Fàlm

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Fàlm
Period 0 YP to 300 YP
Spoken in the shores of Do Anjake, eastern Tuysáfa
Total speakers unknown
Writing system unknown
Classification Ájnljo
Typology
Basic word order unknown
Morphology unknown
Alignment unknown
Credits
Created by unknown

Fàlm is a koine language descendent from Famju languages. As the time passed, they diverged more and more, gradually forming several varieties: western, northern, southern, northeastern, eastern, central and Nlãnj ke. Some of them further divided into dialects. As Fàlm people began to trade across the lake and their general mobility increased, dialectal mixing occured, with some features taken from one dialect and others from another. Initially this was but a pidgin, used between traders from different regions. Eventually however, due to it's relative closeness to the dialects and increased communication between speakers, it became the main language of the settlements near the lake. From there it began expanding outwards, but it did manage to displace all Nlãnj ke dialects, with outermost ones and the most innovating keeping their status.

Usage of the name

Fàlm is in itself the endonym of most Nlãnj ke dialects. Where different, it's due to different sound changes. It's also the endonym of the new koine speech. However, in this article it's used only as the latter. As for Nlãnj ke, it's the name of the Do Anjake lake in some of the Nlãnj ke dialects. In the article this name is used to refer the language and its dialects, from which Fàlm has appeared.

Phonology

Consonants

m n
p b t͡s <ც> d͡z <ძ> t d t͡ʃ <ჩ> d͡ʒ <ჯ> k
f (v) s z ʃ <შ> ʒ <ჟ> x ɣ <ღ>
r l j ɫ <ʌ̊>

Vowels

i ɨ
y <ʉ> u
ɛ <e> ɤ <ʌ>
œ <ɵ> ɔ <o>
æ <ɜ> ɑ <a>

Diphthongs

jɛ <je> iu <iu> jɤ <jʌ> ɨu <ɨu>
jy <jʉ> ɛɥ <ey> ju <ju> ɤw <ʌw>
ɛj <ej> ɛɔ̯ <eo> ɤj <ʌj> ɤɔ̯ <ʌo>
jœ <jɵ> œɥ <ɵy> jɔ <jo> ɔw <ow>
æj <ɜj> æœ̯ <ɜɵ> aj <aj> ɑɔ̯ <ao>

Tones

There are six tones, called provisorily even, high, low, long low, broken and low broken. Their variation is big and more often than not their realisation doesn't match the names. It's here that Fàjm has the greatest diversity.

Name Diacritic Possible realisations
Even o ˧, ˥
High ō ˧˥, ˥˥
Low ò ˥˩~˥˧~˧˩, ˩, ˩˩, ˧˧
Long low ȍ ˥˧˩, ˥˩, ˩˩, ˧˧
Broken ŏ ˧.˥
Long broken õ ˧˧.˥, ˧˩.˥

There are at least three distinct tonal systems, with some intermixing between them.