Kibülʌiṅ/Lexicon

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In stems cited with final (b) or (g) or (j), this consonant appears only before suffixal (not clitical) nonhigh vowels. A final bracketed vowel before a liquid appears only before suffixal consonants. A superscripted consonant after a stem cited with final glottalised C is the underlying consonant; if there is a superscripted vowel as well, this is the root vowel and the citation form has a lowered vowel.

The annotation "(par)" on derived verbs stands for 'past as root': initial reduplication doesn't affect past formations.

  • ʌra n. (always with sex suffixes) paramour (< Merneha)
  • ajub- past ajubīṅ v. fall, (with agent) drop, throw back (of a fish)
  • aŋ n. flower, blossom
    • aŋʌṅjaṅr n. bee (< 'one who goes about the flowers')
  • aro' üt n. ocean, sea
    • arüjīṅ- past arüjīṅjei- v. swim. redup 'swim around'
  • ārethar- v. be tired
  • cecir n. groin, crotch (< Merneha)
  • cijer n. star (< Merneha)
  • ciri n. kitten; young of cats and certain other animals (< Merneha)
  • ccaüṅn- adv. however, nonetheless (< *ts-ax-mn-)
  • cceŋiṅ- past cceŋiṅnt- v. speak (cf. kejar-)
    • cceceŋiṅ- (par) v. chatter
    • cceŋiṅmei n. ~forum
  • ccerak- v. be strong, be fortified (of something built), (with agent) fortify
    • cceraguṅweiṅ n. strong place, fort
  • ccethar' n. spirit, vital principle; ~apparition
  • ccüi- past ccüiṅt- past2 ccüith- 'quenched one's thirst' v. drink
  • e- adv. therefore, so
  • egʌp- v. flinch, start(le), jerk
    • ēgʌp- v. shake, shudder
  • eintel' n. joint, (esp.) shoulder
    • eintel- past eintelǖ- v. join, connect
    • eintelīṅ- past eintelīṅjei- v. go (redup: about aimlessly) among the trees in the forest canopy
  • ekleiŋ' n n. rope
  • elo num. eight
    • elotre num. eighty
  • elper' n. mouth
  • elum- past eluŋei- v. walk, go by foot
    • ēlum- (par) v. walk around, go for a walk
  • en- past eniṅt- v. not be
  • eru- past eruṅjiṅ- v. surprise, shock, scare
  • esor- v. be weak, be pale
    • ēsor- v. be near death, be frail
  • eümpʌ- past eümpeṅjiṅ- v. rise, (with agent) raise, lift
    • eümpʌmei n. hill
  • ēṅr' n. stick, limb of a tree
  • gar- past gariṅt- v. be (used of inanimates)
    • garuk- past garugiṅt- v. become (used of inanimates)
  • geltar' quant. (an)other, more
    • geltar- v. be new, be different, be another one; adv. moreover, furthermore
    • gegeltar- v. be novel, be unusual, be surprising
  • geŋla' k n. root
  • ginʌ- v. be new, be young
  • giṅgeṅ[ŋ]' iṅ-ŋ/k n. dog (irregularly assimilated to reduplicated; final consonant varies)
  • hʌsas- past hʌsarei- v. urinate (< Merneha; the native outcome was discarded for being too collapsing)
  • hareṅ- past hareṅẅüṅ- v. return, go back; (w/ agent) send back, reject
  • heṅnur- past heṅnurīṅ- v. set up camp (< Merneha)
  • hero' üt n. fungus, mushroom
  • hicc n. fish
    • hiccʌr' n. school of fish
  • hijar- v. be thin, be narrow
  • hirʌ- v. be open, be accessible
    • hireiccar n. door
  • hoilu n. tail
  • Hoṅn n. the Bay of eastern Peilaš
  • hoṅr' plur. haboṅr' n. person, human
  • huga' k n. tree
  • huntu- v. be old, (non-static) wait
    • huntog n. elder: thus
    • huntogʌmēj n. grandmother
    • huntogʌpʌm n. grandfather
  • hükko' üt n. arm
  • hüneiŋ' ŋ n. bone
    • hüneiŋar' n. (a person's) remains
  • hürup- v. stand
  • ijip- past ijibith- 'gave birth to' v. be pregnant
    • ijibiccar n. infant, young child
    • ithijip- v. be rich, be wealthy
  • ijuk- past ijukhǖ- v. leave, go away. hyperprob. ijugakūṅbi- used for 'defecate' (orig. euphemistically)
  • inra n. tongue
    • inra(g)- past inraiṅt- v. lick
  • isse' it n. head
    • issituṅbimei n. skull
  • iṅjǖṅr- v. ignore, exclude (< a fused applicative, 'look away from')
  • iṅr' n. finger
    • iṅr- past iṅriṅt- v. poke
  • īṅ- past īṅjeiṅ- past2 (honorific) īṅjeṅraj- v. die (honorific past < Merneha, with the root reformed after the native one)
  • jʌnnü(j)- v. sleep, be asleep, (non-static) fall asleep
    • jʌnnüje' t n. sleep
    • jʌnnüṅjuṅweiṅ n. bed
    • jejʌnnü(j)- v. be unconscious, (non-static) faint
  • jappele' t n. beard (reformed < PPI *... + palais)
  • jeŋ- past jeŋīṅ- v. visit
    • jeŋar n. guest
  • jeṅ particle yes (< PPI *ça-na, form influenced by miṅ)
    • jeṅ' ~yup
  • jimmet- past jimmethei- v. hit the water, make a splash
    • jijimmet- (par) v. splash about, churn
  • jǖlk- past jǖlkith- v. gather plants, harvest
    • jǖlke' t n. harvest, crop, (esp.) amount of a harvest or gathering
    • jǖlkre n. a fruit (< an old singulative)
  • kʌba n. hide, material sewn from hides
  • kʌme n. walled compound
  • kʌna' k n. wife; (poetically) Kibülʌiṅ settlement (by extension of the folk etymology in Oiṅram)
  • ka- adv. very
  • kajül' n. bark (of a tree)
  • kamere n. line
    • kamere- past kamereth- v. stretch, pull tight, (static without agent) be tight, be taut
  • kami- v. be soft, be fuzzy
  • kara(g)- v. be late (as in the day or the year)
    • karage' t n. evening
  • kaseṅg n. wind
    • kaseṅgīṅ- past kaseṅgīṅjei- v. soar, ride the wind. redup 'soar around'
  • kata(g)- past kataẅü- past2 kataith- 'caught, hunted successfully' v. hunt
    • katagar n. hunter
    • kataguṅweiṅ n hunting grounds
  • kattoṅg n. guard
    • kattoṅgʌ- v. guard, watch over
    • kattoṅgē' t n. guard shift
  • kaṅjuṅ- adv. to such a degree (that) (takes a gerund)
  • kāmri- v. be overwhelming ('to' benefactive ŋi) (an unproductive derivation < kāra-)
  • kārʌ- v. be large
  • kejar- past kejaruṅber- v. say (cf. cceŋiṅ-)
    • kagejar- (par) v. converse, discuss
    • kejare' t n. language, (mode of) speech
    • kejaruṅweiṅ n. faculty of speech
  • kekkar- v. vomit
    • kekkare' t n. vomit
  • ke(ba)r- past kerīṅ- v. murder, kill (never without an agent in this sense); go out (of a fire)
    • r n. murderer (avoids clashing with 'large' by taking a gender suffix)
    • keruṅweiṅ n. grave
  • Kibül n. one of the Kigibül people
    • Kibüri pn. (a river)
  • kiutto n. willow
  • kiwʌṅ n. bud (of a plant)
  • klage' it n. corner (as of the eye or the mouth) (more general?)
  • kleu n. bird
    • keur' n. flock of birds
  • kliu(b)- past kliubīṅ- v. fly
    • kikliu(b)- (par) v. fly around, fly here and there
  • kor n. egg
    • kōr' n. clutch of eggs
  • kumrʌ- v. be fat (same suffix as kārʌ-)
  • küla n. pig
  • küni n. fennel
  • khʌ̄ particle (marking incredulity)
  • khattʌŋ' m n. heart, (positional) area in the middle
    • khattʌm- v. beat (of the heart); be alive, live
    • khattʌme' t n. heartbeat
  • khelpi(j)- v. be good; be kind, be considerate
  • kka- adv. like, as; (introduces reported speech)
  • kkacʌm- past kkacʌmīṅ- v. smash, pummel, pound (imitative)
  • kkelt n. pile, heap, mound
  • lʌŋkün- v. be cold
    • lʌŋkünnure' t n. snow ('cold rain')
  • lans- past lansith- v. do again, repeat (takes a gerund)
  • lappʌŋ' m n. seed, nut
  • lem n. rock, stone
    • lemʌ- v. be firm, be solid
  • liguṅ n. ancestor
  • loguṅ- past logoṅgei- v. flow
    • ologuṅ- (par) v. leak, drip (fluid theme, container ablative īṅr' )
    • logoṅg n. river
    • loguṅme n. menstruation
  • loi num. four
    • loitre num. forty
  • lugʌme(j)- past lugʌmeẅü- v. separate, (with īṅr' ) keep s.t. out of (< fused applicative with PPI *lu, which is lost in general)
    • lugʌmeje' t n. wall
  • mʌmer' num. six
    • mʌmetre num. sixty
  • mʌmp(a)r- past mʌmpriṅt- past2 mʌmprith- 'ate one's fill' v. eat
  • magʌm- past magʌmīṅ- v. break
    • mamagʌm- (par) v. shatter
  • maru num. three
    • mautre num. thirty
  • mera(g)- v. be careless, be silly, make a mistake
    • merage' t n. mistake
  • mese' t n. bush, low plant
    • mesejīṅ- past mesejīṅjei- v. creep, crawl, sneak. redup 'crawl around' etc.
  • meu n. nose
    • meu- v. be lucky
    • meumriccar blessing, charm, amulet (as for luck)
    • meulʌ̄ n. elephant
  • j n. mother (< a clipping)
  • miluṅ- past miluṅnt- v. boast, brag
    • mimiluṅ- (par) v. boast to one another
  • min n. woman
    • minʌ- past mineth- v. marry (a woman)
  • mi(ja)r- past mirǖ- v. see, (with agent) look
    • mimi(ja)r- (par) past2 mimirith- 'found' v. look for
  • mirik- v. be short
  • miṅ particle no
    • miṅ' ~nope
  • miṅgis- v. hold. 'carry, bring' construed with this verb in an absolute construction
  • nartʌṅ num. seven
    • nartʌṅtre num. seventy
  • nibi(j)- v. be small
  • niŋolʌ̄ n. sun bear
  • niüṅnǖ- past niüṅnǖnt- v. sing (words as object) (from a fused applicative, 'sing following (some words)')
  • nīṅ- past nīṅjei- v. go (in some direction with respect to a reference point): nearly always takes some object voice: eṅlunīṅ- 'enter', iṅrīṅnīṅ- 'pass', etc; is also the second element of various manner-of-motion compounds (basically < PPI *niç verbalised, probably contaminated with *hiçn or else as if *niç-hiçn)
  • nu(wa)r- past nurīṅ- v. fall (of the rain or similar)
    • nure' t n. rain
  • nüjʌ- adv. continuously, for awhile, for some time (e.g. rendering 'watch') (irreg. < *n-mta shortened from niç-mta)
  • nütreṅ' s n. hand
    • nütres- past nüterith- v. grab
    • nünütres- (par) v. grapple, wrestle (with)
  • nǖ- past nǖnt- v. hum, whistle
  • ŋʌbeṅ(g)- past ŋʌbeṅjiṅ- v. be scary, induce fear (past allowed only when construed as punctual)
    • ŋaŋʌbeṅ(g)- (par) v. make threats against
    • ŋʌbeiṅ n. fear (an old α-inf)
  • ŋigʌŋ' m n. berry, (esp.) currant
  • ŋinǖ- past ŋinǖnt- past2 ŋinǖth- 'summoned and had appear' v. call out for, invoke
    • ŋinüẅar n. ~shaman
  • ŋit- past ŋijiṅt- v. bite
    • ŋiŋit- (par) v. chew
  • ŋorʌ- v. be hot
    • ŋoŋorʌ- v. boil
  • ŋum n. bovine, cow
  • ŋüja n. forest
    • ŋüjeṅja n. the forest, personified or spoken of in a universal sense
  • ŋüreṅweiṅ n. consanguine kin; where one's consanguine kin live (base lost)
  • Oiṅram pn. the Peninsula of eastern Peilaš (by folk etymology, taken to contain oiṅro)
  • oiṅro n. husband (form contaminated w/ male suffix)
  • ojeŋ' n n. man, male person
  • onri- past onriẅü- v. work
    • ōnri- (par) v. sweat, exude
    • ōnre' t n. sweat
  • oriṅ- v. be red (incl. orange, brown)
    • oriüṅle' t n. plant which grows to cover a surface
  • orse' t n. (a) hair (typically plural); adv. a little bit, slightly
  • oṅri- past oṅrith- v. come, arrive
    • ōṅri- (par) v. come and go (repeatedly)
  • pʌgǖṅ- past pʌgǖṅth- v. cover, spread (over a surface), smear
    • pʌgüṅẅiṅccar n. birdlime
  • m n. father
  • pʌmer- past pʌmeriṅt- v. cry out, scream, (static) be sorrowful, grieve
    • pʌbʌmer- (par) v. cry, sob, howl, wail
  • pʌmiras- past pʌmijarīṅ- v. banish, outlaw, ostracise (< Merneha)
  • peitt num. (one) hundred
  • peneir' n. feather
  • per quant. many
  • peti- past petīṅ- v. begin, start
  • pēṅgʌ- v. hurt, cause pain (thing as theme, person hurt as patient)
    • pēṅgʌske' t n. pain
  • pittaṅr n. pair
  • n. day
  • plāŋ' ŋ n. edge; beach (elliptical for arütʌṅ plāŋ' sea.pgen edge)
  • posi- past posīth- n. pet, caress, fondle (< ?)
  • phakri n. back (anatomical); (positional) area behind or under
  • phartimei n. latrine, toilet, sewer-pit (base lost)
  • phiüstʌ- past phiüstʌẅü- v. peel
    • phiüstē' t n. peel of a fruit
    • phiüsteiccar n. fruit with a peel
  • ppar (a stem for 'two', not found alone)
    • ppētre num. twenty
  • ppej quant. how many
  • ppuruṅ- past ppurǖṅthar- v. swallow. unsuccessful miṅppuruṅ- 'choke'
  • rijeṅ' t n. body, torso; trunk (of a tree); (positional) area beside or next to (cf. postposition iṅrīṅ)
  • ruŋi- v. dream
  • sʌli- past sʌlijei- v. trade, buy or sell in trade (< Merneha or an analogous source)
  • seiŋ(a)r- v. be secure; be sure, be certain
  • serʌŋ' m n. louse
  • siccer n. snake (with dissimilation)
  • siruṅ- past siruṅjiṅ- v. sink, drown (can take an agent)
  • siumiṅ n. oak
  • solk- v. be ill, be sick
    • solkar n. sick person
    • solke' t n. disease, malady
    • sōlk- v. be crippled, have lost the use of a limb
    • sōlkar n. cripple
  • sume quant. all, whole
  • suŋei n. water
  • tʌbüṅl- v. be humid (of weather); be busy, be crowded
  • tʌkküs- past tʌkküriṅt- v. ingest (poison), (with agent) poison
  • tʌmer- v. reside, dwell, live (at) (a falling together of PPen *tamas and *tamir)
    • tʌmeruṅweiṅ n. village
  • tʌumeṅr- past tʌumeṅrǖ- past2 tʌumeṅrith- often collapsed to tʌumeth- '(have) learned, know' v. notice, observe, detect
    • tejʌumeṅr- (par) v. concentrate on, focus on
    • tʌumeth- v. know (a frequent contraction of the past2 of the root)
  • taiṅp- past taiṅbīṅ- v. travel
    • taiṅbar n. traveller
    • taiṅbe' t n. journey
  • taroŋ' ün n. leaf
    • tarün- v. be green or blue
  • teir n. blood: 'bleed' is construed using ologuṅ- q.v.
    • teiraŋorʌ- v. be angry (< incorporated in 'be hot')
  • tele' t n. plant
    • telekhije' ip n. sprout, seedling
  • temiṅ n. chest, breast. full reduplication used for 'everyone'
  • teŋkʌp- past teŋkʌbith- v. get, (with agent) take
  • teŋluṅ- past teŋluṅẅüṅ- v. flee
    • tejeŋluṅ- (par) v. scatter (of a group of animates)
  • tige' it quant. some
    • tigijǖṅ quant. no
  • tijar- v. be bright, be shiny; be happy
    • tijar n. the Sun
    • tijijar- v. flash, flicker
  • tilutt num. nine
    • tiluttetre num. ninety
  • tiṅgu- v. be black (incl. dark colours)
  • torso' k n. eye; (positional) area in front of
    • torsogar' n. face
    • torsojūṅn- v. be beautiful
  • traŋ' ŋ n. sky
  • trej num. ten
  • treŋu- v. be long
    • treŋüske' t n. length, distance, (positional) the other end or side of
  • treskijar' n. poison (orig. referring to a fish poison)
  • treskiüṅjʌ- past treskiüṅjʌẅü- v. dig (< 'go among the roots', formed as the other innovative manner verbs)
    • tetreskiüṅjʌ- (par) v. dig here and there
  • treṅ' s num. five
    • tēṅtre num. fifty
  • trittes- v. (static) be awake, (non-static) wake up
  • truŋu n. ant
  • tumpe' t n. ear
  • tuṅgeŋ' n. meat
  • tünʌu n. horn; tip, point
    • tünʌu(b)- v. be fierce, be violent
  • thori- past thoriẅü- past2 thorith- 'caught (fish)' v. fish, catch (fish)
    • thēr n. fisher
    • thore' t n. fishing; amount of fish caught
    • thorimei n. fishing qua skill
  • ttʌ̄ n. land, ground; (positional) area around (broadly)
  • ttʌtu num. two
  • ttej num. one
  • ttī n. cat
    • ttīlʌ̄ n. tiger
  • ttōṅ particle even. for 'still, yet, already' use 'even then, now' (< some formation like PPI *kta)
  • umrʌ- past umrʌẅü- v. roast. unsuccessful miuṅmrʌ- 'burn food'
    • umrʌmei n. firepit
  • uṅber n. animal
    • uṅbeür' n. animal product (not etymologically a derivative!)
  • uṅbimei n. house, home; room, chamber, enclosed space
  • uṅgüt- past uṅgüthei- v. give; (with a gerund) let, allow
    • ʌnniuṅgüt- (par) v. (applicative used particularly for) give medicine for (a condition): thus
    • ʌnniuṅgüjar n. healer
    • ʌnniuṅgüjiccar n. (a) medicine
    • ʌnniuṅgüjuṅweiṅ n. medicine qua practice
  • uṅpret- v. be heavy, be powerful
  • üle' k n. clothing; (positional) area on the surface of
    • ülek- v. wear (clothes)
    • ülekuga' k n. old tree (a semantically odd formation, synchronically)
  • üloṅ' uṅk n. worm
  • üspen- past üspenith- v. weave
    • üspenar n. weaver
  • üṅt(a)r- v. be white (incl. yellow and other light colours)
  • wʌguṅkut- past wʌguṅkuthei- v. yield, surrender (< Merneha)
  • wʌrʌn- past wʌrʌnei- v. adorn, decorate (< Merneha wǝrn-u)
  • weṅr- past weṅriṅt- v. be (used of animates)
    • weṅruk- past weṅrugiṅt- v. become (used of animates)