| To Be Continued...|
Rorschach is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.
Scratch space for the Proto-Macro-K!asic language.
| Proto-Macro-K!asic |
|Period||c. -3000 YP|
|Spoken in||Extreme southern Zeluzhia and northern Antarctica|
|Basic word order||TVC|
- 1 Phonology
- 2 Personal Pronouns
- 3 Number system
- 4 Morphology/Typology
- 5 Grammar
- 6 Lexicon
|click||tenuis||kʘ||kǀ̼||kǃ · kǁ||k!!|
|voiced||gʘ||gǀ̼||gǃ · gǁ||g!!|
|nasal||ŋʘ||ŋǀ̼||ŋǃ · ŋǁ||ŋ!!|
- *n̼ *t̼ *d̼ *n̼d̼ *t̼θ̼ *d̼ð̼ *n̼d̼ð̼ *kǀ̼ *gǀ̼ *ŋǀ̼ are written ṋ ṱ ḓ ṋḓ ṱð ḓð ṋḓð k| g| n|.
- *ɳ *ʈ *ɖ *ɳɖ *ʈʂ *ɖʐ *ɳɖʐ are written ṇ ṭ ḍ ṇḍ ṭṣ ḍẓ ṇḍẓ.
- *ɲ *c *ɟ *ɲɟ *ʃ *j are written ń c j ńj ś y.
- *ŋ *ŋg are written ñ ñg.
- Nasal clicks are written with n preceding the click grapheme; a sequence *n + click will not be ambiguous because the non-nasal clicks are written with k or g preceding, as appropriate.
Allophony and phonological processes
- *c *ɟ apparently became *j before back rounded vowels; *ɲɟ in this position became *ɲ. These allophones are written y ń, respectively.
- *g *ŋg appear to have become *h *h̃ before *a. This is reflected in the orthography as h hn, respectively.
- Nasals became their corresponding voiced stop if a velar nasal appeared previously in the word (the velaric mechanism of nasal clicks did not appear to trigger this process) and are so written in the appropriate circumstances.
Additionally, diphthongs *ja *aj *ej (written ya ay ey) and a triphthong *waj (written way) are reconstructed.
Allophony and phonological processes
- *e lowered to *a before a velar nasal and is so written when appropriate; clicks and prenasalized stops did not seem to trigger this.
- A tautosyllabic *ij sequence becomes *aj and is written ay. Similarly, back vowels plus *j became the triphthong *waj (way).
The reconstructed syllable structure is (C)(N)V(m/n/ŋ/k/ʔ/l/j), where the only allowable initial clusters were of the form velar + nasal.
Proto-Macro-K!asic is reconstructed as having counted in base twelve.
- 1 *sa
- 2 *kni
- 3 *niʔañ
- 4 *pa
- 5 *xok
- 6 *gʘiñ
- 7 *g!!an
- 8 *nǁihna
- 9 *ek
- 10 *xal
- 11 *ḍi
- 12 *ńo
Proto-Macro-K!asic is reconstructed as having mostly been isolating in nature.
One of the few actual affixes in the language was the causative prefix *u-. The *u- prefix lent itself to a number of constructions with varying degrees of idiomatic meaning.
- *u- CAUS + *dobway 'avoid' > *udobway 'threaten, scare, put fear into, warn away'
- *u- CAUS + *g!!ya 'cook, prepare (food)' > *ug!!ya 'acquire food, as by harvesting, picking, or slaughtering'
- *u- CAUS + *nʘik 'hit, strike beat' > *unʘik 'instigate, rile up'
- *u- CAUS + *tsikǁom 'shake, tremble' > *utsikǁom 'shake, rock, buffet'
- *u- CAUS + *ṭṣolnǁi 'germinate, grow, take root' > *uṭṣolnǁi 'plant, put seeds in the ground'
Proto-Macro-K!asic appears to have had productive full and partial reduplication.
Full reduplication was used to mark the past tense on a verb.
- *lohnal 'steal' > *lohnal~lohnal 'stole'
- *ndudzak 'obey' > *ndudzak~ndudzak 'obeyed'
Partial reduplication (of the onset and syllable nucleus, but not the coda) was employed to denote plural nouns. Where the onset was null, the vowel fortited to a voiced stop at the same place of articulation (or, in the case of *a, to *h).
- *aylsiʔ 'well, watering hole' > *a~aylsiʔ > *haylsiʔ 'wells'
- *iḓðik 'pinecone' > *i~iḓðik > *jiḓðik 'pinecones'
- *k!aʔok 'leaf' > *k!ak!aʔok 'leaves'
- *tsyakle 'knife' > *tsyatsyakle 'knives'
Full reduplication was used with nouns to indicate a place where the given noun could be found in abundance.
- *iḓðik 'pinecone' > *iḓðik~iḓðik 'coniferous forest'
- *kniktañ 'tall grass, grain' > *kniktañ~kniktañ 'cultivated field'
- *k!ektuñ 'spring, watering source' > *k!ektuñ~k!ektuñ 'river delta'
- *piʔkik 'roof, covering' > *piʔkik~piʔkik 'town, settlement'
- *yagiʔ 'yurt, hut' > *yagiʔ~yagiʔ 'nomadic group'
Proto-Macro-K!asic appears to have featured a number of lexical "prebases" that attached to the beginning of a word, altering the meaning. The altered meaning could have various nuances and connotations but occurred with central themes.
The word *kǁiʔ (which also had the meaning 'to live') was employed as a copula:
Proto-Macro-K!asic appears to have used a with-possessive construction: