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To Be Continued...
Zju is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
Period ~ 1000 YP
Spoken in western Tuysáfa
Total speakers unknown
Writing system none
Classification Leic
Basic word order SOV
Morphology fusional, slightly agglutinative
Alignment accusative
Created by Zju

Changes from Áżädgä

  • ɨ ɨː > ə əː
  • In cases where 1.PL ends in 2.PL is extended with .
  • Methatheses in certain word-initial consonant clusters - on euphonic principles:
    • dm > md / #_V
    • fx fs fʃ > xf sf ʃf / #_V
    • bg bgʷ > gb / #_V
    • lɲ > ɲl / #_V
    • mc mk mg mv > cm km gm vm / #_V
    • ɣb ɣd ɣdm > bɣ dɣ mdɣ / #_V
  • C Cː > əC əːC - Loss of syllabic consonants, C stands for any syllabic continuant.
  • The marker for I class nouns -b(-) is dropped when preceded by z, this makes -z(-) the regular marker of I class nouns with the few I class nouns retaining -b(-) becoming irregular. The marker -z(-) is not dropped in up-to-now class-independant case endings, creating a new declensional dichotomy.
  • V[+half long] > V[+short] - loss of half-long (long) vowels in monovocalic words.
    • This sounc change occured simultaneously with the previous one, with their interaction giving rise to inconsistent correspondencies of the type TVˑTR > TVTəR ~ TVːTəR. It also created paradigmatic length alternations of the type TVT ~ TVːTV(T), where T is any number of consonants.
  • ə əː ɑ ɑː> u uː ɔ ɔː / Cʷ_ - rounding.
  • Cʷ > C - loss of labialisation.
  • j̃ w̃ r̃ ṽ l̃ > j w r v l - loss of nasalised sonorants.
  • ə a ɑ ɛ ɔ > ɐ æ ɒ ɛ ɔ > a ɛ ɔ e o - vowel chain shift.
    • ɐ > ɪ > i / _($$)*$[+stress], $[+stress]($$)*_, #_[-stress], ! _# - unstressed ɐ becomes i when it's even number of syllables away from the stress, always word initially when unstressed and never word finally. This sound change takes place before the second part of the previous one.
  • Irregular negative prefix imbá- simplifies to imá- or má-, depending on the variety.
  • n > ŋ / _C[+velar]
  • ŋ > n / _C[-velar]
  • t͡ɕ d͡ʑ ɕ > t͡s d͡z s
  • T[+voice] > T[-voice] - loss of voicing due to adstratum influence.
  • p͡ɸ t͡s t͡ss t͡ʃ t͡ʃʃ k͡x > f s ts ʃ tʃ x
  • [+stop] > ∅ / [+sonorant]_([+fricative])#
  • T[-voice] > T[+voice] / V_V
  • e o > ɛ ɔ / _C*a
  • e o > i u
  • ɣ > h
  • t > t͡ʃ / _{i u}
  • ts tʃ > t͡s t͡ʃ
    • t͡s t͡ʃ > s ʃ / _[-continuant]
    • t͡s > t͡ʃ / _V[+front]
    • t͡s > s


Phonemic inventory


labial dental post-alveolar
and palatal
velar glottal
nasal m n ɲ ņ
p t t͡ʃ ț k
fricative f s ʃ ș x h
sonorant w l r j
  • /x/ and /h/ contrast only word initially before a vowel. Elsewhere they are in complementary distribution - [h] appears intervocally and [x] everywhere else.


front central back
close i u
open-mid ɛ e ɔ o
open ä a
  • Vowels can be long - length is indicated by writing the same vowel twice.


Stress is phonemic and is marked with acute accent. Stress is not marked when:

  • It falls on the first syllable.
  • It falls on a long vowel.


All obstruents, except for /x/, voice intervocally; /x/ debuccalises intervocally to [h] instead.



Stress is dynamic and phonemic. Suffixal syllables may attract stress if immediately after the stressed syllable - that is a property of the suffix. If the stress is attracted and the formerly stressed nucleus was long, it shortens and the newly stressed nucleus lengthens.


The copula

With the copula the continuous tenses are used for locations and temporary states, whereas the simple tenses are used for permanent states.

  • Present continuous & present simple
PrC Sg Pl Neg Sg Neg Pl
1. jem jens imném imnéns
2. aaņe jes maaņe imnés
3. je maņ imné
PrS Sg Pl Neg Sg Neg Pl
1. joosim joosme imájusam imájusme
2. jooș jooste imájuș imájuste
3. joos joose imájus imájuse
  • Past continuous & past simple
PaC Sg Pl Neg Sg Neg Pl
1. pofkim poofkme imápufkam imápufkme
2. pofkis poofkse imápufkas imápufkse
3. pofk poofke imápufk imápufke
PaS Sg Pl Neg Sg Neg Pl
1. pofim poofme imápufam imápufme
2. pof poofse imápuf imápufse
3. pof poofe imápuf imápufe
  • Deontic moods
PaS Sg Pl Neg Sg Neg Pl
Hortative - (im)faams
- imimfaams
Imperative amf
amfis imámf
Optative aamfe imaamfe