| To Be Continued...|
Zju is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
| Pyvyy |
|Period||c. 0 YP|
|Spoken in||southwestern Tuysáfa|
|Basic word order||unknown|
- 1 Dialect division
- 2 Phonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Lexicon
Pyvyy forms a dialect continuum, with no two isoglosses quite overlapping each other. In this article four dialects will be presented - central, eastern, southern and north-western, abbreviated as C, E, S and NW respectively. They hold much of the dialectal variation.
When none of the designated abbreviation appears next to a feature, it is assumed to be present everywhere.
A unified orthography will be used, even if it's not the best choice for individual dialects, so as to save space.
|stop||p b||t d||k g|
|sonorant||ʋ ‹v›||l ɾ ‹r›||ɭ||j|
|nasalised sonorant||w̃ ‹ŵ›||l̃ ɾ̃ ‹lⁿ rⁿ›||ɭ̃ ‹ɭⁿ›||j̃ ‹ĵ›|
- /s z/ are apico-alveolar [s̺ z̺] in C, E and NW, but are infact post-alveolar [ʃ ʒ] in S and in some northern varieties are realised as [s ʃ] (lamino-dental and post-alveolar voiceless fricatives respectively).
- Each vowel in addition has a long and a nasal counterpart, the former designated by writing the vowel twice, and the latter by a superscript n.
- /e o/ are [e o] in C and S and [ɛ ɔ] in E and NW.
- /ɨ/ is somewhat more central, leaning towards [ə] in S.
Hiatuses are common and handled in different ways in differen varieties.
- When due to inflection two vowels of the same quality happen to be next to each other, they are realised as a single long vowel.
- In C hiatuses are mostly left unresolved.
- In S when the vowels are of different height, they form a diphthong; otherwise, they are seperated by an epenthetic glottal stop.
- In E most vowel clusters form diphthongs and some common tend to merge in a single long vowel. Otherwise aspiration is often present.
- NW allows only for closing falling diphthongs to form. Otherwise the vowels are seperated by a semivowel if either is close and a glottal stop elsewise.
- Word-initially vowels are left as it is, with the exception of E, where they sometimes are preceded by [h].
- Diphthongs are never formed when either vowel is long; instead a glottal stop or a semivowel is usually inserted.
Stress is usually fixed on the first syllable, though in E a long vowel or a diphthong in the second syllable sometimes attracts it, if the first vowel is short and the word is at least trisyllabic.
There is an anticipatory nasalisation in Pyvyy: a vowel and a sonorant will get nasalised if the preceding segment is nasal as well. ŵ is the nasal counterpart of v. Spread nasalisation is blocked by a stop or a fricative.
Usually only the last nasal segment is written as such. (Exact rule about this is still to be decided upon.)
|T||p||t||k||b g||d||s||all sonorants|
There are three declensions: one consonantal and two vocalic. It is arbitrary as to which word ending in a vowel belongs to which declension, though there are some rules of thumb:
- Most nouns ending in a long vowel or a diphthong belong to first vocalic declension.
- Most nouns ending in a short vowel belong to the second vocalic declension.
- Nouns ending in a nasal vowel belonb to declension 1. and those in a long nasal - to declension 1.a; they often have irregularities depending on the dialect.
|G||-Tn / -Tⁿ||-Aⁿ||-Abn³|
¹ V1 has two subclasses for words ending in a long vowel - in subclass b (V1b) the long vowel is shortened elsewhere throughout the paradigm save for N sg.
² Linking -i- becomes -u- after labial consonants for C and after o, u for V1 in all plural caseforms; if the vowel cluster before the linking -i- is two or more morae long, -j- is added and any -u- is reverted back to -i-. If a V2 word ends in -y, that -y becomes -i- in plural caseforms.
³ In NW Pyvyy some irregular 2. declension nouns take the ending -ŵ instead of -bn.
Nasal segments that arise due to inflection are usually not written as such as to retain maximum orthographic proximity to the uninflected word.
|Consonantal stems¹||Vocalic stems²|
|SG||-y³||-i, -u, -jy⁴|
|PL||-ty⁵||-ity, -uty, -ty⁶|
|PST.PAS.PL||-oŵyⁿty ¹⁰||-ĵoŵyⁿty ¹⁰|
|COND.PL||-yty ¹²||-ty ¹²|
|COND.PAS.PL||-yŵyⁿty ¹³||-ŵyⁿty ¹³|
¹ Single stem final consonants lenite in all forms except for PL, PAS.SG and PAS.PL and the participle.
² Stem final -a -y change to -o -u everywhere except for the participle.
³ -y becomes -i after s z. This is valid for all present and conditional endings.
⁴ e i o u become ei ii ou uu. Verbs ending in two vowels take -jy instead.
⁵ Verbs ending in a consonant cluster take the ending -yty. Verbs ending in a single -t or -d take only -y.
⁶ The singular form +ty for single vowel stem verbs.
⁷ In S and C verbs ending in a single consonant take -n instead.
⁸ NW has -oi -ĵoi instead.
⁹ S has -joty instead.
¹⁰ E has alternative short forms -oⁿty -ĵoⁿty.
¹¹ In NW the stem vowel is lengthened and nasalised instead. Already long vowel takes -ĵiⁿ. In C long vowel also takes -ĵiⁿ as ending, in S and E it takes -ĵi.
¹² NW -yyty -ːty, C -yty -ty, E -yyⁿty -iⁿty, S -yyty -ity
¹³ E has alternative short forms -yⁿty -ⁿty.
- Conditional mood can also be used as future tense.
Irregular verbs and irregularities in conjugation
Verbs in Central Pyvyy:
|Present||zaidy zaity zaitn zaityⁿty|
|Past||zaido zaidoty zaidoŵ zaidoŵyⁿty|
|Conditional||zaidyyⁿ zaidyty zaidyŵ zaidyŵyⁿty|
|bo 'be wet'|
|Present||bou bouty boⁿ boⁿty|
|Past||boĵo boĵoty boĵoŵ boĵoŵyⁿty|
|Conditional||boiⁿ boty boŵ boŵyⁿty|
It is structured as follows:
- Entries are organized by meaning.
- When one word has the same phonetic shape everywhere, it is given as the sole word.
- When the phonetic shape varies by region with variation that is not specified in the respective section, the most common phonetic shape is given first, followed by NW C E S in this order.
- Sometimes it is different in all of the four represented varieties.
- When a dialectal word is given a subentry, most specific features of that dialect are usually written.
- After each word its irregular forms and inflection types are given, if necessary.
- Meanings peculiar to a dialect are denoted as such.
- When two or more words from different dialects are close in phonetic shape, but differ by meaning, they are given seperate entries.
- When there is no meaning unpreceded by any of NW C E S it means that either the word is different in all varieties, or it is absent from some.