| To Be Continued...|
Caedes is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
| Hośər |
|Period||c. -600 YP|
|Spoken in||to be determined|
|Total speakers||to be determined|
|Writing system||to be determined|
|Classification|| Western languages |
|Basic word order||SOV|
Hośər, Hośər mel ([ˈχoʃəɾ̥ mɪl̥], hill language) or also Hośər maśǎś mel ([ˈχoʃəɾ̥ ˈmaʃɐʃ mɪl̥], hill people language) is a language in the Western language family spoken around -600 YP. Its ancestor is Çetázó, thus it belongs to the Lake languages.
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Morphophonology
- 3 Morphology
- 4 Example texts
- 5 Sound Changes
- /p t k ʦ ʧ ʃ x pʰ tʰ kʰ ʦʰ ʧʰ ɾ/ are written b d g ds dś ś h p t k ts tś r.
- /ɐ ɐˤ ɑˤ ʌˤ/ are written ǎ ę ą ǫ.
The syllable structure is (C(C(C)))V((C)C).
Allowed syllable onsets are /p t k ʦ ʧ f s ʃ x v m n ŋ r l ps pʃ pɾ pl tr tl ks kʃ kr kl ʦl ʦl sp spʰ st stʰ sk skʰ sx sn sŋ sl ʃp ʃpʰ ʃt ʃtʰ ʃk ʃkʰ ʃx ʃn ʃŋ ʃl fs fʃ fr fl sl ʃl xs xʃ xr xl ms mʃ mr ml nl ŋs ŋʃ ŋl ŋr ŋs ŋʃ ŋl ŋɾ nʦ nʧ ntr str ʃtr/.
Syllables without any onset only occur initially.
Allowed syllable codas are /p t k ʦ ʧ s ʃ x m n ŋ r l sp st sk sʦ sʧ ʃp ʃt ʃk ʃʦ ʃʧ xp xt xk xʦ xʧ mp mt mk mʦ mʧ np nt nk nʦ nʧ ŋp ŋt ŋk ŋʦ ŋʧ rp rt rk rʦ rʧ lp lt lk lʦ lʧ /.
Hośər exhibits a strong dynamic stress with a primary stress placed on the last syllable containing one of a ɛ e i ɔ o u ę ǫ. However, there are some cases where the primary stress is placed on an ą in a final syllable, which are particularly marked then in the lexicon and in this grammar when occuring.
Secondary stress only appears in words with at least two pre-tonic syllables and is placed then on the last closed syllable that is not immediately adjacent to the primary stress.
- a e i o u appear as [ɑ ɪ ɪ ʊ ʊ] in unstressed and closed syllables and as [a e i o u] in open stressed syllables.
- /r/ is realized as alveolar flap [ɾ].
- Usually-velar g k ŋ is realized as uvular [q qʰ ɴ] when adjacent to pharyngealized vowels and after [ɔ o ʊ u].
- d t become pharyngealized before pharyngealized vowels.
- l is velarized [ɫ] next to pharyngealized sounds.
- m n ŋ r l are unvoiced word-finally and before originally unvoiced consonants.
- m n ŋ become [m nm ŋm] before /p pʰ/, [mn n ŋn] before /t tʰ/, [mŋ ŋ ŋ] before /k kʰ/ and [mɴ ɴ ɴ] before [q qʰ].
- p t k lose their aspiration in final position, if not directly followed by an inital vowel of the following word.
- h is realized as [x] after [ɛ e ɪ i], as [ħ] after pharyngealized vowels and otherwise as [χ] .
- In colloquial speech, o u and their allophones tend to get unrounded if not adjacent to a labial consonant. In the prestige sociolect though, as a reflex to this unrounding, ę ą ǫ can become rounded [ɞˤ ɒˤ ɔˤ] or even [œˤ ɒˤ oˤ].
- ə can tend to [ɘ] before alveolars.
- Vowels become slightly nasalized before nasal consonants.
Initial consonant mutations
Hośər shows two subtypes of initial consonants mutations, the first directly goes back to the so called lenition in Çetázó, while the second is a later development in Early Hośər, going back to invervocalic lenition of [b d dz dl ɟ g gw] to [β ð z ɮ ʝ γ γᵂ]. However, both subtypes are limited to their specific morphological functions and act as full morphemes. Although it is always clear what subtype is needed in the particular situation, the first subtype shall be called lenition, since it is a direct descendant of the lenition in Çetázó, and the second one fricativization'
This consonant mutation directly goes back to the lenition already found in Çetázó, as previously told. In Hośər, it has been grammaticalized to a morpheme indicating that the noun this lenition is attached to is a possessum of the preceding noun in the oblique case.
Çetázó showed lenition of the initial consonant of a stem when a possessive prefix was attached to an inherently possessed noun, e.g. ɬaŋa soul vs. nalaŋa my soul. However, in Early Hośər, this prefixation was expanded to all nouns, while later on, all possessive prefixes merged with the one for the 3rd person singular, which was omitted then finally (more conservative dialects have kept it, though), since the possessum was marked already by lenition.
The following table lists all consonants affected by lenition. Sounds marked with an asterisk are remains of former alveolar laterals and thus exhibit somewhat irregular behavior; nouns with inital former alveolar lateral are marked in the lexicon. Only consonants directly before a vowel are affected.
|unlenited||b p||t d||t*||d*||ds ts||dś tś||ś*||g k|
- Dśer dśeś kon.
dśe-r dśeś kon-Ø
this-NC2 such head-ABS
That's a head.
- Nu hon dąhar.
nu hon-Ø dąha-r
1SG.OBL POSS.head-ABS hurt-NC2
My head hurts.
This consonant mutation is, as the name may suggest, based on former fricativization probably occured in Early Hośər. Like lenition, it has morpheme status as well and is attached on verbs in the past tense.
Historically, it has developed from Çetázó's past marker suj-, which lost its /j/ later, allowing following voiced plosives to fricativize. Later on, the former evidentiality marker -gʷe was attached as well and then became the lone past marker affix, while the fricativization of the initial consonant of the verb has been kept.
The change from ś to dś is older actually, but added usually to fricativization since its morpheme meaning is the same. It was caused by the /j/ in suj-, which lengthened following palatals. However, only [j:] having become later [ɟʝ] and finally [ʧ] has remained.
Consonants marked with an asterisk are remains of former alveolar laterals again before pharyngealized vowels. As nearly all past stems are slightly irregular, those cases are marked then in the lexicon.
The following table list all consonants affected by fricativization:
- Anǎ gorąhas.
The ball jumps.
- Anǎ horąhąhos.
The ball jumped.
Reflexes of former alveolar laterals
As already seen while discussing the lenition and fricativization in Hośer, Çetázó's alveolar laterals [tɬ dɮ ɬ] as well as [ɮ], which appeared later in Early Hośer, have left their marks on Hośer's morphophonology insofar as they usually merged with the alveolar sibilants, but with dental plosives before pharyngealized vowels. This finally led to irregular consonant alternations in some cases, those alternations are as follows:
- ś, dś > d:
Na bśants nu glu pədąn.
na bśa-n=ts nu glu pəd-ąn
1SG.ABS break-1SG.ABS=and 1SG.OBL leg break-NC4
I break and my leg breaks.
- ś, tś > t:
Nu kartśǎnests tsaś dśerə kartąhas.
nu kartśǎ-ne-s=ts tsaś dśe-Ø-ə kartǎ-ąha-s
1SG.OBL hate-1SG.OBL-2SG.ABS=and also this-NC1-OBL hate-3.OBL-2SG.ABS
I hate you and he hates you as well.'
An epenthetic r is added between two consecutive vowels, also across word boundaries:
- Nu radśəne.
I fear them.
The clusters /*ns *nʃ *nr *sr *ʃr/ that appear especially due to vowel reduction become /nʦ nʧ ntr str ʃtr/.
Appearance and loss of post-pharyngeal h
The pharyngealized vowels in Hośər developed from oral vowels followed by a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ}, which disappeared before consonants, but became an unvoiced pharyngeal fricative [ħ] before vowels. This alternation is still productive in Hośər insofar as firstly the epenthetic r is not attached on pharyngealized vowels but a h, and secondly a post-pharyngeal h disappears before consonants:
- śivą some + -ə OBL --> śivąhə
- dąha- to hurt + -ne-r 1SG.OBL-C2 --> dąner I hurt it (but + -r NC2 --> dąhar it is hurted)
Loss of pre-consontantal f and v
F and v disappear directly before consonants:
- huve- to drink + -ne-ltś 1SG.OBL-NC5 --> huneltś I drink it'
Due to the strong dynamic accent, vowels in unstressed syllables are often reduced or even omitted in some cases:
|full vowel||a, ɛ, e, i, o, u||a, ɔ||ę ą ǫ|
|complete loss||-||(no complete loss)|
- uśśa- to kill + ne-s 1SG.OBL-2SG.ABS --> uśśǎnes I kill you
- tśeśśa- to skin + ne-r 1SG.OBL-NC2 --> tśeśśǎner I skin it
- kindśa- to differ + -s NC3 --> kəndśas it differs
- hɔśdśi- to wash + -s NC3 --> hǎśdśis it is washed, + ne-r 1SG.OBL-NC2 --> hɔśdśəner I wash it
- kihi- to slaughter + -r NC2 --> kəhir it is slaughtered, + ne-r 1SG.OBL-NC2 --> kihner I slaughter it
An ɛ of a word-final closed syllable with one consonant as syllable coda can become an e when suffixes originally beginning with a vowel are attached. That goes back to EH *ɛ as an allophone of /e/ in closed syllables, which became an independent phoneme later (probably caused by the second vowel reduction mentioned among the sound changes below). Thus only syllables are affected that were closed already in Çetázó.
Number and case
Five of the originally seven cases of Çetázó have remained. The old ergative merged with the oblique due to sound changes (strictly speaking, the final -i (Early Hośər *-ɪ:) of the ergative and the -u (EH *-ʊ:) of the oblique both merged into -ə), while the old locative merged with the instrumental (probably simply because both case endings contained -m-, which was interpreted as a lone case marker later on). Other important changes besides these are as follows:
- It is assumed that in EH final -i and -u (as case markers of the ergative and oblique, respectively) became lengthened vowels as a result of analogy to the already long vowels appearing on the vocalic stems. However, it seems that this only happened to the singular forms, since also the vocalic declensions in Çetázó showed short vowels in the ergative plural and oblique plural.
- Hośər developed a distinct oblique plural suffix -ś. The reason is still not completely clear, it is supposed though that in EH the plural marker -gʷ- lost the feature [+labialized] before the ergative marker *-ɪ: in analogy to the plural marker -k appearing in the absolutive. Later, *-gi: probably shifted to *-ɟɪ: and finally became -ś. However, there is also a new regular oblique plural marker -ąh-ə, which is used only in colloquial speech, though.
- The final -n of the N-stems was interpreted as belonging to the particular stem.
- The dual was completely lost.
Thus the case and number markers are as follows:
There is no real distinction between different declensions anymore (at least in terms of different case endings and the specific vowel preceding the case marker, as it is the case in sister languages as e.g. Shtåså). Nouns could be separated though in stems with a former alveolar lateral in the last syllable ( e.g. kuś wolf), those ending in other consonants (e.g. feś seed), those ending in a vowel (e.g. dśɛmlə breast), those changing the last vowel ɛ to e (e.g. śɛn woman) and those ending in a pharyngealized vowel (e.g. hǫ pig), since their particular stem can change (especially stems ending in former alveolar laterals). However, these changes are already described in the morphophonology section above, nevertheless one word belonging to every quasi-declension is given in the following table, just to see the particular alternations:
|feś seed||kuś wolf||dśɛmlə breast||śɛn woman||hǫ pig|
|oblique||feśə||feśəś, feśąhə||kuśə||kuśəś, kudąhə||dśɛmlərə||dśɛmləś, dśɛmląhə||śenə||śendś||hǫhə||hǫś, hǫhąhə|
Hośər lost the distinction between alienable and inalienable forms of possession very early and expanded the use of the possessive prefixes to show possession in general. Thus Çetázó dleka tribe vs. só dleka our tribe corresponds to EH * ˈd͡ɮekɑ / ˌiɣɑˈlekɑ. Later, the possessive marker of the 3rd person singular became the lone marker for all persons, while the particular personal pronoun in the oblique case was put directly in front of the noun (Middle Hośər *ˈt͡ʃekʰə vs. *su əˈlekʰə). Finally in Hośər, the possessive prefix was omitted at all, leaving the pronouns or nouns in the oblique as well as the applied initial consonant mutations (called lenition) as lone possessive markers:
dśek tribe vs. su lek our tribe
tąhadś grassland vs. su lekə rąhadś our tribe's grassland
A pronoun of the 3rd person in the oblique can be omitted before a noun when it would describe a possessor:
nan father, his/her/its/their father
The full set of this consonant alternation called here lenition is shown in the morphophonology section.
Six of the original nine class markers have remained in Hośər:
|I||-Ø||humans, beeings capable of speech (i.e. e.g. personalized animals or trees in tales)|
|II||-r||solid edible objects|
|III||-s||solid inedible objects|
|IV||-ąn||solid, stick-like or long objects|
|V||-ltś/-śtś||fluids, collective groupings|
The variant -śtś only appears together with the the verbal suffix -ąha-.
However, the belonging of a noun to a specific noun class is not inherently considered, but depends on the context:
- Dśǫnirə liśə seśąhąheśən.
dśǫni-Ø-ə liś-ə seśi-ąhą-ąheś=ən
funny-NC1-OBL snake-OBL PAST.say-PAST-3.OBL>NC6=then
Then the funny snake said it.
- Dǫrus dśer liś śuśtśir!
dǫru-s dśe-r-Ø liś-Ø śuśti-śi-r!
good-ADV this-NC2-ABS.SG snake-ABS.SG taste-SENS-NC2
This snake tastes good!
Class markers appear on adjectives (except ordinal numerals and quantifiers as śivą some ), anaphoric and cataphoric pronouns as well as on verbs as absolutive markers.
The horse and the sheep
Hośəm śəśirə śivąk meŋk śɛldąhąhar. Śenə tąharə meŋə sul vesąhąhas, kolə śir meŋ hlatąhąhar, larə nǎśtur meŋ kihąhąhar. Śarə haśəm tǎ msar meŋ kǫhąhor.
[ˈχoʃə̃m̥ ʃəˈʃiɾə ˈʃivɑˤq mɪ̃ŋk ˌʃɛɫtˤɑˤħɑˤˈħɑɾ̥ ‖ ˈʃenə tʰˤɑˤˈħɑɾə ˈmẽŋə sʊl̥ ˌvesɑˤħɑˤħˈɑs | ˈkolə ʃɪɾ̥ mɪ̃ŋ̥ ˌχlatʰˤɑˤħɑˤˈħɑɾ̥ | ˈlaɾə nɐʃˈtʰʊɾ̥ mɪ̃ŋ̥ ˌkʰiχɑˤħɑˤˈħɑɾ̥ ‖ ˈʃaɾə ˈχaʃə̃m̥ tʰɐ m̥sɑɾ̥ mɪ̃ŋ̥ ˌqʰʌˤħɑˤˈħʊɾ̥]
Hośəm śəśirə śivąk meŋk śɛldąhąhar
hoś-əm śəśir-ə śivą-k meŋ-k śɛlda-ąhą-ąha-r
hill-INSTR horse-OBL some-ABS.PL sheep-ABS.PL see-PAST-3.OBL-NC2
A horse on a hill saw some sheep
Śenə tąharə meŋə sul vesąhąhas,
śɛn-ə tąhar-ə meŋ-ə sul-Ø vesa-ąhą-ąha-s
woman-OBL first-OBL sheep-OBL wool-ABS.SG PAST.cut-PAST-3.OBL-NC3
A woman was cutting away the wool of the first sheep,
kolə śir meŋ hlatąhąhar,
kol-ə śir-Ø meŋ-Ø hlata-ąhą-ąha-r
child-OBL second-ABS.SG sheep-ABS.SG milk-PAST-3.OBL-NC2
a child was milking the second sheep,
larə nǎśtur meŋ kihąhąhar.
la-ə nǎśtur-Ø meŋ-Ø kihi-ąhą-ąha-s
man-OBL third-ABS.SG sheep-ABS.SG slaughter-PAST-3-OBL-NC2
a man was slaughtering the third sheep.
Śarə haśəm tǎ msar meŋ kǫhąhor.
śa-ə haś-əm tǎ msar-Ø meŋ-Ø kǫhu-ąho-r
ANA-OBL fire-INSTR on fourth-ABS.SG cook-PAST-NC2
On their fire, the fourth sheep was being cooked.
The following set of sound changes from Çetázó to Hośər has been reconstructed:
- Appearance of fixed stress:
- Verbs got a fixed stress on the penultimate syllable; that is, intransitives became stressed on the last syllable of the stem and transitives on the first syllable after the stem, as it already was the case in Çetázó.
- In terms of nouns, the situation is a bit more complicated. Çetázó's A-, E- I- and U-stems have become a fixed stress on the penultimate syllable of the stem, while on N-stems the fixed stress usually fell onto the stem's ultimate syllable. However, the assumed reason is analogy to the ergative and oblique forms of the vocalic stems, which (as previously told) had before developed a fixed stress on the stem's penultimate and thus show post-tonal case endings in the primary cases ergative and oblique, which was finally taken over by N-stems was well.
- Ordinal numerals are unique insofar as they kept the original mobile stress of Çetázó (cf. tą one vs. tąhar first)
- The position of the secondary stress though depended on the position of the primary stress. Usually it fell onto the last closed syllable before the stressed syllable; if no closed syllable is available, it fell onto the first open syllable. However, secondary stress only appeared in words containing at least two pre-tonal syllables.
- The rounded back vowels [y y: ø ø:] became unrounded front vowels [i i: e e:] spontaneously.
- [æ æ:] shifted to [ɑ ɑ:] before velars and labialized velars and [ɛ ɛ:] otherwise.
- Unstressed [e e: i i: o o: u u:] became [ɛ ɛ: ɪ ɪ: ɔ ɔ: ʊ ʊ:] as well as in stressed closed syllables, while [ɑ ɑ:] became [a a:] in stressed open syllables.
- [j] disappeared before consonants, where it led to compensatory shifting of [ɔ ɔ: ʊ ʊ:] to [ɛ ɛ: ɪ ɪ:] ([e e: i i:] in then open syllables, respectively) and [l] to [ʎ], as well as gemination of palatals.
- Intervocalic [b d dz dl ɟ g gw] was lenited to [β ð z ɮ ʝ γ γᵂ].
- [ɛ ɛ: e e: ɪ ɪ: i i: ] led to shifting preceding velars to palatals.
- [nj dj] merged with [ɲ ɟ].
- [mp nt ŋk] geminated to [m: n: ŋ:].
- [e: o:] rised to [i: u:] spontaneously.
- Labiovelars merged with velars, [w] disappears, respectively. Following [ɛ ɛ: e e: ɪ ɪ: i i: ] often became rounded [ɔ ɔ: o o: ʊ ʊ: u u:] ,especially in stressed syllables.
- [j ɲ] merged to [ʝ] in front of [ɛ ɛ: e e: ɪ ɪ: i i:], while remaining [ɲ] merged with [n]. Simultaneously,/ɬ/ became [l], if not next to [a a: ɑ ɑ: ɔ ɔ: o o: ʊ ʊ: u u:].
- The long approximants [l: j:] became [dɮ ɟʝ].
- Intervocalic [ð] became a flap [ɾ].
- Unstressed /ɑ ɛ ɪ ɔ ʊ/ were reduced to [ə] in open syllables, while lang vowels were shortened.
- Palatals merged with postalveolars, with [j] becoming [ʒ].
- Some dissimilations, often occuring to homophonic consonants divided by a [ə].
- Velar [x γ] shifted to uvular (and probably slightly pharyngeal) [χ ʁ] for still uncertain reason. [ʁ] is assumed to have become an open back unrounded vowel with compensatory pharyngealization, so [ɑˤ] (or [ɑˤʁ], with remaining [ʁ] before vowels), which itself caused pharyngealization of preceding vowels (which it have merged with later), namely [ɑʁ aʁ əʁ] > [ɑˤɑˤ aˤɑˤ əˤɑˤ] > [ɑˤ(ʁ)], [ɛʁ eʁ ɪʁ iʁ] > [ɛˤɑˤ eˤɑˤ ɪˤɑˤ iˤɑˤ] > [ɐˤ(ʁ)] and [ɔʁ oʁ ʊʁ uʁ] > [ɔˤɑˤ oˤɑˤ ʊˤɑˤ uˤɑˤ] > [ɔˤ(ʁ)], the latter became unrounded [ʌˤ(ʁ)] later on. This in turn led firstly to backing dental [t d θ ð n] to alveolar position in general, and secondly to pharyngealization of preceding (former) dental plosives as well as backing adjacent velar [k g ŋ] to uvular [q ɢ ɴ] and [l] to [ɫ], while lateral plosives, affricates and frikatives became pharyngealized alveolar plosives before pharyngealized vowels. [ʁ] itself merged with [χ] (see #23), while [χ] became [x] again after [ɛ e ɪ i].
- [k g ŋ] shifts to [q ɢ ɴ] next to [ɔ o ʊ u].
- Remaining alveolar laterals became postalveolar.
- Unvoiced plosives and affricates became aspirated in front of vowels, while voiced plosives and affricates became unvoiced. Devoicing without additional aspiration also affected voiced alveolar, postalveolar and uvular frikatives.
- Devoicing of [m n ŋ v z ɾ l] in final position and before voiceless consonants. Geminates were shortened in initial and final position.
- Second vowel reduction, causing loss of oral [ə] in open syllables and reducing [ɛ ɪ ʊ] to [ə] and [ɑ ɔ] to [ɐ] in unstressed open syllables and closed syllables with a fricative, nasal or [l] as coda. It ist assumed that final [ə] got lost first. If two adjacent syllables both contained [ə], only the first one lost its vowel. However, loss of [ə] in unstressed initial open syllables only happend under the following situations:
- between a plosive and one of [s ʃ ɾ l].
- between an affricate and [l].
- between [s ʃ] and a plosive, unvoiced fricative, nasal, flap or lateral
- between an unvoiced fricative and [s ʃ ɾ l], but not between [ʃ] and [s] ([s] and [ʃ], respectively).
- between a nasal and [s ʃ ɾ l].
- between [n] and a fricative.
Loss of final [ə] only occured if it was a nucleus of an open syllable beginning with one consonant as onset or after a nasal, fricative, flap or lateral + plosive or affricate. Labial consonants only appear as initial part of a cluster. [a e i o u] became [ɑ ɪ ɪ ʊ ʊ] in then closed syllables, while [ɛ ɔ] gain phoneme status in old closed syllables.
- [ns nʃ nɾ sr ʃr] became [nʦ nʧ ntɾ str ʃtr].
- Nasals changed their place of articulation according to the following plosive.
- Secondary stress was lost directly before a syllable with primary stress.
- Labial fricatives disappeared before consonants and word-finally, while [β] became labiodental otherwise.
- If preceded by an unstressed syllable containing [ɑˤ], loss of [ə ɐ] in unstressed final closed syllables in a word stressed on the antepenultimate syllable, preceding [x χ] got lost then.