Hanheliubl

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Hanheliubl
Period c. -1000 YP?
Spoken in to be determined
Total speakers to be determined
Writing system to be determined
Classification Western
Typology
Basic word order SVO
Morphology agglutinating
Alignment ergative
Credits
Created by Nortaneous

Hanheliubl is a language in the Western language family spoken around ??? in the ???. Its ancestor language is Iŋomœ́, and it is thus one of the Steppe languages.

The people who spoke Hanheliubl, called the ???, were a nomadic sheep-herding people.

The language has an agglutinating verb morphology and a complex, mostly non-concatenative noun morphology with an ergative-absolutive case distinction.

Phonology

The Hāňheliubľ language consist of 35 consonant phonemes, 16 vowel phonemes, and three diphthongs. It is characterized by a complex syllable structure with syllabic consonants. There is no stress accent, but there is a contrasting series of long vowels.

Consonants

Labial Dental Retroflex Alveolo-
Palatal
Velar Glottal
Plosives p b t d ʈ   c ɟ k   ʔ
Fricatives f v s̺ z̺ s̻ z̻ x ɣ h
Nasals m̥ m n̥ n ɲ̊ ɲ ŋ̊ ŋ
Laterals ɬ ɺ

The laminal sibilants are commonly realized as [θ ð], especially before back vowels, and can be realized as [ç ʝ~j] before front vowels. Some speakers always realize /z̻/ as [j]. /ɬ/ is more narrowly a fricated retroflex lateral flap [ɺ̝̠̊], the voiceless parallel to the retroflex lateral flap /ɺ/ [ɺ̠]: in the articulation of both, the tongue is brought up to the back of the alveolar ridge and flapped forwards, hitting the back of the bottom teeth. /ɣ/ may be realized as uvular; if so, it will lower preceding vowels.

Vowels

Front Back unrounded Back rounded
Close i iː ɯ ɯː u uː
Close-mid e eː ɤ ɤː o oː
Open a aː

Diphthongs: /æɪ ɒʊ ɪʊ/

Diphthongs do not contrast for length.

Orthography

/ʈ ɟ s̺ z̺ s̻ z̻ ɲ ɺ/ are <ṭ j ṣ ẓ s z ñ l>. Voiceless sonorants are written with a following <h>.

Noun Grammar

TODO

Cases

Hanheliubl has an ergative-absolutive case system: the absolutive is used for the subject of intransitive verbs and the patient of transitive verbs, and the ergative is used elsewhere. The plural does not mark for case.

The formation of the two cases and plural can only be predicted from the form of the root in Ingomoe. This chart shows how they are formed, with examples given in their Ingomoe form. Capital consonant letters = consonants, lowercase vowels = vowels. Underdot means mutation. Ergatives are always stressed on the last syllable; absolutives are almost always stressed on the first; and plurals are usually stressed on the first syllable. Longer words are more likely to have irregular stress placement: only words with three or more syllables have irregular plural stress, and only words with four or more syllables have irregular absolutive stress.

Note that many words have consonant mutations in the absolutive; these are regular, and descend from the absolutive edible in Ingomoe.

Ergative Absolutive Plural Example
Ca Ca Ca Ca: lo
CaDe CDe CaD CaDe: kabó
Ca:De Ca:De Ca:D Ca:De: ke:bú
CaDeFi CaDFi CaDeF CaDFi:
Ca:DeFi Ca:DFi Ca:DeF Cá:DFi:
CaDe:Fi CDe:Fi CaDe:F CáDe:Fi:
CaDeFiGo CDeFGo CaDFiG CaDeFGo:
CaDeFi:Go CaDFi:Go CaDFi:G CaDFi:Go:

Noun classes

There are seven noun classes, preserved largely unchanged from Ingomoe.

Pronouns

Hāňheliubľ has developed a gender distinction in the 2p pronoun, from an Ingomoe T-V distinction. The 3p pronouns inflect for noun class. The 2m pronoun inflects for case; the others don't. The absolutive form is given first. The 1p pronoun also has an inclusive form, na:.

1 2m 2f
sg no loẓ
lẓɯ
to
pl ha loẓɯ: to:
3p ana. 3p cata.
1 a:f lo
2 aẓ kẹẓ
3 a: kiu
4 a:s kius
5 a ke
6 axk kẹxk
7 ar kẹr

Numerals

The numeral system of Hanheliubl is base-eight. The cardinal numbers are marked with a class suffix agreeing with their head noun; the ordinal numbers are invariant. Both precede the head nouns they modify. The ordinals are formed from the cardinals with the suffix -ɤs, or -s for numbers ending in vowels.

Cardinals:
1. taħ
2. še
3. noḍ
4. miunh
5. ē
6. ēḍaħ
7. nạ̄voš
8. ŋof

Demonstratives

near me near you distant
C1 jāif ṣu ṭāf
C2 jai šiu tsai
C3 jai ṣẹ ṭā
C4 jej ṣūf ṭā
C5 i
C6 ig ṣag ṭag

Possessive prefixes

1 2 3
sg. n š h
pl. eh k

Questions

In all questions, the speculative evidential (zero morpheme) must be used. The interrogative particle is šīv.

Yes/no questions are formed by placing the particle after the constituent to be questioned. Neutrally it is placed after the verb, but it may also follow an NP that is to be questioned.

where mašīv
why ltšīv
how mešīv
when ntšīv

"Who", "what", and "which" questions are formed by šīv + cataphoric pronoun.

Minor cases

The minor cases come from Ingomoe postpositions. They are formed by adding a suffix to the oblique form of the noun.

locative -ṭ
dative -k

Verb Grammar

Evidentiality

- known through senses
-uš - hearsay
-lị̄š - physical evidence
-ẹ - general knowledge
- past experience
-0 - speculative/fictional/anything else

These suffixes go between the verb and the class marker.

Relative clauses

Relative clauses are formed by adding the subjunctive marker -fẹ to the class marker and separating it from the main clause with the demonstrative ʈʰ. Their position is determined the same way as the position of nouns.

Imperative

The imperative is formed by adding the prefix t- to the verb root.

Past tense

The past tense is formed by ef before vowels and single consonants, and eva before consonant clusters (this auxiliary is cognate to Ingomoe "éiusa" = "come"), followed by the subjunctive form of the verb. The auxiliary takes the class marking. This is the only tense.

Reduplication

Partial reduplication is used to form the habitual aspect:

  • hāvegen "I am washing myself" -> hanhāvegen "I wash myself"
  • hāuʔạħn "I am fighting it" -> hauħnhāuʔạħn "I fight it"

This aspect is formed by taking the first syllable, shortening the vowel, and adding the class marking. (note that the <nh> here is /nh/, not /n_0/)

Full reduplication is used to form the atelic aspect: (is this an aspect? probably a mood. not even sure if it's really atelic, but similar. means that the action was unsuccessful or maybe incomplete.)

  • fēhaħn "I cut it" -> fēhaħnfēhaħn "I tried to cut it"

Verb Class Marking

Verbs in main clauses must be marked with a suffix marking the noun class (and number in the second person) of the subject and object. Object pronouns are usually omitted, since they are non-ambiguously marked in this class marking, and object nouns can even be omitted if they are obvious from context.

obj.
subj. 0 1 2s 2p 3
1 n n ʃn̩ ʁn
2 or 3 ʃ n ʃn̩ ʁ

This suffix is added after the evidentiality marker. No marking is used for sentences with no subject.

Negation

Negation is formed with the suffix -ai, after all the other verb suffixes.

Vowel mutation

The mutation is not completely regular, although it is completely regular within a noun class.

unmut. a e o
mut. a e i ạ o u

Vowel harmony

There are two sets of vowels: front and back. Historically, vowel harmony was progressive, working from the first vowel of the word. Vowel harmony also applies to affixes.

front a e i ai i iu
back o au u

Substrate influences

There is possible substrate influence from a language with vowel harmony, reduplication to form aspect, length distinctions but no lexical stress, complex syllable structure, auxiliary verb constructions, and a large vowel inventory. (will construct later, probably called naaurstandva or something along those general lines)

Lexicon

Nouns are cited in their oblique form.

mŋ̥̩æː - sheep

loŋɑn̥ɑː - boneœ

măŋhā sheep n
šikā hill n
šēṣ see v
hăňhē horse n
ožnẹ̄ woman n
fēša cut v
dlā wool n
kṣēni child n
lār milk n
tfādsiuni man n
ʔaʔā fire n
īuvē kill v
kēħe cook n
jāše say v
ị̄ʔẹ̄ cause pain v
tāṭ use v
sị thus
enī human n
šīk want v
šīʔa hear v
āše eat v
šaiš run v
šauħ- quick prefix
pạpẹ̄rẹkšō shoot v
da do v
fnhā know v
ka however  ?
kdeňē time n
ṣḷ fly v
pa all, every (takes obl. when used as modifier)  ?
vaħē place n

Sik{: hill Se:s` - see hJh=e: - horse oZŋ7: - woman fe:S{ - cut dl{: - wool k_hs`e:ni - child l{:r - milk t_hf{:tsiuni - man i:wve: - kill ?{?{: - fire k_he:Re - cook j{:Se - say ɯ:?7: - cause pain t_h{:t`_h - use sɯ - thus eni: - human Si:k_h - want Si:?{ - hear {:Se - eat S{IS - run SQUR- - quick p_hAp7:r\`7k_hSo: - shoot t{ - do

Example text

̌Šikāṭ, hňē ef šērăħ măŋhā măŋhā. Ožăŋ ef fēšaħ hă taħes măŋhā dlā, kṣēn ef lārăħ šes măŋhā, tfadsiun ef īuvēħ noḍẹs măŋhā. Kēħe miunhes măŋhā kă ̄ʔaʔāḍ. Hňē ef jāšeħ măŋhāk ṭ: "Ini tāṭă̄ʔfe măŋā măŋā ṭ ị̄̄ʔẹ̄ħ na." Măŋhā ef jāšeħ hňēk ṭ: "Na šīkă̄ʔăħ ṭ ta šīʔafeħ na. Pạbẹ̄rẹkšōfọ ha āšefe šauħ šaifešaišfe hňē ṭ ị̄ʔẹ̄ʔăħ na. Inī fnhāaiħai ṭ mešīv tāṭfaiħ šăšauħ.

Gloss and IPA

note: clean up gloss + update to fit new subj/obj agreement

šikāṭ hňē ef šērăħ măŋhā măŋhā
ʃikæːʈʰ hɲ̥eː ef ʃeːɻɐʁ mɐŋ̥æː mɐŋ̥æ
hill-LOC PAST horse see-3>3 sheep PLURAL
Hill-on, did horse see sheep sheep.
On a hill, a horse saw some sheep.


ožăŋ ef fēšaħ hă taħes măŋhā dlā
oʒɐŋ ef feːʃæʁ hɐ tʰæʁes mɐŋ̥æː dlæː
woman-DIR PAST cut-3>3 GEN first sheep wool
Woman did cut of first sheep wool.
A woman was cutting the wool of the first sheep,


kṣēn ef lārăħ šes măŋhā
kʰʂeːn ef læːɻɐʁ ʃes mɐŋ̥æː
child-DIR PAST milk-3>3 second sheep
Child did milk second sheep.
a child was milking the second sheep,


tfadsiun ef īuvēħ noḍẹs măŋhā
tʰfætsiʊ̯n ef iːʊ̯veːʁ noʈɤs mɐŋ̥æː
man-DIR PAST kill-3>3 third sheep
Man did kill third sheep.
and a man was slaughtering the third sheep. (note: "and" not used in 1, 2, 3 ... seqs, add when I'm not tired. all intonation.)


kēħe miunhes măŋhā kă ̄ʔaʔāḍ
kʰeːʁe miʊ̯n̥es mɐŋ̥æː kʰɐ ʔæʔæːʈ
cook fourth sheep 3p.GEN fire-LOC
Cook fourth sheep their fire-on.
On their fire, a fourth sheep was being cooked.


hňē ef jāšeħ măŋhāk ṭ
hɲ̩eː ef jæːʃeʁ mɐŋ̥æːk ʈʰ
horse PAST say-3>3 sheep.DAT this.distant.C5
Horse did say to sheep this:
The horse said this to a sheep:


ini tāṭă̄ʔfe măŋā măŋā ṭ ị̄̄ʔẹ̄ħ na
ini tʰæːʈʰɐʔfe mɐŋ̥æː mɐŋ̥æ ʈʰ ɯːʔɤːʁ næ
human.PL use-E1-SUBJ sheep PLURAL that hurt-3>3 1p
I see humans use sheep sheep this hurt me.
"It pains me that humans use sheep this way."


măŋhā ef jāšeħ hňēk ṭ
mɐŋ̥æː ef jæːʃeʁ hɲ̩eːk ʈʰ
sheep PAST say-3>3 horse.DAT this.distant.C5
Sheep did say to horse this:
One sheep said this to the horse:


na šīkă̄ʔăħ ṭ ta šīʔafeħ na
næ ʃiːkʰɐʔʁ ʈʰ tʰæ ʃiʔæfeʁ næ
1p want-E1-3>3 this.distant.C5 you.MASC hear-SUBJ-3>3 1p
I want this you hear me.
"I want you to listen to me.


pạbẹ̄rẹkšōfọ ha āšefe šauħ šaifešaišfe hňē ṭ ị̄ʔẹ̄ʔăħ na
pʰɑpɤːɻɤkʰʃoːfɤ hæ æːʃefe ʃɒʊʁ ʃæɪfeʃæɪʃfe hɲeː ʈʰ ɯːʔɤːʔʁ næ
shoot and eat quick run run horse this hurt me
shoot-SUBJ and eat-SUBJ quick run.HABIT-SUBJ horse this.distant.C5 hurt-E1-3>3 1p
It pains me that the horse who runs quickly is shot and eaten.

inī fnhāaiħai ṭ mešīv tāṭfaiħ šăšauħ
iniː fn̥æːæɪ̯ʁæɪ̯ ʈʰ meʃiːʋ tæːʈʰfæɪ̯ʁ ʃɐʃɒʊ̯ʁ
human.PL know-E4-3>3 CAT.C5 how use-SUBJ-3>3 2P.GEN-quick
humans know not that how your quick
Humans do not know how to use your swiftness.