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Period c. 0 YP
Spoken in
Total speakers ~1000
Writing system unknown
Classification unknown
Basic word order SOV
Morphology fusional
Alignment unknown
Created by User:Nort

Drambyuk /ʈaⁿbyʉ̰/ is a language.


Labial Dental Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
pʰ p ⁿb <‌p b mb> t̪ʰ t̪ ⁿd̪ <t d nd> ʈʰ ʈ tɕʰ tɕ kʰ k <k g> qʰ q <‌q r> ʔ <ʼ>
f θ s ʂ χ h
ʋ <v> ð̞ l j <y>
m n ŋ
Front unrounded Front rounded Back unrounded Back rounded
i ḭ ʉ ʉ̰ ɨ ɨ̰ u ṵ
e ḛ o o̰
ɛ ɛ̰ œ œ̰ ɔ ɔ̰
a a̰

Diphthongs are /ae̯ ao̯ əi̯ əu̯/ and their creaky equivalents. Syllables with diphthongs cannot take finals.

Maximal syllable structure is CyVC; finals are -p -t -k -m -n -ŋ -h. In unstressed position, syllabic nasals may occur, optionally preceded by a glottal.


The finals -p -t -k are lenited to [b d g] or [β̞ ð̞ ɣ̞] in modal syllables, and preglottalized as [ˀp ˀt ˀk] in creaky syllables.

The phonations have tonal correlates: creaky voice is typically higher than modal voice.


Prenasalized stops do not contrast with N + homorganic C sequences intervocalically, but place neutralization is absent.

Final h merges with a following voiceless plosive to form an aspirate.


Some affixes contain vowels that harmonize in height with the preceding stressed vowel (or semivowel, in the case of diphthongs). This is complicated by the prohibition on /i/ after retroflexes: the definite affix -ʂI is /ʂe/ after mid vowels, but /ʂɨ/ after high vowels.

/a/ is treated as a mid-high vowel for the purposes of harmony.


There are three cases - the direct, the ergative, and the lative - and three numbers. The direct and ergative take vowel harmony; the lative does not.

Definite Indefinite
ABS DIR ʂI ʂA ʂUk dI dA dIk
ERG ʔŋ̩ kA kIt dA dIt
LAT ʂɯ̰ ʂɯ̰ ʂɯ dɛ̰ dɛ̰
CON DIR kU kU kUk dU dU dUk
ERG ŋ̩ kU kUt bU bUt
LAT kṵ kṵ ku dṵ dṵ du



There are seven tenses. They are formed with prefixes and suffixes.

Present continuous

The present continuous is formed from the root with:

- the suffix -It in class 1 verbs - no suffix in class 2 verbs

Present habitual

The present habitual is formed from the present continuous with:

- prefixal prenasalization in plosive-initial verbs - m̩- in vowel-initial verbs - vI- in all other verbs

Present inchoative

The present inchoative is formed from the preterite with the prefix buŋ- .


The preterite is formed from the root with:

- no suffix in class 1 verbs - final nasal mutation for class 2 verbs

Past continuous

The past continuous is formed from the root withː

- θʉt- in class 1 verbs - θi- in class 2 verbs

Near future continuous

The near future continuous is formed from the near future perfect in the same manner as the present habitual.

Near future perfect

The near future perfect is formed from the root with:

- final nasal mutation in class 1 verbs - the suffix -U in class 2 verbs

Indeterminate preterite

The indeterminate preterite is formed from the root with:

- ablaut in some verbs - the suffix -a

Indeterminate inchoative

The indeterminate inchoative is formed from the present inchoative in the same manner as the indeterminate preterite.

Indeterminate continuous