Early North Yalan

From AkanaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search
Jeln
[jɛln]
Period c. -400 YP
Spoken in southern Tuysáfa,
Yalne plains
Total speakers unknown
Writing system unknown
Classification T1 languages
  Yalan
    Early North Yalan
Typology
Basic word order VSO
Morphology fusional
Alignment accusative
Credits
Created by Pole, the
Jeln speaking area

Early North Yalan is a late dialect of Old Yalan or an early ethnolect that evolved from it.

Jeln speakers name themselves Çiĝinešte (pl. Nüjĝinešte) and call their territory Dejĝiln.

Background

Internal phonological history

Voicing shift

p t tʃ kʲ k → b d dʒ ɡʲ ɡ / [-stress]
pʰ tʰ tʃʰ kʲʰ kʰ → p t tʃ kʲ k / [-stress]
pʰ tʰ tʃʰ kʲʰ kʰ → f ts ʃ xʲ x / [+stress]

  • OY pa → ENY be
  • OY khophō → ENY kofo

Northern fronting

æ → a / V[+back]C_#
o oː u uː → ø øː y yː / _CV[+front] &
æ æː i iː → a aː ə əː / _CV[-front]

  • OY ūxjānī → ENY üçeni
  • OY ipō → ENY ëpo

Syncope

[-long][-stress] → ∅ / VC_
[-long] → ∅ / VC_ / except _CC
[+long] → [-long]

  • OY āxjapa → ENY eçp
  • OY chātatā → ENY cette

Consonant mergers

ŋʲ ŋ → ɲ g
s̺ z̺ → ʃ ʒ

  • OY thuŝūņju → ENY tušuň
  • OY ņixitādā → ENY givdede

Sonoric metathesis

C{m n ɲ v r j} → {m n ɲ v r j}C

  • OY jazimō → ENY jamzo
  • OY tuhjamā → ENY dümje

Voicing assimilation

[-voiced] → [+voiced] / _C[+voiced]
[+voiced] → [-voiced] / _C[-voiced], _#

  • OY pāhohjo → ENY bahç
  • OY ņjišicūmū → ENY ňëžĝumu

Further simplifications

ɣʲ ɣ → ∅ / C_
ɣʲ ɣ → j v / elsewhere

  • OY phahī → **peɣi → ENY pevi
  • OY xjōphahī → **çöbɣi → ENY çöbi


ə → ∅ / V_, _V
r → l / _C, _#

  • OY ŝiō → **šëo → ENY šo
  • OY hūra → ENY vul


ts tʃ dz dʒ → t t d d / _{t s ts tʃ d z dz dʒ}
ts tʃ dz dʒ → s ʃ z ʒ / _C

  • OY nithuẑu → ENY nëtš
  • OY sahūthuthā → ENY savuttsa

Phonology

Consonants

labial alveolar postalv. palatal velar
nasal m n ɲ
stop p b t d c ɟ k g
affricate ts dz tʃ dʒ
fricative f v s z ʃ ʒ ç x
semivowel l~r j
  • /ɲ ɟ tʃ dʒ ʃ ʒ x/ are spelt ‹ň ĝ č dž š ž h
  • The pronunciation of /l~r/ varies between [ɾ] and [ɺ] syllable-initially (written ‹r›), and between [l] and [ɹ] syllable-finally (written ‹l›) among speakers.

Vowels

front back
high i y u
mid ɛ ø ə o
low a
  • /ɛ ə y ø/ are spelt ‹e ë ü ö
  • /ə/ is merged with /ɛ/ or /ø/ for some speakers

Phonotactics

  • The syllables are of type (C)V(C)(C).

Pronouns

personal 1sg 1pl 2sg 2pl
nominative nič deč šič džič
genitive nišh dešh šišh džišh
accusative nëňk daňk šëňk džëňk


personal 3sg an. 3sg in. 3pl 4sg an. 4sg in. 4pl
nominative vi i ni vëdu ëdu nëdu
genitive vih ih nih vëth ëth nëth
accusative vik ik nik vëtk ëtk nëtk

Noun morphology

Possession

possessor singular plural
1. ni- në- ň- de- da- d-
2. ši- šë- š- dži- džë- ĝ-
3. bü- bu- b- nü- nu- n-
  • The first and second variant are used before a consonant followed by a front and back vowel respectively.
  • The third variant is used before vowels.
  • Some words mutate when a prefix is added, e.g. bešes arm, nipšes my arm; mivm boat, devmem our boat.

Number

singular plural
animate - nü- nu- n-
inanimate - ne- na- n-

The same rules apply as for possession.

Case

nominative -
genitive -eh -ah -h
accusative -ek -ak -k

Notes:

  • -eh -ah -ek -ak are used only after consonant clusters.
  • Vowels are elided before -h -k, e.g. aňu → aňk mom/dad, except it is preceded by a cluster, e.g. ëňmu → ëňmuk mother.
  • Obstruents are devoiced before -h and -k, e.g. ĝëdu → ĝëtk hand.
  • ts dz č dž change to s s š š before -h -k, e.g. tüč → tüšk dog.
  • çk hk çh are changed to jk fk jh, e.g. baço → bajk fist.
  • v f h are elided before -h, e.g. davo → dah saliva.
  • If the last syllable of the nominative form is closed, the plosive in its onset is voiced in accusative and genitive, e.g. kec → geck crow.

Noun lexicon

People

Basic vocabulary:

  • ĝeňmeperson, being;
  • çemehuman;
  • vine, -nvewoman;
  • gede, -gdeman;
  • sëvu, -zubaby;
  • ühedechild;
  • besemi, -psemiadult;
  • ňëtu, -ňtufamily;
  • aňumom;
  • daňudad;
  • ëňmumother;
  • ëňdufather;
  • jijdesister;
  • vite, -ftebrother;
  • cetteaunt, uncle;
  • savuttsa, -zuttsafriend;
  • jegiňme, -jgiňmeenemy;
  • vultribe;


Occupations:

  • pösemebuilder;
  • bešenme, -pšenmechef;
  • timjecreator;
  • ejmefinder;
  • isemeguest;
  • goštahealer;
  • dümjehunter;
  • hijeksemediator;
  • ehölmepriest;
  • džiňmeruler, king;
  • bavun, -bunsailor;
  • šejdžemesinger;
  • etelmestoryteller;
  • ütemmethief;
  • ejejmetraveller;
  • šejmevoyager;
  • šenčimwarrior;

Natural and supreme forces

  • tede, -ddegod, good spirit;
  • vicet, -fcetevil spirit;
  • pevi, -bimonster;

Seasons:

  • bazoyear;
  • jezdewinter;
  • döĝdespring;
  • taldasummer;
  • šëždaautumn;

Directions:

  • jamzonorth;
  • šegešk, -žgeškeast;
  • meňsouth;
  • nišcwest;

Time:

  • šaçoday;
  • tetemorning;
  • çici, -çcinight;
  • voda, -vdadawn;
  • kišic, -kšicsun;
  • star;
  • ohcmoon;
  • gumosky;

Air:

  • çavoair;
  • hehcyclone;
  • givdedestorm;
  • ĝuzovoid;
  • kekwind;

Water:

  • teševe, -tševewater;
  • vič, -fčdew;
  • ihkice;
  • gotarain;
  • jetisnow;

Earth:

  • ipearth;
  • tëhusoil;
  • çetitsand;
  • ödiçestone;

Fire:

  • akofire;
  • ehashes;
  • šelight;
  • sitteshadow;
  • dekek, -tkekvolcano;

Animals

  • horuanimal;
  • išehorn;
  • eçptail;
  • tei, -timeat;
  • tëvofat;
  • çovo, -ĝomilk;
  • bemt, -bdemcheese;


Mammals:

  • bahçcat;
  • tüč, -tčdog;
  • çöbilion;
  • uvdawolf;
  • vutocow;
  • enmideer;
  • elhorse;
  • çetsheep;
  • beaver;
  • çeňe, -ňçehare;
  • güçcimole;
  • berimouse;
  • ňerabbit;
  • gupucsquirrel;


Birds:

  • çitibird;
  • fiçegg;
  • kec, -kccrow;
  • džekeduck;
  • cime, -mceeagle;
  • deset, -tsetseagull;


Other:

  • tsuš, -tšfish;
  • citfrog;
  • setse, -stselizard;
  • šëvo, -fšosnake;
  • ojoant;
  • üdenibee;
  • ňëžĝumubutterfly;
  • džere, -ldžecrab;
  • ojvaroach;
  • celscorpio;
  • etšiňworm;

Places

  • nil, -lnworld
  • opcountry
  • domu, -mduhomeland


Landscape:

  • pitsi, -ptsiforest
  • fohhighland
  • veke, -hkehill
  • nëmok, -nmokhorizon
  • bavu, -buisland
  • maštumountain
  • veplain


Water bodies:

  • ven, -vnbay, gulf
  • žos, -šsestuary
  • renlake
  • çiçimi, -ççimiriver
  • gögeziriver bank
  • pesea
  • bamokstrand


House:

  • gentvillage
  • ĝišchouse
  • pomobuilding
  • boodoor
  • ketse, -ktseroom, floor
  • tuzo, -dzotable


Obstacles:

  • hole
  • gek, -kkcliff
  • ëpobarrier
  • ĝëjo, -ĝaotrap

Human body

  • ňubody;
  • tušuň, -tšuňskin;


Head:

  • deehead;
  • poface;
  • seceappearance;
  • četseň, -ttseňhair;
  • eňeforehead;
  • hebrain;
  • huku, -hkueye;
  • šipear;
  • hunose;
  • dovomouth;
  • hudalips;
  • davo, -dosaliva;
  • hoptooth;
  • çidžidže, -jdžidžejaw;
  • ehkneck;


Torso:

  • çaolungs, chest;
  • šutheart;
  • çeňblood;
  • çubreast;
  • uhbelly;


Limbs:

  • šoshoulder;
  • bešes, -pšesarm;
  • ĝëdu, -ĝduhand;
  • baçofist;
  • ëbofinger;
  • ecsleg;
  • emknee;
  • çaĝahu, -jĝahufoot;
  • entbone;

Numerals

1. no 11. nende
2. ňec 12. ňeĝende 20. ňece
3. se 13. sende 30. sene
4. cep 14. ĝebende 40. ĝepe
5. je 15. jende 50. jene
6. tok 16. dökende 60. doha
7. mul 17. mürende 70. muna
8. ĝepec 18. ĝebeĝende 80. ĝebece
9. ora 19. örende 90. ölne
10. ende 100. enende

Verbs

Person and tense

The verb prefixes are almost exclusively agglutinative. They have different form, according to whether the verb has front or back vowels and it starts with a consonant or a vowel, e.g.

no- ~ nad- (future tense, plural subject, no object)

  • sil laughsil they will laugh
  • çoš be namednoçoš they will be named
  • ežge breathenedežge they will breathe
  • aldo dancenadaldo they will dance


Also please note the regressive voicing assimilation, e.g.

  • ac- + ĝeniĝeni it covers itself
  • hog- + čiňhökčiň they ruled themselves


Below, only the variants with back vowels have been listed. The front prefixes are created regularly by replacing /a o u/ with /ɛ ø y/.

Subject Object Past Present Future ¹ Future ²
sg. an. - bo- ¹ b- ² mu- ¹ m- ² mo- mad-
sg. bom- mum- mumo- mumd-
pl. bon- mun- muno- mund-
refl. boĝ- muĝ- mudžo- mužd-
sg. inan. - sa- ¹ s- ² a- o- ad-
sg. sam- am- amo- amd-
pl. san- an- ano- and-
refl. çaĝ- ac- ačo- ažd-
pl. - ho- ¹ h- ² na- ¹ n- ² no- nad-
sg. hom- nam- namo- namd-
pl. hon- nan- nano- nand-
refl. hog- nag- naĝo- naĝd-
  • ¹) before consonants
  • ²) before vowels