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To Be Continued...
Rorschach is still working on this article. The contents are incomplete and likely to undergo changes.

Scratch space for the Proto-Macro-Antarctic language.

Period c. -6000 YP
Spoken in Extreme southern Zeluzhia and northern Antarctica
Total speakers
Writing system
Classification Macro-Antarctic
Basic word order TVC
Morphology Fusional
Alignment Direct-inverse
Created by Linguifex



 labial   linguolabial   coronal   retroflex   palatal   velar   glottal 
nasal m n ɳ ɲ ŋ
stop voiceless p t ʈ c k ʔ
voiced b d ɖ ɟ g
prenasalized mb n̼d̼ nd ɳɖ ɲɟ ŋg
affricate voiceless t̼θ̼ ts ʈʂ
voiced d̼ð̼ dz ɖʐ
prenasalized n̼d̼ð̼ ndz ɳɖʐ
fricative s ʃ x
liquid l j
click tenuis kǀ̼ kǃ · kǁ k!!
voiced gǀ̼ gǃ · gǁ g!!
nasal ŋʘ ŋǀ̼ ŋǃ · ŋǁ ŋ!!
  • *n̼ *t̼ *d̼ *n̼d̼ *t̼θ̼ *d̼ð̼ *n̼d̼ð̼ *kǀ̼ *gǀ̼ *ŋǀ̼ are written ṋ ṱ ḓ ṋḓ ṱð ḓð ṋḓð k| g| n|.
  • *ɳ *ʈ *ɖ *ɳɖ *ʈʂ *ɖʐ *ɳɖʐ are written ṇ ṭ ḍ ṇḍ ṭṣ ḍẓ ṇḍẓ.
  • *ɲ *c *ɟ *ɲɟ *ʃ *j are written ń c j ńj ś y.
  • *ŋ *ŋg are written ñ ñg.
  • Nasal clicks are written with n preceding the click grapheme; a sequence *n + click will not be ambiguous because the non-nasal clicks are written with k or g preceding, as appropriate.

Allophony and phonological processes

  • *c *ɟ apparently became *j before back rounded vowels; *ɲɟ in this position became . These allophones are written y ń, respectively.
  • *g *ŋg appear to have become *h *h̃ before *a. This is reflected in the orthography as h hn, respectively.
  • Nasals became their corresponding voiced stop if a velar nasal appeared previously in the word (the velaric mechanism of nasal clicks did not appear to trigger this process) and are so written in the appropriate circumstances.


 front   central   back 
     high i u
mid e o
low a

Additionally, diphthongs *ja *aj *ej (written ya ay ey) and a triphthong *waj (written way) are reconstructed.

Allophony and phonological processes

  • *e lowered to *a before a velar nasal and is so written when appropriate; clicks and prenasalized stops did not seem to trigger this.
  • A tautosyllabic *ij sequence becomes *aj and is written ay. Similarly, back vowels plus *j became the triphthong *waj (way).

Syllable Structure

The reconstructed syllable structure is (C)(N)V(m/n/ŋ/k/ʔ/l/j), where the only allowable initial clusters were of the form velar + nasal.

Number system

Proto-Macro-Antarctic is reconstructed as having counted in base twelve.

  • 1 *sa
  • 2 *kni
  • 3 *niʔañ
  • 4 *pa
  • 5 *xok
  • 6 *gʘiñ
  • 7 *g!!an
  • 8 *nǁihna
  • 9 *ek
  • 10 *xal
  • 11 *ḍi
  • 12 *ńo



Seven noun classes have been reconstructed.

Class I

The benefactive singular combines with a final *-u or *-o to form the triphthong *-way.

direct *-em *-śem
indirect *-Ø *-śi
benefactive *V-y / *C-ya *-śay
locative *-ñgo *-śuñ

Class II

direct *-ña *-śitse
indirect *-ñ *-śin
benefactive *-ṇḍa *-śiṇḍa
locative *-xun *-śixun

Class III

direct *-lu *-gǁu
indirect *-l *-gǁi
benefactive *-ja *-śig!a
locative *-a *-śag!a

Class IV

Suffixes marked with a + affricate a preceding *l or *y to *dz.

direct *+u *+o
indirect *+ey *+way
benefactive *-ndeʔ *-ondeʔ
locative *+añ *-añ

Class V

direct *-ʔ *-way
indirect *-Ø *-ga
benefactive *-n *-ña
locative *-ñge *-hna

Class VI

direct *-m *-onda
indirect *-ma *-ondza
benefactive *-wan *-ondan
locative *-maha *-ondaha

Class VII

The indirect singular will palatalize an instance of final *-l to *-y and then delete, again turning a back vowel + *y sequence into *way. Syllable-final *-k combined with *-mb- to form a voiceless click *-kʘ-.

direct *-ṭṣu *-mbeṭ
indirect *-i *-mbi
benefactive *-tsak *-mbitsi
locative *-tsoʔ *-mbitsoʔ