Shtåså/Lexicon

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Here is the Shtåså Lexicon


Derivativational Morphology

Verb to Noun

-dzaš agent noun from verb.

-vn Abstract noun, (gerund) for verb action or state

-sa Result of verb or other relation to the base word.

-syn Instrument noun from verb.

Noun to Noun

-v Diminutive.

-dzyhanj Honorific.

-ks Collective. The root must be put in the oblique case.

-en Location of event or object.

-lo Person with connection to base noun.

-dy Derives abstract noun from concrete noun or adjective.

-in Feminine.

Noun to Verb

-isp general verbalizer.

-ists movement towards focus.

- stative verb (be noun).

-as causative.

en- frequently forms compounds: enfwej to farm 'give-seed'

Adjectives and Adverbs

-ddzy Derives adverbs.

-am Derives adjectives from nouns. From -ama ‘with’

-šam The version of -am after a vowel.

Loan Words

Shtåså has identifiable loan words from early Adata, Late Gezoro, Shetamol, and Xshali.

Shtåså usually borrows /r/ as /l/ initially or finally and as /n/ intervocally.

Ad.= Early Adāta

Gez.=Late Gezoro

Shet.=Šetâmol

Xsh.=Xšali


Abbreviations

adj. adjective.

adv. adverb.

conj. conjunction.

n. noun.

pp. postposition.

vi. intransitive verb.

vt. transitive verb.

Lexemes

word type meaning etymology
ab n. rain, NC2 ; tear, NC8 agwa
abisp iv. cry, weep ab-isp
ac n. fear adja
ain n. woman, wife ajen
ainv n. daughter, sister ain-v
alpabam vt. forge Ad. alpabam
aljaun n. harp Ad. āliora
am pp. comitive, with, alongside ama
Anac n. Anaiti, earth goddess Gez. Anaiti
andak n. stranger, foreigner Ad. andak
anseltin n. business, commerce Ad. ansertin
ajukå vt. trick, deceive Ad. aiuko
åc adv. day after tomorrow
åldð vt. hit, strike, punch
åldða n. strike, punch
åf n. beans, grains
åj iv. die
åisa n. death, passing
aša iv. copula

B

badðïn n. forest.

båm n. brother, more intimate than kþalå

bånþuåm n. ally, blood brother. <båm tþuå am 'brother with blood'

bånþuåmaš vt. to ally with

baš adj. holy n. holiness.

baš' n. god, spirit

bašðaš n. shaman, priest

bašiåpaddï n. The Path of Holiness, a monotheistic religion of Xshalad adopted by some Anhashnalaks

ben vt. to know.

bensa n. knowledge

blun n. belly.

Č

Cakonj Tjakori

če pp. to.

če- pron. this

čeč vi. to make leather. vt. to rub vi. be able to

ček n. tribe.

čekvn n. solidarity, allegiance to one's tribe

čeklå n. kinsman

čeld vt. to understand

čenï adj. full.

čeñ n.ip. fingernail.

čes vi. dance.

česlå n. dancer

čessa n. dance

česþ n. heart.

čet conj. but, however.

či n land.

čič adj. straight.

čig adj. yellow., cowardly

čigakf n. a medicinal flower

čij vt. to want.

čik adj. continous.

čivn n. desire

čïvlag n. flood

čos n. hair.

čufï vt. to gather, to hunt.

čwemš n. breast.

čwen n. next year.

čwifj n. water.

D

da- pron. that .

damï adj. thick.

dač adv. here.

dačtï n. presence

daln vi. to swim, to fly.

dah vi. to shout.

dahas vt. to talk.

dišak n. any foreign ruler < Ad. *dizhaka

duña n. flattery < Ad. *du~ya, praise

duh adj. good.

duk conj. therefore.

dušam adj. blue

n. sky

dða pp. for, dative marker.

dðel conj. because

dðaln vt. to stab.

dðûdašn n. bird.

dðam adj. red.

dðeč vt. to say.

dðeča n. word

dðun adj. long.

E

ej conj. if.

eldï n. cause.

en vt. to give.

en n. gift

enab v. to rain

enan iv. to darken vt. to set

end n. feather

endam adj. soft

eneiš vt. to fatten

enfwej v. to farm

F

fa- pron. everything, everyone, all.

fafta vt. to shoot, to launch.

fan conj. then, next.

fas vt. to mock.

fat vt. to throw.

fål vi. to swell.

fålčesþa n. sorrow <fål-česþ-sa 'heart-swelling'

fčuddh relative pronoun. where

fe conj. but.

febï vt. to cook.

fel n. child, son ERG: felj

feljin n. daughter

fenï n. head.

fi- relative pronoun

fis vi. to make felt.

fïjåsïn n. lung

fsasïn n. knife

ftaječ vt. shoot with a bow

fwej n. seed.

fweš n. tree bark.

fwiv n. seman, essence

fwivvin n. ejaculation

fwivisp v. ejaculate

fuå vi. to breathe, to blow.

fuås vt. to inflate.

fuð n. chief.

fuðåš vt. rule

H

hab n. tree.

haf vi. to laugh.

hak n. rock

halï vt. to fasten.

han adj. black.

hanj adj. big, great ; adv. very (manifests as hai- in older compounds like Haisdeya)

hanjšeiby n. snake, serpant < 'great-worm'

hammål adj. 624

haša n. fire.

adj. narrow

pp. outside.

hej vi. to run.

heiš n. fat, grease.

hem adj. bad.

hib adj. some.

hiš n. day.

hišåpudðï adv. tomorrow

hinå n. pine.

hinåþaš n. sap, syrup < 'pine-milk'

hlat vt. to milk.

hweiš n. neck.

hwič n. fish.

hug n. pig.

hulï n.ip. anus.

hulp vt. to hunt.

hust n. boat.

hûmaš adj. rotten.

V

vasï n. bone.

vegï adj. quick.

velh n. mountain.

vej n. hill.

ves vt. to cut, to split bevesa

vguðï n. eagle.

vgïþtuð n. cloud

vid n. wind.

viv vt. to drink.

viå vi. to live

viås vt. to give birth

vnaðaš n. sage

vosk n. spit.

voskasp vi. to spit.

vos vt. to wash.

vuš adj. heavy.

I

adj. slow.

n. name.

iñaš iv. to have a reputation, to be somebody vt. to name

ils n. hand, bird's wing.

is vt. to fish.

ism pp. without.

išñ n. wife. From éçeni 'his woman'

ïdasp vi. to harm

J

ja pron. 3sg.

jad adj. old.

jadv n. parent

jag vi. to play.

jagdï n. game

Jam n. the Sun

jamåišñ n. silver < 'sun-wife'

jamï n. mouth.

jas n. meat.

jaþ vt. to tend.

jaþab n. garden.

ječ n. arrow.

je conj. not

jeh n. river

jegï vt. to eat.

jelï adj. other.

jem vi. to row.

jes vt. to push.

jeså conj. nor.

ješ vt. to own

ješain vt. marry

jev conj. but not.

jisï vi. to leave.

jists vi. to come.

K

ka pp. on behalf of.

kadð n. friend.

kaiča n. gold < Gez. kaitja

kaþ adj. correct.

keč adj. dirty.

kečisp iv. make dirty

kehåig n. ore < Gez. gehoig

kek n. anvil < Gez. geg

keken n. smithy

keklå n. blacksmith

kenč pp. towards.

klehan n. domesticated animal < Shet. klehan

kluå n. leg.

kþshenh n. sister

ksah n. skin.

ksach n. mix.

ksam n. berry.

ksefn n. wild animal.

ksuþ adj. short.

kþalå n. brother. < Cet. kaθa lawa 'true man'

Kšalhå n. a Xshali

Kšalhåen n. Xshalad

kud vi. to sleep.

L

la n. man, husband. ERG: lhi

lab n. smoke.

labsa n. jerkey

Lačend n. Rathedan

ladð n. many.

lai n. a horse breed from western Peilash < Shet. lai

lanañ vt. to dig.

lap vt. to steal.

lapþaš n. thief

lat pp. under.

lasï n. back.

lheif vt. to wipe.

losk n. ear.

luñ n. right, east.

lum nt. to grind, to mill.

M

ma n. place, location.

maj vi. to shine.

Majn n. the Moon.

majnåen n. dream

majnsaip vt. to dream

masï adj. wide.

maš n. earth

mašå n. human.

mašåks n. humankind, man

masï adj. wide.

mazn iv. run vt. flee

mazn n. nose.

mål adj. 64

meč n. bear.

meû part. um, uhh

mina n. mom

modð adj. four.

moln pp. along.

moš n. tongue, language

mošisp n. to speak

mosk adj. sharp.

mosï vt. to sew.

mon n. dog.

monv n. puppy

monkïks n. herd.

mu adv. completely.

mumf adj. wet.

muñ adv. the day before yesterday.

musp vt. to suck.

N

na pron. I.

nadïn n. left, west.

nač adj. tame.

namï vi. to think.

nankï n. foot

nat pp. above.

naj adj. rare

pp. up.

nåas it. jump

nostï adj. three.

Ñ

ñaj adj. frequent.

ñej adj. smooth.

ñel adj. white.

ñeln pp. along

ñenkï n. sheep meŋu

ñif n. fog.

ñostï adj. pale, blunt.

O

opaya n. castle, fortress < Ad. ópaia

osp n. rage.

ospas vt. to anger.

osï vt. to smell.

P

pad vi. to discover, to find

padgašbaš n. prophet

padsa n. discovery

paðï n. tail

plag adj. new; n. novelty

plam n. flower.

psam vi. to smell bad błama

psamaha n. stench błama+xa

pså vi. to walk.

psås vi. to walk away.

ptasïn n. road, path.

pudðï pp. after, behind.

pusï n. wolf.

S

sa pron. we

sab adj. near

sag pp. inside.

sah n. eye.; NC7. sight

sahisp v. to see

sahn n. earth.

sålå n. priest.

sank n. spirit, soul.

conj. or.

semna n. copper < Gez. zemra

senj n. horse.

sej n. night.

sfaš vt. to fight.

sfašša n. fight.

synanj n. leaf

sþåb n. love.< česþå ab 'water of the heart'

swescin adj. surprising.

sudð adv. tomorrow.

sul adj. round.

sun adj. green. γłuna

adv. yesterday.

Š

š pp. down.

šankšåm vt. to know. <çiganxajóma 'stand in the fire'

šasïn n. ear

šasïnisp vt. to hear

ščists vi. to flow in. to arrive

šeO n. star

šecisp ‘to sing’

šec pp. instead.

šedðaš singer

šedy vi. to lie down, rest

šefy n. deer.

šeiby n. worm.

šeln n. horn.

šenj adj. together.

šenjan adj. starved.

šenjanaš v. to starve

šenjin n. woman

šes n. dung.

šesisp v. to defecate

šesk n. stone.

šeš n. soil.

šešasyn n. wall, rampart.

šev n. sand.

ši adj. two.

šips adj. dry.

šipsen n. desert

šign vi. to stand

šilpy n.ip. arm.

šist vt. to teach.

šiš n. snake

šin n. lake

škan vi. to defend

škOspa v. to heal

šna n. palm of hand.

šnOsp vt. to count.

šñamv adj. thin

šñaþ vt. to build, to make.

šosp vt. to burn.

šostþyn n. ashes.

štås vi. to flow out. to leave

štsas vt. to pull.

štus vtz. to place

šuå n. guts.

šuådy n. courage

šuådyšam adj. brave, courageous

šûk vi. to float.

šûkås vi. travel.

šûkåsty n. journey, travel

T

ta pron. you(sg.).

tab adj. one.

tag n. grass.

tavj pp. on.

tekim v. trade < Xsh. t'ekim

tkač n. grassland.

tuv adj. few.

tuvdy n. scarcity, lack

tudð n. house, home.

tudðen n. village

tulus n. spice < Xsh. t'uluš, cinnamon

TH

þa vt. to do, to make.

þa- pron. that yonder

þadðï adj. far

þač adv. there.

þaš n. milk.

þamy vi. to fall.

þan adj, cold.

þaþ vt. to use.

þaþud vt. to bite < þaþ ud 'use tooth'

þemf n.ip. daughter.

þynjån n. uncle

þjalå n. secret

þuš vt. to become

þul n. wool.

þund n. father.

þuny vt. to have sex with.

þuv n. root.

þwa vt. to bend.

þwadðyn n. knee.

tþa conj. and.

tþaddh conj. moreover.

tþag vi. to sit.

tþagas vt. to seat.

tþandðn adj. repeated.

tþïvðaš n. louse.

tþïvðjåš vi. be annoying

tþkasyn n. chair.

tþos conj. also.

tþufy vt. to itch.

tþub n. fruit.

tþuå n. blood.

tþuåšam adj. bloody, violent, destructive

U

ud n. tooth.

ul n. buddy, guy < Shetamol ul

n. pain.

ušas vt. to cause pain.

us adj. five.

ûdðav n. egg.

W

n. vomit.

wåsp vi. to vomit.

wej adj. steep.

wejs vt. to kill.

wed vi. to turn. vt. to seduce

wedin(ðaš) n. seductress, prostitute

wedðy vt. to learn. From C. wedzu 'eat'

weje iv. to go, to travel to from Šet. weje to go

wen n. year.

weså n. sword < Gez. wesau

wetsy n. liver.

wogy n. clever < Shet. wogu