.ip heart; life *čełdza 'heart'
ćihpo pl ćićihpo n.ip arm *čʰilpu
ćoho pl ćoćoho n.ip leg *kluwa
ha pl haha n.ip eye *łaγa (reinterpreted as plural)
hańa pl hąhńa n.ip spirit, soul *łãγa
hańaro pl hąhńaro n.ip ancestor *łãγa-du 'spirit' (honorific)
hipę pl hihipę n.ip shoulder, side, edge *łiγpĩ
ilca pl iʔilca n.ip hand *ʔilsa
ińe pl ęʔńe n.ip name *ʔĩye
kęka pl kekęka n.ip finger *kẽkʰa
kmeno pl kekmeno n.ip head *kʷẽdu
kolo pl kokolo n.ip anus *kʰulu
kwaro pl kakwaro n.ip tail *kʷadu
kwece pl kekwece n.ip backbone, spine *kʷeči
kwela pl kekwela n.ip child, grandchild, descendant (born within one's lifetime, gender-neutral) *kʷela
kwihca pl kikwihca n.ip vagina *kʷʰeyta 'womb'
la pl lala n.ip husband *la
lahka pl lalahka n.ip ear *lałka
lǫkwihca (no pl) n.ip kindness, compassion, motherly love (shown by women) *lãma-kʷʰeyta 'warm womb'
maną pl mǫną n.ip nose, tip, corner *mãdzã
mapę pl mǫpę n.ip hip *maγpĩ
mąso pl mamąso n.ip body *γʷãsu 'bone'
mehi pl mǫhi n.ip tongue *mełi
mina pl mǫna n.ip mother *mina
nańo pl nęńo n.ip foot *nãγu
nąso pl nanąso n.ip back *lãsu
nomę pl nǫmę n.ip face *numẽ
ńońi pl ńęńi n.ip breast *džũbłi
ǫta pl ǫʔta n.ip tooth *ʔũta
pcaha pl hipcaha n.ip son *pʰita-la 'little man'
piwa (no pl) n.ip favor, esteem, respect (shown by men) *piba
sǫmona pl sosǫmona n.ip pregnancy *sũla-blũła 'round belly'
sǫʔca pl sosǫʔca n.ip fist *sũla-ʔilsa 'round hand'
śaʔę pl śaśaʔę n.ip mind *šaʔẽ
śepą pl śeśpą n.ip son, heir, descendant (in unbroken male line) *šepã
śińa pl śićńa n.ip fingernail *džiña
śoho (no pl) n.ip guts *šuwa
śokmąką pl śośokmąką n.ip home, dwelling (śokmą- + -kV: 'dwell-thing')
tahńę pl tatahńę n.ip elbow *tʰawa-γẽ 'bending-place'
tęʔpi pl tetęʔpi n.ip daughter *tʰẽʔpi
tohną pl totohną n.ip father *tʰunã
tohnǫ pl totohnǫ n.ip knee *tʰawdzũ
wona pl womona n.ip belly *blũła
yomo (no pl) n.ip mouth *yãbu
=so par or *saw
=ʔma par and *ʔama 'with'
ca par and *ca
par (emphatic) *dlã 'by contrast'
caca par also *caca 'moreover'
cańe par definitely not; never *dlã ye
cmę par as, under the circumstance that *cawĩ
par then, next *pʰã
kehće par instead, rather *kʰeči
kwe par but *kʷe
roʔ par so, therefore *duk
śeʔ par however, by contrast *džet
par because *tũ
yeca par and not, not either *yeca
yekwe par but not, not at all *yekʷe
aro pp from *ʔadzu 'move away from'
elka pp due to, because of *ʔel ka 'because' + 'on behalf of'
hihmoʔ pp upward *łiγi-ma-ʔu 'at the upper place of'
ihma pp without *ʔiłma
ina pp before, until *ʔina
kǫpe pp towards, in the direction of, in order to Emp. kampé
kwoco pp after, since *kʷucu 'behind'
laʔ pp under *lat
lena pp as, like, similar to *γlẽda
mnąʔco pp downward *melã-ʔadzu 'along-away'
moʔ pp on, at, near *ma-ʔu 'place-cons'
naʔ pp above *nat
nene pp across, through *nĩłe
ǫcąʔ pp during, while *ʔama-sãk 'with-inside'
oma pp with *ʔama
otwoʔ pp as if (takes nominalized verb as complement) (cf. otwa- 'similar')
po pp against *pyu
sąkma pp made of *sãk-ʔama 'inside-with'
sąʔ pp at, in *sãk 'inside'
śe pp via, along *dže 'through' and/or *še 'down'
tahco pp by means of, using *tʰatʰa-cu 'use' + adverbializer
tewi pp behind, beyond, further away than *tʰewi
yo pp outside *γaw
aye- (ʔ) pre dangerous Emp. ʔáyé- 'frightening'
cahpę- (ʔ) pre heavy *cʰapẽ-
cek- pre beautiful, attractive *kliγka-
ceʔ- pre sufficient *čiʔe-
cic- pre centrally located *tłiči
ciʔ- pre broad, wide *tleʔe-
ckǫ- (ʔ) pre grave, severe, serious *cakũ-
cma- (ʔ) pre red *dzama-
cńǫ- (ʔ) pre virtuous, noble *tleyũ-
cǫ- (ʔ) pre long *dłũ-
coh- pre strong, manly; straightforward *tłuwa 'blood'
cohą- (ʔ) pre original *cʰuła-
cpo- (ʔ) pre comprehensive; (before another adjectival prefix) very *capu-
ćę- (n) pre full *činu-
ćik- pre yellow *čika-
ćmą- pre soft, fluid *čiwã-
ćotah- pre short *kłutʰa-
hak- pre holy, divine *bakʰe 'holiness'
hakwa- (ʔ) pre close, nearby, on the near side *łakʷa-
hi- (h) pre upper *łiγi-
hit- pre small *pʰita-
hop- pre awkward, strange *łupa-
hoʔ- pre delicious *łaʔu-
i- (ʔ) pre (before another adjectival prefix) not, un- *ye-
ipo- (ʔ) pre clear *ʔipu-
ira- (ʔ) pre slow, calm, relaxed *ʔida-
kaho- (ʔ) pre narrow *kʰawa-
kahto- (del) pre gentle *kʰatu-
kąʔ- pre black *kʰãʔa-
kceh- pre dirty *kačʰi-
kńą- (ʔ) pre thin, meagre *kʰiñã-
kńąco- (h) pre premature, inexperienced, unsuitable *kʰiñã-tłuwa 'thin blood'
kpeh- pre dry *kʰibła-
ktah- pre correct; suitable *katʰa-
kwihc- pre emotional, sensitive *kʷʰeyta 'womb'
leʔ- pre high, tall *leʔe-
lǫ- (n) pre green *γłuna-
lǫ- (m) pre warm *lãma-
lokwa- (ʔ) pre hidden, non-obvious Emp. lawokha-
lotwe- (h) pre widespread, common *lawtʰe-
ma- (h) pre lower *maγa-
mahka- (del) pre sharp(-edged) *małka-
mękwa- (del) pre wet *mĩkʷa-
momą- (ʔ) pre rough *bãγʷã-
mono- (ʔ) pre vast, enormous, overwhelming Emp. manó- 'wide'
nać- pre tame *nače-
nah- pre young *nała-
nęc- pre straight *dzĩči-
nǫ- (m) pre thick, fat *dãbu-
ńalo- (ʔ) pre dull, blunt Emp. ŋallo-
ńąś- pre big, large *γãdže-
ńeś- pre smooth *ñeši-
ńiʔ- pre detailed, intricate, decorated *ñiʔe 'detail'
oći- pre difficult, intimidating *wači- 'steep'
ohe- (ʔ) pre former, ex- *ʔupʰe-
ohę- (ʔ) pre frequent *γʷałĩ-
ońo- (ʔ) pre constant, durable, eternal, solid, rigid *ʔũγʷu-
ot- pre next, future, to-be (back-formed from otweʔną)
otwa- (ʔ) pre similar *ʔawdza-
pąk- pre new *plãka-
peńę- (ʔ) pre far, distant *pãyẽ-
pewe- (ʔ) pre delicate, graceful *pyewe-
pnǫ- (ʔ) pre little, somewhat *padũ-
polpa- (ʔ) pre loud, bold, audacious, prominent *pulba-
pomę- (ʔ) pre late *pawnĩ-
pśe- (ʔ) pre deep *puše-
roh- pre good *duγa-
siʔ- pre wrong, bad, inappropriate *sayʔa-
skeh- pre wild, fierce, aggressive *sakʰe-
sǫs- pre major, primary, typical, exemplary *sũsu-
tąc- pre same, identical, unchanged *tãtłi-
tah- pre entire, complete *tała-
tahna- (del) pre cold *tʰãda-
tihni- (ʔ) pre upright; courageous Emp. tliní-
tohmo- (ʔ) pre angry, indignant Emp. tlámá- 'red'
wek- pre quick, fast, agile *γʷeku-
wepi- (ʔ) pre bright *webłi-
weʔą- (ʔ) pre near, usual, familiar *weʔã 'be familiar with'
wihę- (ʔ) pre countless; innumerable *γʷeyłĩ-
wili- (ʔ) pre valuable, noteworthy, famous PL vili 'good, fine, beautiful'
yah- pre different *yaγe-
yara- (ʔ) pre old, weak *yada-
yel- pre different *yelu- 'other'
yeʔ- pre regular; reliable; safe *yiʔe-
yińę- (ʔ) pre light, easy *yĩyĩ-
yocǫ- (ʔ) pre early, soon, young, quick, fresh *γudłũ-
kwa pl kwakwe pron (obviative class I) *kʷi-wa-
kwiće pl pśekwe pron (obviative class V) *kʷi-če-
kwihke pl kwihkwe pron (obviative class IV) *kʷi-łki-
kwińǫ pl kmǫkwe pron (obviative class III) *kʷi-γũ-
kwiśe pl pśikwe pron (obviative class VII) *kʷi-ši-
kwita pl psakwe pron (obviative class II) *kʷi-ta-
kwoye pl kwoyekwe pron (obviative class VI) *kʷi-ye-
na pl sa pron (speaker) *na- / *sa-
ta pl tkwe pron (addressee) *ta-
wile pron why *γʷey džeγe 'which purpose'
yaće pl ćekwe pron (proximate class V) *ya-če-
yahke pl śkikwe pron (proximate class IV) *ya-łki
yaho pl yoʔ, yokwe- pron (proximate class I) *ya-wa-
yańǫ pl ńǫkwe pron (proximate class III) *ya-γũ-
yaśe pl śikwe pron (proximate class VII) *ya-ši-
yata pl cakwe pron (proximate class II) *ya-ta-
yaye pl yekwe pron (proximate class VI) *ya-ye-
holę- distr hoholę- qu half *łulẽ-
męca- distr memęca- qu four *mẽca-
męći- distr memęći- qu six *mẽči-
nahto- distr nanahto- qu three *nałtu-
nalći- distr nanalći- qu seven *nalši-
nǫńaho- distr nonǫńaho qu sixty-four *dãbu-ñaγʷa- 'fat eight'
ńaho- distr ńańaho- qu eight *ñaγʷa-
ora- distr oʔora- qu five *ʔudza-
śi- distr śiśi- qu two *ši-
takwa- distr tatkwa- qu one *takʷa-
cona v.dt promise, swear, vow *dłũ-dzači 'long-say' (final -ći reanalyzed as optative)
cwoʔla v.dt suggest (benefactive applicative of woʔla: 'plan on behalf of')
ćihta v.dt teach *čʰiłta
ena v.dt give *ʔẽda
eniʔna v.dt entrust to (eni 'be equipped with' + -ʔna- permissive)
piʔehpa v.dt protect from *pyu-yiʔe-łpa 'make safe against'
pola v.dt donate *bliwla
romę v.dt lend, borrow *dabĩ
węća v.dt withhold; deprive sb. of sth. *wẽkya-
araʔya v.it despair, be worried *ʔadya-ʔaya 'fear' + stative
cana v.it glow, gleam; be on fire *dłãdza
cece v.it prepare leather *tletle
cehę v.it stay, be around *čiłĩ
ceʔkihca v.it be initiated *dłeʔka-ʔiłca 'towards the tribe'
ćawi v.it smile, be happy, enjoy oneself *kyaγʷi
ćeka v.it sit *čeka
ćeńęhpa v.it cry *kyañĩ-łpa
ćeʔśo v.it appear *kleʔšu
ćohmę v.it be more than expected *čʰewłĩ
eńopaho v.it return (eńo + paho: 'again-walk')
hakęmo v.it be hungry PL haga-iŋmau 'want to eat'
hala v.it grow, swell *pʰala
halćaʔę v.it become proud, become arrogant *pʰala-šaʔẽ 'mind-swell'
hićę (h) v.it cease, stop *łičʰĩ
hiho v.it breathe, blow *pʰiwa
holco v.it be desirable *pʰuldzu- 'great'
ipe v.it sigh *ʔipe
kaća (h) v.it be stained *kačʰa 'make dirty'
kahkwa v.it laugh *kʰakʷʰa
kehto v.it give up *kʰetu 'lie down'
kmęća v.it gasp *kʷẽkła
koća v.it ask *kukya (cf. PCW *gudzi-)
kohpaʔco v.it leave; go on a quest *kʰulpa-ʔadzu 'hunt-away'
kokwa v.it enter a trance Emp. kowukoá
kolę v.it itch *kʰulĩ
kpehtwi (h) v.it become dry *kʰibła-tʰuya
kwahi v.it be done/gone, be unrecoverable *kʷʰayi
kwećę v.it jump *kʷečĩ
kwekwoʔya v.it boil *kʷekʷu-ʔaya 'cook' + stative
kwińi v.it shine; be impressive; be famous *kʷĩγi
kwoną v.it lie *kʷunã
lahpa v.it grow up, become an adult *la 'man' + dynamic verbalizer
leńe v.it be rare *γluñe
lińa v.it be lazy *lĩdła
lońǫ v.it act *luγũ
mihe v.it be absent *miłe
miwo v.it breathe *mibu
menąta (h) v.it roam, go back and forth, hang around, linger, hesitate *melã-tʰa 'along-do'
nomo v.it believe *nãbu 'think'
ńępe v.it sleep *džẽpe
ohkahpa v.it spit *γʷałkałpa
ohmę v.it hurry *ʔewłĩ
ohńǫ v.it roll *ʔułñũ
ole v.it die *wadže
oyaʔna v.it be forceful, be violent, be aggressive *ʔuya-ʔẽda 'give pain'
paho v.it walk *pława
pehńa v.it disappear, be invisible *pʰĩbła (cf. PCW *phìʔla- 'hidden')
pękyosi v.it sail, navigate PL pamiki-usi
pihka v.it exist, be naturally *piłka
pohna v.it guess Emp. phaná 'find one's way'
raną v.it fly *dalã 'swim'
seną v.it freeze *dzaynã
sisi v.it hiss, sizzle (imitative)
sokwa v.it be silent *dzukʷa
somo v.it confirm, approve, agree *sũbu
sopą v.it dig *supã
śecą v.it blink; be surprised *džecã
śeʔta v.it flow *šeʔta
śiką v.it stand *šikã
śoka v.it swim *šiwka 'float'
śokmą v.it dwell *šiwkʷã
tahmo v.it fall, stumble *tʰãbu
tękta v.it be tired, be sleepy *tãya-kuda 'need to sleep'
twihto v.it grow pale *tʰuytu
wahpa v.it be sick *ʔuwałpa 'vomit'
weta v.it turn, be changed *weta
weto (h) v.it fade, wither *wetʰu
yaka v.it joke *yaka 'play'
yawę v.it creep *yawẽ
ye v.it go, move *ye (back-formed from *yeʔadzu/*yeʔiłca)
yeko v.it celebrate, have a good time *yeku 'eat meat'
yele v.it run *γedže
yema v.it row *yema
yoha (h) v.it last, remain, survive *yupʰa (cf. Emp. éphákhá 'custom, tradition')
yomi v.it rest *yãbi (cf. PCW *yèbi-)
ahpara v.mt anger *ʔałpadza
caye v.mt try, tackle, attempt (benefactive applicative of ye: 'go for the purpose of')
cehą v.mt resume, continue *čʰiłã
cocą v.mt serve, obey, comply with *cucã
cǫhco v.mt be anxious/nervous about *cʰũtłu
cohe v.mt find, discover *tłupʰe
cwaya v.mt fight *sabaya
ćakę v.mt distribute *kłakĩ
ćehwi v.mt tie, bind, restrain, attach *čʰeγʷi (cf. Gez. tsegi-)
ćelta v.mt see, notice *čelda
ćeʔtaha v.mt blame, accuse, curse *kłeʔe-daγa 'strike-call'
ćinora v.mt fill with, load with, stack, pile up *činu-dza 'cause to be full'
ćiye v.mt want, wish, desire *čiye
ćkara v.mt welcome, greet *čekadza 'seat'
ćosą v.mt focus on, feel attracted to, be curious about *kyusã
ćoʔna v.mt wait for *kłuʔna
eni v.mt be equipped with Emp. éní 'hold, own'
eʔći v.mt shape, sculpt, form *ʔeʔdži (cf. Gez. eːzi-)
hakeʔna v.mt bless, wish sb. luck *bakʰe-ʔẽda 'give holiness'
hani v.mt respond, answer *pʰãli
hapaʔta v.mt shoot, hurl as a weapon *pʰapʰaʔta
haʔta v.mt throw *pʰaʔta
hesa v.mt cut *besa
hęʔso v.mt hate *łĩʔsu
hiyahpa v.mt heal *łiyałpa
homę v.mt help *łubẽ
hoʔą v.mt smell *łuʔã
ića (h) v.mt fish *ʔičʰa
ilcahpa v.mt touch *ʔilca-łpa 'hand' + dynamic verbalizer
kahca v.mt shake, stir, cause to move (circular or back-and-forth) *kʰadza (cf. Emp. khatla)
kanihca v.mt join (a group), become a member of *kana-ʔiłca 'towards the group'
kayahpa v.mt burn *kʰayałpa
kcana v.mt illuminate (lative applicative of cana: 'glow towards sth.')
kehca v.mt put, place *kʰetudza
kęhta (h) v.mt build, put together, create *kʰiñatʰa
keyahpa v.mt bury *kʰeya-łpa 'soil' + dynamic verbalizer
kihoʔna v.mt pour *kʰiγʷa-ʔẽda
kilnǫ v.mt add *kilnũ
kmąca (h) v.mt estimate *kʷãcʰa
kńaćka v.mt visit, spend time with *kʰiña-čeka 'sit together'
kohpa v.mt follow, pursue *kʰulpa 'hunt'
kolta (h) v.mt gouge, drill, pierce *kʰulu tʰa 'make a hole'
komą v.mt fear *kamã
kora v.mt overlook, not pay attention *kuda 'sleep'
kwekwo v.mt cook *kʷekʷu
kweta v.mt become (lative applicative of weta: 'be changed into')
kwisa v.mt squeeze, press, grind *kʷisa
lakmǫ v.mt perceive (non-visually) *γlakʷũ
lapę v.mt remove *γlapẽ
laʔpa v.mt steal *laʔpa
leńa v.mt dig *laña 'scratch'
leńę v.mt seize *γludžẽ
lępo v.mt lift, raise *γlĩpu
liha v.mt clean *leypʰa 'wipe'
lǫća v.mt exchange, trade, share *lũkla
loćo (h) v.mt charm, court, persuade *lukʰiw
lǫpa v.mt kiss *lũpa
mahkata v.mt sharpen *małka-tʰa 'make sharp'
mahkmehpa v.mt scold, criticize *małka-mełi-łpa 'be sharp-tongued'
manona v.mt lie (towards), deceive Emp. mánoná 'be untrue'
mena v.mt know, understand *bẽdza
męso v.mt stretch *γʷĩsu
meʔse v.mt taste *meʔši
meʔśo v.mt sew *meʔšu
naścoʔna v.mt forgive (sb.) *nače-tłuwa-ʔẽda 'show tame blood to'
naʔla v.mt ascend, climb Emp. náʔótlá
nęmi v.mt express *nẽγmi
noki v.mt turn around (sth.) *nuγki
nǫkoća v.mt ponder, consider, ask oneself *nãbu-kukya 'think-ask'
nopi v.mt lean on *nupi
ńąse v.mt receive *γãši
ńępo v.mt observe, watch *γĩpu
ńęsa v.mt dance *džẽsa
ǫcpohę v.mt discuss, debate, negotiate, talk about sth. in detail with *ʔama-dzupʰu-łãγa 'hunt for spirits together with'
ohke v.mt wash *γʷałki
okmę v.mt carry, transport *wekʷĩ
olca v.mt hit *walca
ońota (h) v.mt insist on, be determined about *ʔũγʷu-tʰa 'do constantly'
opą v.mt distinguish *ʔupã
ǫśką v.mt support; stand beside *ʔama-šikã 'stand with'
ośśa v.mt kill *wadžedza
ǫtahpa v.mt bite, chew *ʔũtałpa
otwaʔya v.mt resemble, match, be similar to *ʔawdza-ʔaya
pahpąta v.mt search at/in, make one's way through, explore *pława-pãta 'walk and find one's way'
pąta v.mt reach for *pãta 'find one's way'
pątaʔco v.mt escape *pãta-ʔadzu 'get away from'
peńe v.mt say towards, tell, inform *pẽγe
pępi v.mt cover *pẽpi (cf. Emp. pemí 'hide')
pińi v.mt lose *płẽyi
possi v.mt collect; request PL pusa-usi 'gather'
poʔę v.mt break, destroy, tear apart *puʔẽ
poʔwaro v.mt abandon, waste *pława-ʔadzu 'walk away'
raha v.mt shout, call *daγa
sace v.mt say, speak *dzači
sakosi v.mt divide PL sagau-usi 'split'
salą v.mt attack, assault *dzalã 'stab'
sena v.mt sing Emp. sená
siśę v.mt drink *sayšĩ
soho v.mt hunt *dzupʰu
soppeye v.mt gather, collect *dzupʰu-pʰeyi 'collect seeds'
soʔna v.mt enlarge *suʔna
śęhpa v.mt count *šĩdałpa
śęta v.mt say poetically *šẽta 'sing'
śikna v.mt stick in the ground *šikãdza
ta (h) v.mt do (mostly used as a proverb) *tʰa
taho v.mt bend, change *tʰawa
tahta v.mt use *tʰatʰa
tańa v.mt must, should, ought to *tãya
tehme v.mt imagine, envision, dream about Emp. tlemé
tǫhno v.mt have sex with *tʰũdu
tomą v.mt assist, contribute, participate; (of rivers) discharge into *tumã
waʔą v.mt clash with, contradict *γʷaʔã
weco v.mt eat *wecu 'eat vegetables'
weńo v.mt increase; multiply *wẽyu
weʔą v.mt know, meet regularly, be familiar with *weʔã
weʔla v.mt damage, injure badly, scar Emp. ʔwétlá 'cause pain'
wihce v.mt reduce *γʷiłči
wihora v.mt give birth to, engender *γʷiwadza
wilimo v.mt praise, honor Emp. wilimú (influenced by wili-)
woloʔla v.mt catch, capture, imprison, abduct Emp. wollotla 'enslave'
woʔla v.mt draft, plan, come up with Emp. wotlá 'give birth to'
yahke v.mt keep, guard, foster *γałke
yahkmena v.mt remember (yahke + mena: ~ 'guard what you know')
yanohpa v.mt pack, wrap, bundle *yãdzu-łpa 'do with a bag'
yąpa v.mt be capable of *yãpa
yaśi v.mt hold, own, marry *yaši
yecą v.mt stop, hold up, impede *γitłã
yera v.mt push, pull, cause to move (in a linear direction) *yedza 'push'
yęso v.mt love, hold in high regard *yẽsu
yeya v.mt hear *γiya
yeyaćka v.mt listen to *γiya-čeka 'hear-sit'
yęʔne v.mt spread *yẽʔne
yeʔyahke v.mt preserve, store *yiʔe-γałke 'keep safe'
yoćkę v.mt scatter, disperse *γaw-kłakĩ 'out-distribute'
yǫhpa v.mt suck; fellate *yãbułpa
yoʔpe v.mt begin *γuʔpe (cf. PCW *ğuʔpe-)