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To Be Continued...
Zju is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
Period c. 0 YP
Spoken in southwestern Tuysáfa
Total speakers unknown
Writing system none
Classification Leic
Basic word order unknown
Morphology unknown
Alignment unknown
Created by Zju

Pyvyy is a Leic language spoken in southwestern Tuysáfa.

Dialect division

Pyvyy forms a dialect continuum, with no two isoglosses quite overlapping each other. In this article four dialects will be presented - central, eastern, southern and north-western, abbreviated as C, E, S and NW respectively. They hold much of the dialectal variation.

When none of the designated abbreviation appears next to a feature, it is assumed to be present everywhere.


A unified orthography will be used, even if it's not the best choice for individual dialects, so as to save space.


Sound inventory


labial dental retroflex palatal velar
nasal m n ŋ
stop p b t d k g
fricative s z
sonorant ʋ ‹v› l ɾ ‹r› ɭ j
nasalised sonorant w̃ ‹ŵ› l̃ ɾ̃ ‹lⁿ rⁿ› ɭ̃ ‹ɭⁿ› j̃ ‹ĵ›
  • /s z/ are apico-alveolar [s̺ z̺] in C, E and NW, but are infact post-alveolar [ʃ ʒ] in S and in some northern varieties are realised as [s ʃ] (lamino-dental and post-alveolar voiceless fricatives respectively).


front central back
close i ɨ ‹y› u
mid e o
open a
  • Each vowel in addition has a long and a nasal counterpart, the former designated by writing the vowel twice, and the latter by a superscript n.
  • /e o/ are [e o] in C and S and [ɛ ɔ] in E and NW.
  • /ɨ/ is somewhat more central, leaning towards [ə] in S.


Hiatuses are common and handled in different ways in differen varieties.

  • When due to inflection two vowels of the same quality happen to be next to each other, they are realised as a single long vowel.
  • In C hiatuses are mostly left unresolved.
  • In S when the vowels are of different height, they form a diphthong; otherwise, they are seperated by an epenthetic glottal stop.
  • In E most vowel clusters form diphthongs and some common tend to merge in a single long vowel. Otherwise aspiration is often present.
  • NW allows only for closing falling diphthongs to form. Otherwise the vowels are seperated by a semivowel if either is close and a glottal stop elsewise.
  • Word-initially vowels are left as it is, with the exception of E, where they sometimes are preceded by [h].
  • Diphthongs are never formed when either vowel is long; instead a glottal stop or a semivowel is usually inserted.


Stress is usually fixed on the first syllable, though in E a long vowel or a diphthong in the second syllable sometimes attracts it, if the first vowel is short and the word is at least trisyllabic.

Spread nasalisation

There is an anticipatory nasalisation in Pyvyy: a vowel and a sonorant will get nasalised if the preceding segment is nasal as well. ŵ is the nasal counterpart of v. Spread nasalisation is blocked by a stop or a fricative.

Usually only the last nasal segment is written as such. (Exact rule about this is still to be decided upon.)


T p t k b g d s all sonorants
L b d g v l z


Nominal morphology

There are three declensions: one consonantal and two vocalic. It is arbitrary as to which word ending in a vowel belongs to which declension, though there are some rules of thumb:

  • Most nouns ending in a long vowel or a diphthong belong to first vocalic declension.
  • Most nouns ending in a short vowel belong to the second vocalic declension.
  • Nouns ending in a nasal vowel belonb to declension 1. and those in a long nasal - to declension 1.a; they often have irregularities depending on the dialect.
C V1¹ V2
N -T -A -A
G -Tn / -Tⁿ -Aⁿ -Abn³
D -Tmu -Avu -Aa
N pl² -Liŋa -Aiŋa -Aŋa
G pl -Liⁿ -Aiⁿ -Aⁿ
D pl -Livu -Aivu -Avu

¹ V1 has two subclasses for words ending in a long vowel - in subclass b (V1b) the long vowel is shortened elsewhere throughout the paradigm save for N sg.

² Linking -i- becomes -u- after labial consonants for C and after o, u for V1 in all plural caseforms; if the vowel cluster before the linking -i- is two or more morae long, -j- is added and any -u- is reverted back to -i-. If a V2 word ends in -y, that -y becomes -i- in plural caseforms.

³ In NW Pyvyy some irregular 2. declension nouns take the ending -ŵ instead of -bn.


mas oŵuɭ koou puly
water head cobbler inhabitant
G masn oŵuɭⁿ koouⁿ pulybn
D masmu oŵuɭmu koouvu pulya
N pl maziŋa oŵuiŋa kooujiŋa puliŋa
G pl maziⁿ oŵuiⁿ kooujiⁿ puliⁿ
D pl mazivu oŵuivu kooujivu pulivu

Nasal segments that arise due to inflection are usually not written as such as to retain maximum orthographic proximity to the uninflected word.


N I jy ji you mu he, she bi it sa
G jybn jibn jibm mubn mubm bibn baⁿ biⁿ saⁿ
D jya ĵia jia ĵia muvu bia savu
N we ĵiŋty ĵinty ĵiⁿty you muŋty munty muⁿty they boŋty bonty boⁿty they na naŋty nanty na
G jign jigŋ mugn mugŋ bogn bogŋ nagn nagŋ
D ĵimu ĵiŋu ĵimu mumu muŋu mumu bomu boŋu bomu navu namu navu namu

Verbal morphology

Regular verbs

Consonantal stems¹ Vocalic stems²
Participle -∅ -∅
SG -y³ -i, -u, -jy⁴
PL -ty⁵ -ity, -uty, -ty⁶
PAS.SG -yⁿ ⁷ -ⁿ
PAS.PL -yⁿty -ⁿty
PST.SG -o⁸ -ĵo⁸
PST.PL -oty -ĵoty⁹
PST.PAS.SG -oŵ -ĵoŵ
PST.PAS.PL -oŵyⁿty ¹⁰ -ĵoŵyⁿty ¹⁰
COND.SG -yyⁿ -iⁿ ¹¹
COND.PL -yty ¹² -ty ¹²
COND.PAS.PL -yŵyⁿty ¹³ -ŵyⁿty ¹³

¹ Single stem final consonants lenite in all forms except for PL, PAS.SG and PAS.PL and the participle.

² Stem final -a -y change to -o -u everywhere except for the participle.

³ -y becomes -i after s z. This is valid for all present and conditional endings.

e i o u become ei ii ou uu. Verbs ending in two vowels take -jy instead.

⁵ Verbs ending in a consonant cluster take the ending -yty. Verbs ending in a single -t or -d take only -y.

⁶ The singular form +ty for single vowel stem verbs.

⁷ In S and C verbs ending in a single consonant take -n instead.

⁸ NW has -oi -ĵoi instead.

⁹ S has -joty instead.

¹⁰ E has alternative short forms -oⁿty -ĵoⁿty.

¹¹ In NW the stem vowel is lengthened and nasalised instead. Already long vowel takes -ĵiⁿ. In C long vowel also takes -ĵiⁿ as ending, in S and E it takes -ĵi.

¹² NW -yyty -ːty, C -yty -ty, E -yyⁿty -iⁿty, S -yyty -ity

¹³ E has alternative short forms -yⁿty -ⁿty.

  • Conditional mood can also be used as future tense.

Irregular verbs and irregularities in conjugation


Verbs in Central Pyvyy:

zait 'separate'
Present zaidy zaity zaitn zaityⁿty
Past zaido zaidoty zaidoŵ zaidoŵyⁿty
Conditional zaidyyⁿ zaidyty zaidyŵ zaidyŵyⁿty
bo 'be wet'
Present bou bouty boⁿ boⁿty
Past boĵo boĵoty boĵoŵ boĵoŵyⁿty
Conditional boiⁿ boty boŵ boŵyⁿty


It is structured as follows:

  • Entries are organized by meaning.
  • When one word has the same phonetic shape everywhere, it is given as the sole word.
  • When the phonetic shape varies by region with variation that is not specified in the respective section, the most common phonetic shape is given first, followed by NW C E S in this order.
    • Sometimes it is different in all of the four represented varieties.
    • When a dialectal word is given a subentry, most specific features of that dialect are usually written.
  • After each word its irregular forms and inflection types are given, if necessary.
  • Meanings peculiar to a dialect are denoted as such.
  • When two or more words from different dialects are close in phonetic shape, but differ by meaning, they are given seperate entries.
  • When there is no meaning unpreceded by any of NW C E S it means that either the word is different in all varieties, or it is absent from some.

Sample nouns

Meaning Stem NW C E S
plague 2 aɭgu
cauldron 1 bie
blood 2 dou
breeder C gyk
leather 1 jido jydo
midwife C kauk
cobbler 1 koou ko‘au
spider 1b koŋtyy kontyy koⁿtyy koŋtyy
fire 2 kuvu
sun 1 ɭⁿya
wall C ɭyt
water C mas
cow C mug
head C oŵuɭ
mood 1 pia
inhabitant 2 puly puuly puly pauly
wrist 1 salⁿa
light 2 uŋy
sailor C ŵoed
year 1a ŵuu
husband 2 yⁿbo
fisherman 1b zaa
be big ejy
be long avu
be small sijaa
man 2 nuvu
woman 2 ŋuŋu
fish C ŵuĵij
bird 2 beĵa
dog 2 beŋy
louse 2 jyɭgu
tree 2 ŵoi
skin 2 yⁿza
flesh 2 gazazi
bone 1a ĵaa
tail 2 ŵiŵo
feather 2 bevi
hair 2 vibi
ear 2 nopu
eye 2 ady
nose 2 ŵeŵu
tooth 1 zao
tongue 1 zaiga
foot 2 vuvu
knee 2 imu inu imu
hand 2 ijy
neck C tuk
spike 1 zaŵo
king 2 jary
horse 1b saa
star 1a saa
bracelet 1 moa
flame 2 kizi
eel 1 isizo
be sparp syraa
egg C beb
ram 2 tai
sell tuo
guest 2 syryvu
spinster C nuis
moss 1 pia pio pihoo pai‘o
branch 1 uo
doll 1 amio