Proto-Western/Lexicon

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Written by Dewrad.

Following is the Proto-Western lexicon as it currently stands, at 328 words. Of course, as more words are added to the lexicon, be they new roots or derived from existing ones, this page will be updated. Nominals and verbs are both given in their citation forms- the unmarked absolutive singular for the former and the bare root for the latter. Where a nominal is followed by a hyphen, this indicates that the nominal in question obligatorily takes a classifier.

Abbreviations

This lexicon makes use of the following abbreviations as guides to parts of speech:

v.it intransitive verb
v.mt monotransitive verb
v.dt ditransitive verb
n nominal
n.ip inalienably possessed nominal
n.coll collective nominal
adv adverb
pre adjectival prefix
pp postposition
par particle

Lexicon

Proto-Western part of speech gloss
bakʰe n holiness
bebesa v.mt split
bẽdza v.mt know
besa v.mt cut
besadzũ n knife
błama v.it fart
blũła n.ip belly
ca par and
caca par moreover
cał par also
čeka v.it sit
čekadza v.mt seat
čelda v.mt see
čełdza n heart
čʰe- n that over there (visible)
čʰekʰã n earth
čʰepʰu n deer
čʰilpu n.ip arm
čʰiłta v.dt teach
cʰuy adv yesterday
čika- pre yellow
činu- pre full
čiye v.mt want
cuba n fruit
cupʰu v.mt itch, irritate
cupʰudaya n louse
da- n that near you
dãbu- pre thick
dadłe n here
dalã v.it swim, fly
daγa v.it shout
daγadza v.mt call to
dła pp for
dłeʔa n land
dłeʔka n tribe
dłũ- pre long
dudže n sky
duk par therefore
duγa- pre good
dzači v.mt say
dzalã v.mt stab
dzaldayã n bird
dzaldayãʔu ʔilsa n.ip wing
dzama- pre red
dže pp through
dže- n this near me
džẽsa v.mt dance
džet par however
dzĩči- pre straight
džiña n.ip fingernail
džĩʔĩ n bee
džĩʔĩkʰa n honey, sweetness
džũbłi n.ip breast
dzupʰu v.mt gather, hunt, collect, fish
ka pp on behalf of
kaca n friend
kačʰa pre soil, make dirty
kačʰi- pre dirty
kamã v.mt fear
katʰa- pre correct
kãʔči pp towards
ke pp to
kʰakʷʰa v.it laugh
kʰakʷʰadza v.mt mock
kʰalu v.mt tie, fasten
kʰapa n tree
kʰapacũ n forest
kʰawa- pre narrow
kʰaya n fire
kʰayałacũ n ashes
kʰayałpa v.mt burn
kʰãʔa- pre black
kʰeči par instead
kʰełka n.coll stone
kʰelna n horn
kʰesa n dung
kʰesałpa v.it defecate
kʰetu v.it lie down
kʰetudza v.mt place
kʰeya n.coll soil
kʰeyakʷi n.coll sand
kʰeyasłũ n wall, rampart
kʰeybu n worm
kʰibła- pre dry
kʰiña- pre together
kʰiñã- pre thin
kʰiñatʰa v.mt build, put together, create
kʰułda n boat
kʰulpa v.mt hunt
kʰulu n anus
kiʔka adv continuously
kłače n mix
kłãke n skin
kłama n.coll berries
kłephã n wild animal, game
kłutʰa- pre short
kluwa n.ip leg
kuda v.it sleep
kʷadu n.ip tail
kʷe par but
kʷẽdu n.ip head
kʷekʷu v.mt cook
kʷela n child
kʷʰeyta n.ip womb
kʷi- n (cataphoric stem)
kʷisa v.mt squeeze, press
kʷisa v.it make felt
kʷucu pp after, behind
kʷułu n wolf
kyupʰe n water
la n.ip husband
la n man
lãca n egg
lãca- n many
łakʷa- pre near
lalaña v.mt dig
lałka n.ip ear
lãma- pre warm
laña v.mt scratch
łãši n horse
lãsu n.ip back
lat pp under
laʔpa v.mt steal
łaγa n.ip eye
łãγa n spirit
łãγa n.ip soul
łãγlawa n priest
laγʷa n smoke
leypʰa v.mt wipe
łina n lake
łiya n snake
łiyałpa v.mt heal
lũma v.mt grind, mill
lumẽ n right, east
ma n place, location
madłi n bear
mãdzã n.ip nose
madže n sea
małka- pre sharp
maše v.it shine
Mašeγẽ n moon
mãsu- pre wide
maye- pre rotten
mẽca- n four
medza n dog
mek pp by means of
melã pp along
mełi n.ip tongue
meʔšu v.mt sew
mẽγu n sheep
mĩkʷa- pre wet
mina n.ip mother
miña adv the day before yesterday
mu adv completely
na n I
nãbu v.it think
nače- pre tame
nadũ n left, west
nadže adv rarely
ñałdu- pre dull, blunt
nałtu- n three
nat pp above
ñaye adv frequently
naʔu pp up
nãγu n.ip foot
ñeši- pre smooth
neγla- pre white
nipʰa n fog
pãta v.it find one's way
pãtadzũ n road, path
pʰã par then, next
pʰa- n everyone, everything, all
pʰala v.it swell, grow, become tumescent
pʰala- pre far
pʰapʰaʔta v.mt shoot, hurl as a weapon (note that the DO of this verb is always what is being shot (arrow, spear), not what is being shot at)
pʰaʔta v.mt throw
pʰẽla n cloud
pʰełi n tree bark
pʰeyi n seed
pʰita- pre small
pʰiwa v.it breathe, blow
pʰiwadza v.mt inflate
pʰuda n chief
plãka- pre new
plama n flower
pława v.it walk
pławaʔadzu v.it walk away
sa n we
sabaya v.mt fight
sãk pp inside
sałtĩ adv surprisingly
saw par or
sayi n night
še pp down
šešewa n star
šẽta v.mt sing
šeʔtaʔadza v.it flow away
šeʔtaʔiłca v.it flow towards
ši- n two
šĩda n webbing between the fingers, palm
šĩdałpa v.mt count
šikã v.it stand
šikãdza v.mt stick in the ground
šiwka v.it float
šiwkaʔadza v.it float downstream
sudła adv tomorrow
sũla- pre round
šuwa n.ip guts
ta n you
tabe pp on, at
taka n grass
takadłe n grassland, plain
takala n rope
takʷa- n one
tʰa v.mt do, make
tʰa- n that over there (invisible)
tʰãbu v.it fall
tʰãda- pre cold
tʰadłe n there
tʰatʰa v.mt use
tʰawa v.mt bend
tʰawdzũ n.ip knee
tʰaya n milk
tʰẽʔpi n daughter
tʰuba n root
tʰũdu v.mt have sex with
tʰula n wool
tʰunã n.ip head of the family, father
tʰunyaʔã n.ip uncle, brother, eldest son of the head of the family
tʰuya v.mt become
tłãtłã adv repeatedly
tletle v.it prepare leather
tletle v.mt rub
tłupʰe v.mt find, discover
tłuwa n blood
tuca n house, home
tupi- n few
tyaša n.coll hair
wači- pre steep
wadže v.it die
wadžedza v.mt kill
walca v.mt hit
wapʰa n.coll beans
watya adv the day after tomorrow
wecu v.mt eat vegetables
weta v.it turn
wetłu n liver
wetweʔnã n next year
weʔnã n year
ya- n (anaphoric stem)
yãbu n.ip mouth
yãbułpa v.mt suck
yada- pre old
yaka v.it play
yãki n river
Yama n sun
yamayaʔa n human
yãsa n meat
yaši v.mt hold, own, marry
yatʰa v.mt tend, garden
yatʰapa n garden
ye par not
yeca par and not
yeči n arrow
yedza v.mt push
yeku v.mt eat meat
yekʷe par but not
yelu- n other
yema v.it row
yesaw par nor
yeʔadzu v.it leave
yeʔiłca v.it come
yeʔiłcadza v.mt pull
ʔadya v.mt fear
ʔakʷa v.it rain
ʔałpa n anger, rage
ʔałpadza v.mt anger
ʔału v.mt smell
ʔama pp with
ʔašẽ n.ip wife
ʔašẽ n woman
ʔẽda v.dt give
ʔel par because
ʔẽta n feather
ʔey pp if
ʔičʰa v.mt fish
ʔida- pre slow
ʔiłma pp without
ʔilsa n.ip hand
ʔĩye n name
ʔudza- n five
ʔũta n.ip tooth
ʔũtałpa v.mt bite
ʔuwa n vomit
ʔuwałpa v.it vomit
ʔuya n pain
ʔuyadza v.mt cause pain
γãdže- pre big
γalši n.ip neck
γaña n leaf
γaw pp outside
γaʔle n.coll salt
γedže v.it run
γelši n fat, grease
γema- pre bad
γipa- n some
γiše n day
γĩwa n pine
γiya v.mt hear
γlaʔta v.mt milk
γłuna- pre green
γuči n fish
γũka n pig
γulši n.coll millet
γʷałka n spit
γʷałkałpa v.it spit
γʷałki v.mt wash
γʷãsu n bone
γʷeku- pre quick
γʷekudu n eagle
γʷełbu n slave
γʷeley n mountain
γʷeye n hill
γʷibe v.mt drink
γʷĩta n wind
γʷiwa v.it live, be alive
γʷiwadza v.mt give birth to, engender
γʷuye- pre heavy

Derivational morphology

Yeah, I know examples would help.

Reconstructing a secure set of derivational morphemes is somewhat difficult, as the daughter languages innovated considerably in this area. However, we can identify twenty-one morphemes which we can be relatively certain that they were productive in the protolanguage. In the following list, V represents a vowel identical to the final vowel of the base word's stem, e.g. yãki + -ʔayV- > yãkiʔayi.

-ʔayV- Derives a stative verb from a nominal.
-łpa- Derives a non-stative verb from a nominal, whose meaning is related to the base.
-dayV- Derives animate agent-nouns from verbs.
-dzũ- Added to verbs, this suffix produces a nominal indicating the tool by which the base process is carried out.
-γʷĩ- Nominalises verbs.
-ła- Added to verbs, this produces a nominal indicating the result of a verb.
-cu- This derives adverbs from nominals and verbs.
-dza- This suffix increases the valence of a verb by one- creating causatives and transitives.
-ʔiłca- This suffix indicates that the motion of the root is towards the "focus" point (which is often, but not always, the speaker).
-ʔadzu- This suffix indicates the opposite of the preceding, motion away from the focus point.
-tu- This suffix derives nominals from other nominals, the resulting word being an abstract nominal. Something like English -ness.
-kʰa- Added to nominals, this suffix produces nominals which have a relation in some way to the base word.
-słu- Added to nominals, this suffix indicates an object which is made of the referent of the base word.
-γẽ- Derives nominals indicating location, either the location of an action or another nominal.
-du- Derives augmentive/honorific nominals.
-kʷi- Derives diminutives.
-lawV- Added to nominals, this suffix produces nominals referring to people who have a connection in some way to the base word.
-la- and -cũ- Both of these suffixes derived nominals indicating a collection of bases. The two seem to have been interchangeable, although it has been theorised that originally -cũ- was restricted to edible nouns.
-kĩ- Derived the female equivalent of a masculine base nominal.
-yaʔV- Added to nominals, this suffix indicates a descendant or offspring of the base.