Hitatc languages/Diachronics

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This page gives a detailed account of the sound changes leading from Proto-Hitatc to the various later languages of the Hitatc family.

Proto-Hitatc  (c. -2800 YP)
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p t c k q b d ɟ g/
  • Fricatives: /s χ h/
  • Nasals: /m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ m n ŋ ɴ/
  • Liquids: /l̥ r̥ l r ʀ/
  • Approximants: /ʋ j ɰ/
  • /χ ʀ/ may still have been in sporadic free variation with their historical sources [ɴ̥ ɢ].

Vowels:

  • Full: /i e a o u/
  • Reduced: /ə/

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: CV
  • Lexical stress accent on one syllable per root.
See also: Proto-Hitatc

Proto-Hitatc to Common Western Hitatc

  • [i u] → [e o] / #[+uvular]_, _[+uvular]
  • [m̥ n̥ ŋ̊ ɴ̥] → [f θ x χ] with nasalization of the following vowel
  • [ɢ] → [ʀ]
  • [ɴ] → [ŋ]
  • [h] → [ʔ]
  • [l̥ r̥] → [ɬ rʰ]
  • [s] → [z] / Ṽ_
  • [j] → [z] / _"V, _{i e}
  • [ɰ] → [w] / {u o}_
  • [ɰ] → [ʀ] / {a}_
  • [ɰ ʋ] → [j w]
  • Reduction of unstressed full vowels with compensatory feature spreading:
    • [i e a o u] → [ɪ ɪ ə ʊ ʊ] / _(CVCV)(CVCV)"CV, "CV(CVCV)(CVCV)_ etc. (i.e. in all uneven syllables counted from the accent)
    • [ẽ ã õ] → [ə̃] / in the same environment
    • C → Cʲ / {ɪ}_
    • C → Cʷ / {ʊ}_
    • [ɪ ʊ] → [i u] / _#
    • [ɪ ʊ] → [ə]
    • ʲ ʷ → Ø / {ɬ l rʰ r ʀ j w}_
  • Schwa syncope:
    • [ə] → Ø if an onset cluster of the following shapes could be formed:
      • [p t c k q] plus any non-identical consonant except for nasals or voiced plosives.
      • [b d ɟ g] plus any non-identical voiced non-nasal consonant.
      • [m n ŋ] plus any of {r l ʀ j w}
      • In Uplands Hitatc also: [m n ŋ] plus [ʔ]
    • The following exceptions to the above cluster rules applied:
      • Non-coronal affricates (i.e. [pf kx qχ]) were not formed.
      • Clusters of velar and uvular obstruents in either order were not formed.
      • In addition, the Uplands languages did not form clusters of coronal plus palatal obstruents in either order.
      • In Uplands Hitatc, [ə] in the second syllable counting from a newly-formed cluster adjacent to the main stress (e.g. CəCaCCá, CCáCəCa) was exceptionally retained in some words.
  • ʲ ʷ → [j w]
  • [j] → Ø / [+uvular]_


Common Western Hitatc  (c. -2400 YP)
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p t c k q ʔ b d ɟ g/
  • Fricatives: /f θ s ʃ x χ z ʒ/
  • Nasals: /m n ŋ/
  • Liquids: /ɬ rʰ l r ʀ/
  • Approximants: /j w/

Vowels:

  • Oral: /i e a o u ə/
  • Nasalized: /ĩ ẽ ã õ ũ ə̃/

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: C(C)(j,w)V
  • Lexical stress accent on one syllable per root.

Common Western Hitatc to Proto-Wan-Mlir

  • [ʔ] → Ø / #_
  • [e o] → [jə wə]
  • [ẽ õ] → [jã wã]
  • [ə̃] → [ã]
  • [sj zj] → [ʃ ʒ]
  • [pw cj] → [f ʃ]
  • [bw ɟj] → [w j]
  • [ŋ x χ] → [ŋʷ xʷ χʷ] / _w
  • [c ɟ] → [t d] / _w
  • [t k d g] → [c c ɟ ɟ] / _j
  • [r l ʀ] → Ø / {j w}_, _{j w}
  • [j w] → Ø / C_
  • V → Ø / VC_# (unstressed)


Proto-Wan-Mlir  (c. -2200 YP)
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p t c k q ʔ b d ɟ g/
  • Fricatives: /f θ s ʃ x xʷ χ χʷ z ʒ/
  • Nasals: /m n ŋ ŋʷ/
  • Liquids: /ɬ rʰ l r ʀ/
  • Approximants: /j w/

Vowels:

  • Oral: /i a u ə/
  • Nasalized: /ĩ ã ũ/

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: (C)(C)V(C)
  • Variable stress accent.
See also: Proto-Wan-Mlir

Proto-Wan-Mlir to Hitatc Wan

  • [ŋʷ xʷ χʷ] → [ŋ x χ]
  • [b d ɟ g] → [p t c k] / {f θ ɬ rʰ s ʃ x χ}_, _{f θ ɬ rʰ s ʃ x χ}
  • [z ʒ] → [s ʃ] / [-vcd]_, _[-vcd]
  • [θ] → [s]
  • [ɬ rʰ] → [s] / {p t c k q}_
  • [ɬ rʰ] → [l r]
  • [c ɟ] → [ʦ ʣ]
  • Oral vowels in open syllables immediately before the main stress were dropped when surrounded by obstruents of the same voicing, or by any obstruent and a glottal stop in either order.
  • Ṽ → VN / _{p t ʦ k q}(C)V
  • Ṽ → V


Hitatc Wan  (c. -1900 YP)
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /p t ʦ k q ʔ b d ʣ g/
  • Fricatives: /f s ʃ x χ z ʒ/
  • Nasals: /m n ŋ/
  • Liquids: /l r ʀ/
  • Approximants: /j w/

Vowels:

  • /i a u ə/

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: (C)(C)V(C)
  • Variable stress accent.

Hitatc Wan to Ktacwa

  • [ə] → Ø / [+obstruent]_{m n ŋ r l}#
  • [m n ŋ r l] → Ø / V_#
  • [w j ʀ] → [u i a] / V_#
  • [ʃː ʒː] → [ɕː]
  • [ʃ ʒ] → [ɕ ʑ] / _i
  • [ʃ ʒ] → [s z]
  • Glottalization:
    • Clusters of plosive plus glottal stop in either order become ejectives.
    • Geminate plosives become ejectives.
    • Plosives adjacent to an ejective also become ejectives.
  • [f s x χ] → [p ʦ k q] / _{p t ʦ k q} (non-ejective)
  • Lenition of labials I:
    • [p’ p b] → [m] / m_
    • [p’] → [m] / _C
    • [p’] → [w] / [+ejective]_
    • [p’] → [ʔ] / V_V
    • [f] → [h] / V_V (post-tonic)
  • [ʔ] → Ø
  • Vowel shift:
    • V₁V₁ → V₁
    • [u i] → [w j] / _V
    • [u i] → [wə jə] / C_C (unstressed)
    • [a ə] → Ø / _{u i}
    • [ə] → Ø / a_, _a
    • [ə] → [e]
    • [u] → [o]
  • [k’j kj gj xj] → [ʨ’ ʨ ʥ ɕ] (however, /ʦ’k’j ʦkj ʣgj/ become /ʨ’k’ ʨk ʥg/ instead, including clusters arising from vowel syncope as described below)
  • [nj ŋj] → [nʥ] / V_V
  • [j] → Ø / [ʦ ʣ s z]_
  • Most pre-tonic vowels are dropped, with [m n ŋ r l ʀ] becoming syllabic when not adjacent to a vowel. The following exceptions apply:
    • Vowels after word-initial voiced consonants other than nasals are only syncopated if the next consonant is also voiced.
    • Nasals cannot become syllabic adjacent to nasals or liquids, and liquids cannot become syllabic adjacent to other liquids or preceded by [n]. This causes many vowels to be retained, usually the vowel outside the inceptive cluster which is adjacent to the segment lowest in the hierarchy {m > n,ŋ > r,l,ʀ}. Exceptions: Vowels between two different liquids are always retained, as are vowels preceded by [n] and followed by a liquid consonant.
    • Word-initial vowels are retained unless followed by a nasal that can become syllabic.
    • If the stressed syllable begins with a nasal, the preceding vowel is retained if it is in turn preceded by more than one obstruent.
    • Pure obstruent clusters are only formed if they do not contain more than two "harmonic complexes". A harmonic complex is defined as a group of one to three obstruents which 1. agrees in voicing and, as far as occlusives are involved, glottalization; 2. has a consistent direction of tongue movement (either forward or backward); and 3. does not contain two adjacent fricative components (which includes the release of affricates).
  • Vowels in open syllables immediately following an open stressed syllable are also dropped unless they stand between two different liquids, between two obstruents of different voicing, or between an obstruent and a nasal.
  • All geminates in non-intervocalic position are simplified.
  • [ŋ ŋː] → [ɲ ɲː] / _V
  • [ŋ] → [g] / _{r l ʀ}
  • [ŋ] → [n]
  • [nm] → [mn]
  • [ʑ] → [j] / #_{e a o}
  • Semivowel fortification:
    • [w] → [v]
    • [j] → [ʑ] / _C, _i, [+plosive]_{e a o}
    • [j ʑ] → Ø / [+palatal]_, _[+palatal]
    • [f v] → Ø / [+labial]_, _[+labial]
    • [v ʑ] → [f ɕ] / [-vcd]_[+syllabic], [+syllabic]_[-vcd]
    • [v ʑ] → [+syllabic] / C_C
  • Lenition of labials II:
    • [p] → [p] / {s ɕ x χ}_, _{s ɕ x χ}, _{t ʦ ʨ k q}
    • [b] → [b] / {z ʑ}_, _{z ʑ}, _{d ʣ ʥ g}
    • [p b] → [f v] / elsewhere
    • [f v] → [ʷ] / [+obstruent]_
  • [s z ɕ ʑ] → [ʦ ʣ ʨ ʥ] / [+sibilant]_ (not including geminates)
  • [χʷ] → [qʷ]
  • [χ] → [h] / V_V, #_V


Ktacwa  (c. 200 YP)
Consonants:
  • Plosives: /t ʦ ʨ k q b d ʣ ʥ g/
  • Ejectives: /t’ ʦ’ ʨ’ k’ q’/
  • Fricatives: /f s ɕ x h v z ʑ/
  • Nasals: /m n ɲ/
  • Liquids: /l r ʀ/
  • The phones [p] and [j] also occurred frequently; however, their phonemic status is doubtful.

Vowels:

  • /i e a o/

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: (C)(C)(C)(C)(C)CV(C)(C), with restrictions on the shape of clusters of more than two consonants.
  • /m n v ʑ l r/ could be syllabic in complex clusters.
  • Stress accent on the first full vowel in a word.
See also: Ktacwa

Proto-Wan-Mlir to Hitatc Mlir

Hitatc Mlir  (c. -1900 YP)

Common Western Hitatc to Uplands Hitatc

Hitatc Mlir  (c. -1900 YP)

Proto-Hitatc to Common Eastern Hitatc

SOUND CHANGES TO BE REVISED
  • ʔ → h when stressed or initial
  • palatalisation:
    • [t,d,n,s,z,l] → [ʦ,ʣ,ɲ,ʃ,ʒ,ʎ] / _[i,e]
    • [k,ɡ,ŋ,h] → [c,ɟ,ɲ,ç] / _[i,e]
    • Ø → ç / [n̥,ŋ̊]_[i,e]
  • [i,e] → [e,a] adjacent to an uvular consonant
  • [+uvular] → [+velar]
  • l̥ → θ
  • z → ɹ
  • post-stress [e,o,a] → ə (except *o before labial consonants)
  • [b,d,ʣ,ʒ,ɟ,ɡ] → [p,t,ʦ,ʃ,c,k] when stressed or initial


Common Eastern Hitatc  (c. -1900 YP)

Common Eastern Hitatc to Coastal Hitatc

  • [b,d,ʣ,ʒ,ɟ,ɡ] → [w,ɹ,r,ʝ,j,ɰ]
  • V → Ø / V[m,n,ŋ]_C when unstressed
  • Ø → h / "CV[m̥,n̥,ŋ̊]_
  • [m̥,n̥,ŋ̊] → [m,n,ŋ]
  • w → Ø / _u
  • j → Ø / _i
  • vowel shift:
    • [u,o,a,e] → [y,u,ɑ,æ]
  • [ʦ,c] → ʧ
  • s → ʃ / _[i,y,æ]
  • θ → s
  • [ʎ,ʝ] → j
  • ŋ → n / #_
  • i → y / _w
  • [ʔ,ɰ] → Ø
  • high vowels reanalysed as semivowels when intervocalic
  • simplification of vowels in hiatus:
*i *y *u
*i ju je ja
*y jo
*u
  • epenthetic consonants between remaining vowels in hiatus:
    • Ø → h / [æ,ɑ,ə]_V
    • Ø → j / i_V, y_[u,y]
    • Ø → w / [u,y]_V
  • jæ → je
  • [æ,ɑ] → a
  • restructuring of central vowels:
    • [ə,y] → [e,i] / j_, _j, _[n,ɲ,ŋ]C
    • [ə,y] → [o,u] / w_, _w, _mC
    • ə → Ø (of schwas in consecutive syllables, the second, fourth etc. survives)
    • [ə,y] → ɨ
  • restructuring of rhotics:
    • VɹC → VːC
    • CɹV → ClV
    • ɹ → r
  • [nj,ŋj,sj,kj] → [ɲ,ɲ,ʃ,ʧ]
  • metathesis:
    • [P/F][N/L/A] → #2#1 / V_V
    • LN → #2#1 / V_V
  • VN → V~ / _C, _#
  • remaining clusters are broken up by epenthetic vowels:
    • Ø → i / C_[ʧ,ʃ,ç,j]
    • Ø → u / C_[p,m,w]
    • Ø → ɨ / any other C_C


Coastal Hitatc  (c. 0 YP)

Coastal Hitatc to Pirikõsu

  • p → f / _u
  • epenthesis:
    • Ø → i / [s,ʃ,ʧ,ç,ɲ,j]_#
    • Ø → u / [p,m,w]_#
    • Ø → a after other word-final consonants
  • ç → ʃ
  • [p,t,ʧ,k] → [f,s,ʃ,x] / Vː_
  • lowering of short high vowels:
    • [ji,wu] → [iː,uː] / #_
    • short [i,u] → [e,o]
    • short ɨ → u / _w, _$C[u,o]
    • short ɨ → i / _j
    • i → e / h_
  • ŋ → n when initial or stressed
  • k → ʔ when unstressed
  • x → k
  • t → k / [a,o,u,ə]_[a,o,u]
  • ʧ → ʃ / _[i,e], V~_
  • ʧ → t
  • stress shifts to the last nasalised or long vowel in a word
  • loss of vowel length distinction


Pirikõsu  (c. 1600 YP)
Consonants:
  • Obstruents: /p t k ʔ f s ʃ h/ p t k ’ f s ş h
  • Sonorants: /m n ɲ ŋ r l j w/ m n ņ ŋ r l y w

Vowels:

  • oral: /a e i o u ɨ/ a e i o u ı (stressed: â ê î ô û ŷ - not marked on the penultimate syllable)
  • nasal: /ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ ɨ̃/ ã ẽ ĩ õ ũ ỹ

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: pure CV
See also: Pirikõsu

Common Eastern Hitatc to Necine

  • [b,d,ɟ,g] → [v,ð,ʝ,ɣ] / V_V
  • [ʔ,h] → Ø
  • ʎ → j
  • [ji,jə] → [i,e]
  • short prevocalic [i,e] → Ø after palatals
  • [c,ʃ,ʒ,ʝ,ɲ] → [ʈ,ʂ,ʐ,ɻ,ɳ] / _[a,ə,o,u]
  • ɹ → ɻ
  • l → ł next to back vowels
  • simplification of vowels in hiatus:
*i *e *a *o *u
*i je ja jo ju
*e aj ja jo jo
*a aj aj aw aw
*o oj oj wa
*u uj we wa wa
aj oj aw əː
  • V[-long] → Ø / _"CV
  • [θ,ð] → [t,d] / _[t,ʦ,ʣ]
  • [θ,ð] → [s,z] / C_
  • ɻ → ʐ / _V[-long-stress]
  • syncope of short unstressed vowels after voiced fricatives:
    • [a,ə,e,i]vV[-long-stress]C → [o,o,ø,y]ːC
    • [a,ə,e,o,u][z,ʝ]V[-long-stress]C → [e,e,i,ø,y]ːC
    • [e,i,u][ʐ]V[-long-stress]C → [a,e,o]ːC
    • all other V1F[+voice]V[-long-stress]C → V1ːC
  • [u,o] → [y,ø] before [j,ʝ]
  • [ʝ,ɣ] → j
  • palatalisation & umlaut:
    • unstressed [i,e,y] → Ø / _j
    • [a,ə,o,u](ː) → [e,e,ø,y](ː) / Cj_
    • [ʦj,kj,ʣj,ɡj] → [ʧ,c,ʤ,ɟ]
    • [θj,sj,xj,zj] → [ç,ʃ,ç,ʒ]
    • [nj,ɳj,ŋj] → ɲ
    • [ʈ,ɖ,ʈʂ,ɖʐ,ʂ,ʐ] → [t,d,ʧ,ʤ,ʃ,ʒ] / _j, i(ː)_
    • j → Ø / C[-labial]_
  • [ʦ,ʣ] → [t,d] / _F
  • [ʦ,ʣ] → [s,z] elsewhere
  • ə → Ø / "VC_CV
  • clusters assimilate in voicing
  • loss of voicing distinction for nasals
  • further cluster changes:
    • word-initial plosive-plosive clusters change into PF or FP; usually the more anterior consonant fricates
    • complex POA assimilation in clusters involving nasal consonants, creating phonemic labiovelar nasals.
    • complex POA assimilation for postalveolar/palatal/retroflex consonants
    • F1F2 → F1
    • geminates simplify to single consonants
    • [b,d,ɖ,ɟ,g]N → ⁿ[b,d,ɖ,ɟ,g] word-initially (gm becomes km instead)
    • epenthesis: #CCC → #CCəC
  • changes involving clustered liquids
    • Nl → ⁿdl / #_
    • ʈɻ → ʈʂ
    • [e,i,y,u] → [a,e,ø,o] / _ɻC, Cɻ_
    • ɻ → Ø / C_
    • VɻC → VːC
  • [θ,ð] → [f,v] in the presence of labial consonants or rounded vowels
  • [θ,ð] → [s,z] elsewhere
  • ç → j / _C, C_
  • ç → h / _[a,o,u,ə]
  • [z,ʐ,l,ɭ,ɻ] → Ø / _j
  • j → Ø / C[-labial]_
  • ł → l
  • epenthetic glides between vowels:
    • Ø → j / i_V, [y,ø,e]_[a,o,u,ə]
    • Ø → w / [u,o]_V, [y,ø]_[i,e]
  • y → u adjacent to j
  • y → i adjacent to w
  • short [e,o] → [ɛ,ɔ]
  • length distinction is lost for [ø,y]


Necine  (c. 1000 YP)
Consonants:
  • Plain plosives: /p t ʈ c k/ p t ṭ ty k
  • Prenasalised plosives: /ⁿb ⁿd ⁿɖ ⁿɟ ⁿɡ ⁿɡ͡b/ mb nd ṇḍ ndy ng ngb
  • Nasals: /m n ɳ ɲ ŋ͡m/ m n ṇ ny ngm
  • Fricatives: /f s ʃ ʂ h v z ʒ ʐ/ f s š ṣ h v z ž ẓ
  • Affricates: /ʣ ʤ/ dz dž
  • Approximants: /l ɭ ɻ j w/ l ḷ r y w

Vowels:

  • Short: /a ɛ i ɔ u ə/ a e i o u ĕ
  • Long: /aː eː iː oː uː øː yː/ ā ē ī ō ū ö ü
  • Diphthongs: /aɪ ɛɪ ɔɪ uɪ aʊ/ ai ei oi ui au

Prosodic features:

  • Syllable structure: (C)CV(C), no word-final consonants
See also: Necine


See also