Proto-Eigə-Isthmus/Lexicon

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  • There's one variable: *O = {*o, *wa, *we, *wo}.
  • Words given in red are attested in both Isthmus and Eigə Valley; words in black are currently only attested in Isthmus; words in green are currently only attested in Eigə Valley.
  • A little semantic change has been applied here and there, but not enough for realism.


  • *-ʔa (active voice suffix)
  • *ʔas(-) (?genitive marker)
  • *ʔat 'great(ly), strong(ly)'
  • *-ʔi (causative voice suffix)
  • *ʔij[s/z], *ŋij[s/z] ? 'speak, talk, word, tongue' [> Meshi aysu 'speak, communicate' - includes stem *-ʔaw (middle of active) or *-ʔu (middle)]
  • *ʔiwt, *ju(w)t, *riwt 'hold, own'
  • *-ʔu (middle/anticausative voice suffix)
  • *ʔum (?genitive marker)


  • *bad 'father'
  • *bas 'smooth, flat'
  • *beŋ 'what'
  • *bin 'nothing'
  • *blen 'face'
  • *bru(w), *dru(w), *gru(w) 'little' [> Proto-Isthmus diminutive suffix *-ɖu]


  • *da 'I' (1SG)
  • *d(z)alg, *tsalg 'think, know, be aware of' [> FMiw talgu: 'remember' - includes stem *-ʔaw (middle of active) or *-ʔu (middle)]]
  • *d(l/z)aw number, count
  • *d(l)en, *d(l)ajn 'many, large quantity' [> OEMiw -ten 'many', Meshi chima]
  • *-di (deverbal suffix) [> Faraghin participial ending -d, Ngauro & OEMiw action nominalizer -ti]
  • *dik ? 'make, form'
  • *dim 'give' (with causative voice)
  • *dludz '(be) awake'
  • *dlum 'tell about' [> Faraghin druman 'denounce (to the king)', OEMiw hearsay particle tu:zi]
  • *drujθ 'move suddenly, flare' [> Faraghin rifan 'scare', OEMiw traf 'fire']


  • *dzim ? (second element of a Faraghin compound meaning 'honor')
  • *dzusn '(be) red'


  • *ða, *ðe ? 'girl, daughter'
  • *ða(r)j 'dance'
  • *ðog 'set down'
  • *ðuθ, *ðawθ honour


  • *-ga ? (nominalizing suffix)
  • *gad 'flow, float' [> Faraghin gars 'boat', Ngauro kasd 'stream']
  • *gewd, *gwed ? 'young, younger brother'
  • *gi (element in a compound meaning 'the moon'; related to the following)
  • *gijr 'powerful, numinous'
  • *gop 'take, carry'
  • *gwent 'to fly'
  • *gug, *gawg ? 'jar, cup, container; clay' [> Meshi kug 'jar']
  • *guj 'sharp, hurt'
  • *gu(r/w)n 'old, ?honored'
  • *gurk, *gurt(s) 'we' (1PL)
  • *gu(w)d 'grandchild; descend (from an ancestor)'


  • *-k (?nominalizer)
  • *kard(z), *karg, *kOrd(z), *kOrg 'good'
  • *kat 'amuse'
  • *kej, *ke(r/w)ŋ 'who' (interrogative)
  • *kid '(be) angry'
  • *kijb 'eat'
  • *ke(j)[(t)s/(d)z]-, *ki[(t)s/(d)z] ? 'soil, defecate' [> Meshi gise 'defecate', possibly j-grade and probably includes stem *-ʔuj (causative of middle)]
  • *kit ? (first element of a Faraghin compound meaning 'honor')
  • *kju(r/w)s, k(w)irs, *k(w)iws ? (first element of a Faraghin compound meaning 'bequeath')
  • *k(l)ijl 'seize, capture, ?defeat'
  • *klo(w)n 'guts, ?boldness'
  • *kra, *pra, *tra ? 'repeat, do repeatedly'
  • *kri(ts), *pri(ts), *tri(ts) ? 'over, cover'
  • *kruk, *pruk, *truk 'clench, make a fist'
  • *ku(r/w)n 'malevolent spirit'


  • *lab/d/gru(r/w), *larb(u(r/w)), *lard/gu(r/w) ? '(be) free'
  • *li 'song, sing'
  • *lu(w)dz 'they' (3PL)
  • *lu(w)p 'lie, deceive'


  • *mag, *meg 'boil' [> Far. dumagh 'glass', OEMiw qwa:meti 'leaf-boiling, tea'; possibly related to *meg 'behave badly' (see below)]
  • *maws, *mos 'house'
  • *meg ? 'behave badly' [> Faraghin maghačan 'loot, take as booty', OEMiw me:g 'be loud, be rowdy'; possibly a metaphorical use of *mag, *meg 'boil' (see above)]
  • *m[ew/iw/uj]t ? 'female, woman' [> Meshi met 'woman']
  • *min 'son'
  • *mis 'this' (deictic)
  • *mun 'soft'
  • *mu(w)dz 'blood'


  • *na-ga 'lord, chief'
  • *nak ? 'outside'
  • *nidz 'weak'
  • *nij, *niŋ ? 'place'
  • *njadz-ga 'fighting, war'
  • *njo(r/w), *ŋO(r/w) 'he/she' (3SG)
  • *nO(w)-po(w)l ? 'be bored' (possibly a Faraghin compound)


  • *pat 'one'
  • *pew 'people'
  • *piw(ts), *pju(w)(ts) ? 'not' (> Faraghin negative prefix)
  • *pleg 'meet'
  • *plu(r/w)n ? 'stab, slash'
  • *puj 'clean, be clean'
  • *puw(s)g 'make' (? cf. FMiw bizgi: 'sacrifice')


  • *ridz ? '(domestic) animal'
  • *rits ? (> Isthmus locative postposition)
  • *rujn ? 'like, similar'


  • *sanu(C), *sam[t(s)/d(z)]u(C) ? 'village, house, home' [> Meshi *sanu 'village']
  • *siŋ 'holy' [> Meshi Meshi from *(ʔu)m-pew-siŋ]
  • *s-its ? 'holder, user'
  • *sO(r/w)n 'fire'
  • *sud 'circle, go around'
  • *su(r/w) ? (second element of a PI compound 'lord of X' meaning 'bear'-- maybe 'forest' or 'hills'?)


  • *te(w)t, *θe(w)t 'rule, method'
  • *tidz, *θidz 'great'
  • *til, *θil ? (second element of a Faraghin compound meaning 'bequeath')
  • *tjo(r/w)n(t) 'left hand'
  • *tlujb 'marry' (possibly j-grade of a root *tlub 'be married')
  • *tsw[i/ej], *dzw[i/ej], *dlw[i/ej] hot
  • *tartar, *terter, *tortor, *θarθar, *θerθer, *θorθor ? 'sister'
  • *tow ? 'sand'
  • *trelk 'king, chief'
  • *tujn, *θujn 'thou' (2SG)
  • *tu(n)d, *θu(n)d 'watch, tend'
  • *twik, *ts(w)ik, *θwik 'call, name'


  • *tsimp 'twist'
  • *tswa 'gold'
  • *tsujθ 'sea, coast'
  • *tsurn 'two'


  • *θur, *θawr tree


  • *-wa (plural suffix)
  • *we(r/w) 'you' (2PL)


  • *za(-) (dative/locative marker)
  • *zant 'decide, judge'
  • *zwir(k/t/ts) ? (element in a compound meaning 'the moon'; maybe by itself it means 'star')