Sanap Þoi

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Sanap Þoi (great speech) is a Leic language.



labial dental alveolar palatal dorsal
stop /p/ /t/ /k/
fricative /ɸ/ <f> /θ/ <þ> /s/ /h/
nasal /m/ /n/
sonorant /l/ /r/ /j/ <y> /w/


front back
close /i/, /i:/ /u/, /u:/
mid /e/, /e:/ /o/, /o:/
open /a/ /a:/

Long vowels are marked with a circumflex (â).

The valid diphthongs are /ai au oi eu/.

Syllable Structure

Syllables are of the form CV(C).

Stress is always root-initial, and is realised with high pitch. All other syllables receive low pitch.



Nouns in Sanap Þoi decline for patientive, agentive, genitive, dative and locative cases, and singular and plural numbers. All inflections are prefices, and are largely agglutinative. The exception is the genitive plural, which bears no relation to the genitive singular or the other plural prefices. There is also a two-way animacy distinction in the genitive, between animate and inanimate. The patientive is the unmarked form of the noun, and is the citation form. The dictionary form is patientive, genitive.

Nouns also fall into two inflectional types which are identified by the form of the genitive. If the genitive ends in a nasal (which assimilates in place to a following stop, and is n otherwise) then the noun is said to be type N, while if it ends in þ then the noun is said to be type Þ. The distinction also manifests itself in all other caseforms (other than the patientive singular, which has a zero-prefix) as an alternation in the consonant (the second if there are two).

Nouns beginning in a vowel regularly delete the final vowel of a vowel-final prefix.

The various forms of the case prefices are given below.

Type Þ Type N
Singular Patientive Ø- Ø-
Agentive wo- no-
Gen. Anim. kaþ- kaN-
Gen. Inanim. þaþ- þaN-
Dative ta- þa-
Locative fo- po-
Plural Patientive ra- na-
Agentive wor- woN-
Genitive raþ- raN-
Dative tar- taN-
Locative for- foN-


Personal Pronouns

Sanap Þoi differentiates 3 persons (1st, 2nd and 3rd) in 2 numbers (singular and plural). It additionally has an honorific 2nd person pronoun, which is also used in a vocative construction, and an animacy distinction in the 3rd singular. The pronouns distinguish 5 cases, similarly to nouns. The pronominal inflection can be compared to nominal inflection, though all the pronouns are irregular to various degrees.

Singular Plural
Patientive Agentive Genitive Dative Locative Patientive Agentive Genitive Dative Locative
1st ner fenir þar per katir wanhatir hanir tanhatir fanhatir
2nd won wowon faþwon tawon fowon kaþwon wanhaþwon haþwon tanhaþwon fanhaþwon
Hon nat wanat faþnat tanat fanat kaþnat wanhaþnat haþnat tanhaþnat fanhaþnat
3a kan þô nau wan ran tan fan
3i þam nuþam þan taþam puþam


The first three columns contain pronouns (whose inflection I've not worked out yet), and the second three contain adverbs. The semantics of each column are illustrated by the interrogatives given as headings.

who what who/what (pl) where when how
who hamaf koi ham yim þau ham
some pas kis nas yinis þas hamif
other þamaf tai þam þayim taþ þanham
every tanhaþ taram tim him þafam
none wanhaþ fam merim mihim marfam


Verbs inflect for voice (active and mediopassive), and the number (singular and plural) and animacy (animate and inanimate) of their subject. Animacy, however, is only distinguished in the active singular, and not all verbs make the distinction. Verbs optionally inflect for person, but only ever when their subject is a personal pronoun, and these inflections replace the independent pronoun. Furthermore, verbs belong to 4 lexical classes, which determines the form of the affices. Verbal inflection is also characterised by a complex system of vowel apophony (which I'm nowhere near close to figuring out) and mutations.


Disregarding apophony, mutation, and syncope, verbal inflection can be summarised as follows (V represents a stem-final vowel) (note that the class assignment is fairly arbitrary, and liable to change): (WIP)

Active Mediopassive
Sg Anim Sg Inan Plural Singular Plural
Class 1 a i -aþ -am -(a)maþ
a ii -aþ -em -(e)maþ
b i -i- -aþ -am -(a)maþ
b ii -i- -aþ -em -(e)maþ
Class 2 a i -Vu -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
a ii -Vf -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
b i -V- -Vu -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
b ii -V- -Vf -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
Class 3 a i -aþ -am -(a)maþ
a ii -aþ -em -(e)maþ
b i -i- -aþ -am -(a)maþ
b ii -i- -aþ -em -(e)maþ
Class 4 a i -Vu -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
a ii -Vf -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
b i -V- -Vu -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ
b ii -V- -Vf -Vþ -Vm -(V)maþ

Person Marking

When their subject is a personal pronoun, verbs can be marked for the person with a series of prefices. However, final vowels can sometimes mutate in certain phonological environments. A couple of prefices also have variants for the agentive and patientive cases. Additionally, the normal form of the pronoun is not given in the subject slot. Instead, if the subject is in the agentive case, a special particle is employed to fill the slot (but, if the person prefix does have a patientive variant, the particle need not be given). If the subject is in the patientive case, the subject slot is left empty.

The particles and prefices are given below.

Particle Agentive Patientive
1st rV- tV-
2nd won-
Hon nat-
3a kV- wV-
3i þam-
3pl na-

Before m and n, and most instances of r, y, and w, the V in the first person is e, and in the third animate, it's o. Otherwise, they are both u before all front vowels, and some instances of a, and i otherwise. When a prefix ending in a vowel is attached to a vowel-initial verb, the vowel of the prefix is lost.


Cardinal Numerals

0 wam 10 hemef
1 mas 11 hefam 10 hemef 100 þeyem
2 12 hemfê 20 sehemef 200 hereyem
3 fam 13 hemfefam 30 fehemef 300 fereyem
4 tas 14 hefanaþ 40 tahemef 400 tareyem
5 þam 15 hefþam 50 þamhemef 500 þamþeyem
6 toi 16 hefenþoi 60 toihemef 600 toiþeyem
7 tafam 17 hefanþafam 70 tafhemef 700 tafþeyem
8 sanaþ 18 hemfeyanaþ 80 senþahemef 800 senþareyem
9 saþam 19 hemfêþam 90 saþamhemef 900 saþamþeyem

The other numbers 21-99 are formed by replacing the -hemef element with the appropriate teen. Thus, 42 tahemfê. Numbers greater than 100 are formed by compounding the hundreds with the tens+units. Thus, 429 tareyem sehemfeþam.

Ordinal Numerals

10 heremef
1 fanis 11 hefram 10 heremef 100 þêrem
2 sim 12 hefnê 20 seheremef 200 herêrem
3 ferem 13 hemfefrem 30 feheremef 300 ferêrem
4 þanis 14 hefranaþ 40 taheremef 400 tarêrem
5 þaram 15 hefþaram 50 þamheremef 500 þamþêrem
6 þanê 16 hefeþanê 60 toiheremef 600 toiþêrem
7 tafrem 17 hefanþafrem 70 tafheremef 700 tafþêrem
8 seranaþ 18 hemfêranaþ 80 senþaheremef 800 senþarêrem
9 saþaram 19 hemfêþaram 90 saþamheremef 900 saþamþêrem

The other ordinals are formed in the same way as the corresponding cardinals, but with the ordinal forms.

Fractional Numerals

10 tuhemef
11 tuhefam 10 tuhemef 100 þureyem
2 þê 12 tuhemfê 20 þêhemef 200 þûþeyem
3 tufam 13 tuhemfefam 30 tufhemef 300 tufþeyem
4 þanþas 14 tuhefanaþ 40 þenþahemef 400 þanþareyem
5 þeþam 15 tuhefþam 50 þeþamhemef 500 þeþamþeyem
6 þenþoi 16 tuhefenþoi 60 þenþoihemef 600 þanþoiþeyem
7 þanþafam 17 tuhefanþafam 70 þanþafhemef 700 þanþafþeyem
8 þeyanaþ 18 tuhemfeyanaþ 80 þeyenþahemef 800 þeyanþareyem
9 þeyaþam 19 tuhemfêþam 90 þeyaþamhemef 900 þeyaþamþeyem

The other fractional numerals are formed in the same way as the cardinal and ordinal numerals, using fractional forms.



Noun Phrases

Noun phrases in Sanap Þoi consist of an inflected noun, zero or more adjectives, an optional demonstrative, and zero or more oblique phrases. The adjectives and demonstrative must follow the noun in that order, while oblique phrases may go on both sides of the phrase. However, they must always be the outermost element.


The default word order is A(=agent)P(=patient)V, with indirect objects and modifiers following the verb. However, when the agent is a pronoun, a particle with several allomorphs with complex distribution is placed in the agent slot. This can be replaced by the full agentive pronoun for emphasis. When an intransitive verb takes a patientive argument, and that argument is a pronoun, no particle is placed in the sole argument slot, and the patientive pronoun can be used for emphasis. Negation is done by placing the particle immediately before the verb, and interrogation by placing the particle immediately after.


Coordinate conjunction simply conjoin two clauses with no changes to each. Subordinate conjunctions, on the other hand, change the word order of their head clause. The relative conjunction moves its head noun to the very end of the parent clause, and moves indirect objects and modifiers before the verb. The complement conjunction takes the place of the patient of a transitive verb, and also moves indirect objects and modifiers before the verb.


See the Lexicon.