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Period 1000 YP
Spoken in south Tuysáfa
Total speakers unknown
Writing system unknown
Classification unknown
Basic word order SOV
Morphology fusional, agglutinative, polysynthetic
Alignment NOM-ACC
Created by Pole, the


The language is spoken around 1000 YP in South Central Tuysáfa, in an area west of the central mountains.

Presumably it is a part of a larger language family, it is also considered Mediundic.


There are two different approaches to describing the sounds. The phonological analysis describes better how the morphemes alternate and reductions are applied. The phonetical approach, however, is based on the actual pronunciation and is the one the orthography is based one.

It is not known whether the phonology describes a diachronically earlier variant of the language.


labial coronal palatal velar
nasal m n ñ ŋ
stop p t c k
fricative f s ç h
sonoric w r y


front central back
high ī /əy/ ū /əw/ long
i ~ ə ~ u /ə/ short
ę /ən/ nasal
low ē /ay/ ō /aw/ long
e ~ a ~ o /a/ short
ą /an/ nasal


The language permits syllables of type:

  • phonologically, (C)[a/ə](y/w/n)(C) with intervocal [y/w/n]C clusters permitted;
  • phonetically, (C)V(C) with no consonant clusters permitted.

However, in rapid speech unstressed i ~ ə ~ u is elided, producing new consonant cluster.

The word stress falls on the first syllable of the root, i.e. any prefixes separated with a hyphen are unstressed:

  • nę-fōn [nə̃ˈfɔːn]

The same applies to kī-, mē-, num-, tō-, ŋą- and (nən)ī-, which are not hyphenated:

  • mēsələneyumērūt [mɛːˈsələnɛjumɛːruːt]


Following rules can be interpreted as either allophony or morphophonological alternations. Here written phonetically:

  • (I) — i e occur before palatals. u o occur before labials. ə a occur elsewhere.
  • (II) — ī ē ū ō ę ą change to iy ey uw ow ən an before vowels.
  • (III) — ə a are elided before a vowel, making them high or low, respectively.

Additionally, the i ~ ə ~ u vowel acts as an epenthetic vowels between consonants.


There are also some facultative cases of allophony:

  • l is velarized [ɫ] after vowels
  • ə a are in many dialects realised as [ɯ ʌ] before ŋ k h l

In some dialects ę ą undergo the processes as single vowels, they are fronted to [ĩ ɛ̃] before palatals, rounded to [ũ ɔ̃] before labials and backed to [ɯ̃ ʌ̃] before velars.



Pronouns form a closed, highly divergent class of words.

Personal pronouns

This group consists of five independent roots and one incorporated (prefixed) root.

singular plural
1. /may/
num /nəm/
2. /taw/
ŋą /ŋan/
3. ī /əy/
he, she, it
nənī /nənəy/

The 3rd person plural pronoun nənī is formed with prefixation of plural morpheme to the singular form.

Other plural pronouns are independent roots. However num might descend diachronically from reduced *nęmē.


The only one non-personal pronominal independent root is probably sa, meaning "this" or "that". It can be expanded to the predicative form meaning "it is that" or — when used as a conjunction — "therefore", "in this way".

Its declined forms are commonly used: sōh "here ~ there", sowəh "then ~ on that", sēr "from there ~ because of that" etc.

It's often used alongside with two other demonstratives, proximal īw "now ~ here and now" and īr "over there". Both are descended from the root ə and therefore are unrelated to sa.

Additionally, sa often contrasts with ī in that the former is more often cataphorically and the latter — anaphorically.


The universal pronouns are substituted by īniyī or its reduced form ęyī and its inflected forms. It is descendent itself from a construction ī nī ī "it and it" or "this and that", meaning basically "everybody" or "everything".

The conjunction "and" is used for constructions like X, nī Y "both X and Y".

There are no negative pronouns. Universal pronouns with negated verbs are used instead.

By analogy, with negation might mean "neither X nor Y".

Interrogative and indefinite

The interrogative and indefinite pronouns are replaced by īwanī or its reduced form ūnī and its inflected forms. Similarly, it comes from ī wą ī "it or it" or "this or that", meaning "anything" or "anybody".

It is itself an analogy to how "or" is used to form both questions and statements like X, wą Y "either X or Y".

Also, a root ə meaning mainly "being (e.g. in a state or location)", "existing" can have some properties of indefinite pronouns, it is however more common with other elements preposed.


-2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 +4 +5
genitive negation root voice honorific TAM person case

There is only one open lexical class, combining properties of what could be called nouns and verbs.

The unmarked form takes the role of a noun or substantivized verbs.

Genitive prefixes

A nominal can get a personal prefix, signifying a possessor or an object of the action, here named the genitive prefix.

The prefixes are identical to corresponding personal pronouns:

singular plural
1. mē- /may-/
my; me
num- /nəm-/
our; us
2. tō- /taw-/
thy; thee
ŋą- /ŋan-/
your; you
3. ī- /əy-/
his, her, its; him, her, it
nənī- /nənəy-/
their; them

These prefixes are unstressed and are not separated with a hyphen.

Sometimes, the prefix can be replaced with another nominal root, incorporating it. In fact, these prefixes are incorporated personal pronouns. It is often done with other pronouns: sa, ęyī and ūnī, becoming determiners when incorporated. Similarly with numerals, including the plural marker . In such situation, it is hyphenated:

  • so-fōn
    • dem-person
    • that person
  • ęyī-fōn
    • all-person
    • every person

The prefixes can be added to the root ə, forming possessive pronouns:

singular plural
1. meyə /mayə/
numə /nəmə/
2. towə /tawə/
ŋanə /ŋanə/
3. iyə /əyə/
his, hers, its
nəniyə /nənəyə/


Nominals are negated by prefixing kī-. It is not hyphenated.

  • kiyūt /kəy-ə-awt/
    • neg-be-2sg
    • you don't exist


causer agent patient recipient
active subj obj dat
passive abl subj dat
receptive abl obj subj
causative subj obj / dat obj dat
causative passive abl subj obj dat
causative receptive abl obj / dat obj subj

The active voice is the default one.

  • Īm.
    • be-1sg
    • I am.
  • Tōsəlēm.
    • 2sg-see-1sg
    • I see you.
  • Towīt īsūreyēm.
    • 2sg-dat 3sg-speak-1sg
    • I say it to you.

The passive voice is marked with -na. The patient is promoted to a subject, the agent is demoted to an indirect object in ablative.

  • Meyēr sələnōt.
    • 1sg-abl see-pass-2sg
    • You are seen by me.
  • Meyēr towīt sūrēnē.
    • 1sg-abl 2sg-dat speak-pass-3sg
    • It is said by me to you.

The receptive voice is marked with . The indirect object in dative is promoted to a subject, the agent is demoted to an indirect object in ablative. Sometimes called ditransitive inverse voice.

  • Meyēr īsūreyowōt.
    • 1sg-abl 3sg-speak-rece-2sg
    • You are told it by me.

The causative voice is marked with -kē. A new role, the "causer" or "source" is added as a subject. The intransitive participant is demoted to a direct object; the transitive agent is demoted to an indirect object in dative.

  • Meyəkeyī.
    • 1sg-be-caus-3sg
    • He/she causes me to be.
  • Meyīt tōsələkeyī.
    • 1sg-dat 2sg-see-caus-3sg
    • He/she lets me to see you.
  • Meyīt towīt īsūrēkeyī.
    • 1sg-dat 2sg-dat 3sg-speak-caus-3sg
    • He/she makes me say it to you. (ambiguous)

It can be combined with other voices, so the last sentence can be rephrased using the causative passive:

  • Iyēr towīt īsūrēkēnēm.
    • 3sg-abl 2sg-dat 3sg-speak-caus-pass-1sg
    • I am made by him/her to say it to you.

Please note that in this case it is possible to promote the indirect object (meyīt) using the passive, not the receptive. Compare the causative receptive:

  • Iyēr meyīt īsūrēkeyowōt.
    • 3sg-abl 1sg-dat 3sg-speak-caus-rece-2sg
    • You are made by him/her to be told it by me.


In some situations it is obligatory to use an appropriate honorific suffix.

Suffix Usage
/ -iñ people of same or slightly higher age / rank
people of significantly higher age / rank
-ec endeared people, diminutive
-çec strong diminutive
-ək derogatory
-ōy strong derogatory

is used mostly for males and -iñ mostly for females.

Aspect and tense

Dynamic / perfective

Most nominals are static and imperfective in their unmarked form. It can be changed to a form similar to dynamic or perfective aspect in meaning by appending a suffix -neyə. It is itself a fossilised construction with translative: X-nē ə "turning into X".

It can combine with tense suffixes, the aspect going first.


Nominals are turned into the past form by appending -mērə. It comes from a construction with the gerundive in ablative: X-m-ēr ə "coming from the act / state of X".

Present episodic

When the distinction is needed, the default form is gnomic / generic tense. The present episodic is created by adding -mūhə. It comes from a construction with the gerundive in inessive: X-m-ūh ə "being in the act / state of X".


Nominals are turned into the future form by appending -mītə. It comes from a construction with the gerundive in dative: X-m-īt ə "going to the act / state of X".

It can be also used as subjunctive or imperative:

  • Sūrēmītūt.
    • speak-ger-dat-be-2sg
    • You will speak. ~ You would speak. ~ Speak.

A related form, ending in -mīt, can be used without personal inflection as a short command:

  • Sūrēmīt.
    • speak-ger-dat
    • Speak.

Personal suffixes

The personal suffixes have two roles: first, they change the role of a nominal root to predicative and second, they indicate the person of the subject. They can be roughly translated as "I am / you are / he is X".

The personal suffixes are similar to corresponding personal pronouns, but they are created irregularly:

singular plural
1. -ēm /-aym/ -um /-əm/
2. -ōt /-awt/ -aŋ /-aŋ/
3. /-əy/

There is no separate ending for the 3rd person plural, however, the number can be indicated on the nominal, e.g. nęsūreyī /nən-səwray-əy/ "they speak" (sūrē /səwray/ "speaking").

When the person is indicated by an independent word, the 3rd person ending is attached, e.g.

  • Kiyęyī-mē sarumītī.
    • neg-all-1sg die-ger-dat-be-3sg
    • I shall not wholly die.

Alternatively, a root can be turned into a gerundive, a.k.a. an action noun of meaning "the act / state of X" by adding -m.

The gerundive form needs the subject to be demoted, analogically as with causatives.

Intransitive objects are demoted to a genitive:

  • sūreyōt
    • speak-2sg
    • You speak.
  • tōsūrēm
    • 2sg-speak-ger
    • your speaking
  • sa-teyə ī
    • dem-man be-3sg
    • This man exists.
  • sa-teyə iyum
    • dem-man 3sg-be-ger
    • this man's existence

Transitive subjects are demoted to a dative:

  • mēsəlōt
    • 1sg-see-2sg
    • You see me.
  • towīt mēsəlum
    • 2sg-dat 1sg-see-ger
    • your seeing me

It can be later used as a way of forming complex sentences:

  • sa-teyə iyum īsəlōt
    • dem-man 3sg-be-ger 3sg-see-2sg
    • You see this man's existence. ~ You see that this man exists.


Nominals can be declined into several cases:

  • -ēr, ablative ("from X")
  • -īt, dative or lative ("to X")
  • -ūh, inessive ("in X"), can be combined:
    • -ūhēr, elative ("out of X")
    • -ūhīt, illative ("into X")
  • -wəh, adessive ("on X"), can be combined:
    • -wəhēr, delative ("off of X")
    • -wəhīt, allative ("onto X")
  • -ēw, essive ("while being / doing X")
  • -nē, translative ("turning into X")
  • -ak, comitative ("with X"), with likely derivated:
    • -kīk, abessive ("without X")

The adessive and derived cases often governs the nouns relating to time, whereas the inessive doesn't, for example ęyiyūh "everywhere" vs ęyīwəh "always".

Delative and allative have an additional meaning of "after X" and "before X", respectively, when used to specifying time.

Comitative has secondary prolative and instructive usage.

Essive and translative can be used for adjoining sentences, e.g.:

  • Tōsəlēw, sūreyēm.
    • 2sg-see-ess, speak-1sg
    • When I see you, I speak.
    • (lit. Seeing you, I speak.)
  • Īsūrēnē, mēsəlumērūt.
    • 3sg-speak-tra, 1sg-see-ger-abl-be-2sg
    • When you started to say it, you saw me.
    • (lit. Starting to say it, you saw me.)


1 10 ma 100
2 20 hōma 200 hōsī
3 kąyō 30 kąyōma 300 kąyōsī
4 40 lūma 400 lūsī
5 mīk 50 mīkuma 500 mīkəsī
6 çə 60 çuma 600 çəsī
7 kąç 70 kąçuma 700 kąçəsī
8 80 wēma 800 wēsī
9 mec 90 mecuma 900 mecəsī


  • kąyō "three" apparently comes from reduced kē-nī-hō, i.e. "one and two";
  • mīk "five" seems closely related to "hand";
  • kąç "seven" apparently comes from reduced kē-nī-çə, i.e. "one and six";
  • mec "nine" is a diminutive derived from ma "ten".

There are also some additional numerals:

  • kiyə "zero", literally "unexistent, not being";
  • uf "half";
  • ufec "quarter", diminutive of above;
  • keyec "three quarters", diminutive of "one";
  • howec "one and a half", diminutive of "two";
  • sęsī "a great number" or "thousand", literally "hundreds and hundreds".

Complex numerals are created with higher order elements first, e.g. sīhōmąlū "124" ← "100" + hōma "20" + "4".

  • ma changes to before another element is added, e.g. wēmąwē "88" ← wēma "80" + "8".

Ordinal numerals are created by adding -ət ~ -tə, e.g. luwət "forth", çətə "sixth":

  • -tə occurs after ə a and -ət elsewhere; though some speakers use -tə after other vowels as well;
  • keyət "first" is usually replaced with synonymous ītęy.


The result is given the 3rd person ending:

  • Lūmąhowī. (← lūmąhō)
    • forty-two-3sg
    • It is 42. ~ It equals 42.

Addition is expressed with dative.

  • Howīt kąyō mīkī.
    • two-dat three five-3sg
    • 2 + 3 = 5

Subtraction is expressed with ablative.

  • Mēr lū çī.
    • ten-abl four six-3sg
    • 10 - 4 = 6

In multiplication, the second factor is marked with 3rd person singular genitive prefix:

  • Lū īmīk hōmē.
    • four 3sg-five twenty-3sg
    • 4 × 5 = 20

Division is marked with adessive:

  • Hōmąkēwəh kąç kąyowī.
    • twenty-one-ade seven three-3sg
    • 21 ÷ 7 = 3


The language is primarily head-final.


Genitive phrase

Genitive phrase is created by juxtaposing the dependent and the head with appropriate personal prefix:

  • sa-teyə
    • dem-man
    • this man
  • īfē
    • 3sg-house
    • his/her house
  • sa-teyə īfē
    • dem-man 3sg-house
    • this man's house

Alternatively, the dependent can be prefixed (i.e. incorporated in the prefix slot). It is however done rarely and might slightly change the meaning of the phrase.

  • teyu-fē
    • man-house
    • man house

The dependent might or might not be a noun:

  • sa īfē
    • dem 3sg-house
    • this one's house

When the personal pronoun appears independently as the dependent, the head is marked with a 3rd person prefix:

  • mēpəkī
    • 1sg-love
    • my lover / one who loves me
  • mē īpəkī
    • 1sg 3sg-love
    • lover of mine

Attributive phrases

In the attributive phrase, the dependent and the head are juxtaposed, without any additional marking needed.

  • pəkī teyə
    • love man
    • loving man

Words acting as adverbs behave the same way:

  • miya tōpəkiyēm
    • much 2sg-love-1sg
    • I love you much

Adpositional phrases

The case ending are sometimes interpreted as postpositions. Beside that there is no closed class of adpositions.

However, often some nominals can be applied in this role.

  • səkəm
    • near-ger
    • surroundings, proximity
  • fē īsəkəmūh ~ fē-səkəmūh
    • house 3sg-proximity-ine ~ house-proximity-ine
    • in the house surroundings; near the house

They can be also used instead some cases, for the rhetorical effect:

  • kiyum
    • neg-be-ger
    • absence, inexistence
  • tō īkiyumūh ~ tōkiyumūh
    • 2sg 3sg-absence-ine ~ 2sg-absence-ine
    • in your absence; without you
  • tōkīk
    • 2sg-abe
    • without you

All adpositional phrases and declined nouns appear before nominals they describe:

  • tō iyofūh fē
    • 2sg 3sg-behind-ine house
    • the house behind you
  • feyūh teyə
    • house-ine man
    • a man in a house


Comparative-superlative form is made by adding -ąy, e.g.

  • səkąy
    • near-comp
    • closer, the closest

The standard argument is added as a simple genitive:

  • tōsəkąy
    • 2sg-near-comp
    • closer than you

The meaning easily varies between the comparative and the superlative.

  • kəhąy
    • tall-comp
    • taller, the tallest
  • numəkəhąy
    • 1pl-tall-comp
    • taller than we; the tallest among us

Additional roots can be incorporated to specify it when ambiguous:

  • nənə-səkąy
    • pl-be-near-comp
    • closer [than many]
  • ęyiyə-kəhąy
    • all-be-tall-comp
    • the tallest [among all]
Parallel comparative

The parallel comparative is created by two types of construction:

(I) connecting the two elements with :

  • (sē) miyąy, sē lahąy
    • (so) much-comp, so good-comp
    • the more, the better

(II) using the first element as the subject and the second one as the predicate:

  • miyąy lahąyī
    • much-comp good-comp-3sg
    • more is better

It can be used with more complex clauses, as well. The second type needs the predicates to be demoted to gerunds, though:

  • Towak miyąy sūreyēm, sē lahąyənē īm.
    • 2sg-com much-comp speak-1sg, so good-comp-tra be-1sg
    • The more I talk to you, the better I become.
  • Towak miyąy sūrē mē, lahąyənē ə meyī.
    • 2sg-com much-comp speak 1sg, good-comp-tra be 1sg-3sg
    • I talking to you more am I becoming better person.

The similar meaning can be achieved by the essive construction — it is doable only with clauses with the same subject:

  • Towak miyąy sūreyēw, lahąyənē īm.
    • 2sg-com much-comp speak-ess, good-comp-tra be-1sg
    • As I talk to you more, I become better person.



The language does not have a copular verb per se.

With a noun / adjective root or phrase appears in the predicative role, it is simply inflected with the appropriate personal prefix — the noun, adjective and verb categories are merged here.

  • teyə
    • a man
  • Teyīm.
    • man-1sg
    • I am a man.
  • lah
    • good
  • Lahōt.
    • good-2sg
    • You are good.

It, however, can't be done with an adpositional phrase or a nominal inflected for case. The null root ə is used then.

  • So-fōn mēfeyūh ī.
    • dem-person 1sg-house-ine be-3sg
    • This man is in my house.


The predicative possession is expressed by using a possessive noun phrase along with the existential root ə. The possessor describes here the possessee, which on turn acts as the subject.

  • sa-teyə īfē
    • dem-man 3sg-house
    • that man's house
  • sa-teyə īfē ī
    • dem-man 3sg-house be-3sg
    • that man has a house ~ that man's house exists

The possessee can be pronominal — in such case it is omitted and the ə root is prefixed. In other words, the possessive pronouns are used.

  • sa-teyə iyə
    • dem-man 3sg-be
    • that man's
  • sa-teyə iyī
    • dem-man 3sg-be-3sg
    • that man has it ~ it is that man's
  • towə
    • 2sg-be
    • yours
  • towīm
    • 2sg-be-1sg
    • you have me ~ I'm yours


There is no separate morphological device for expressing questions. They are expressed mostly by intonation:

  • Fē ī.
    • house be-3sg
    • There is a house.
  • Fē ī?
    • house be-3sg?
    • Is there a house?
  • Fē kiyī.
    • house neg-be-3sg
    • There is no house.
  • Fē kiyī?
    • house neg-be-3sg?
    • Is there no house?

The words and kiyī act as positive and negative, respectively, responses to binary questions:

  • Lahōt? Sē, lahēm.
    • good-2sg? that-3sg good-1sg
    • Are you good? Yes, I am good.
  • Īwanī sōh ī? Kiyī, īniyī sōh kiyī.
    • some[body] that-ine be-3sg? neg-be-3sg every[body] that-ine neg-be-3sg
    • Is anybody there? No, there is nobody.

An alternative response is kīŋōrēm, simply "I don't know".

  • Pəkīm ūniyī? Kīŋōrēm.
    love-ger what-3sg? neg-know-1sg
    What is love? I don't know.

Additionally, those words can be added to emphasize the interrogative character of a phrase, e.g.:

  • Lahaŋ, sē?
    • good-2pl that-3sg?
    • You are good, right?
  • Lahaŋ, kiyī?
    • good-2pl neg-be-3sg?
    • You are good, aren't you?


The modality is expressed by separate roots acting as the predicate.

The most commonly used four verbs are divided into potential and necessary or into natural / physical and artificial / comissive.

siç "can, be able" — expresses natural possibility or ability:

  • Lahə-siçī.
    • good-n.pos-3sg
    • It could be good.

"can, be allowed" — expresses comissive possibility or permission:

  • Sōh-īw ə-kīmowēm.
    • that-ine-be-ess be-neg-c.pos-1sg
    • I mustn't be here.

tah "must, need" — expresses natural necessity or requirement:

  • Sōhīt ə-tahēm.
    • that-all
    • I need to go there.

ñar "must, have to" — expresses comissive necessity or obligation:

  • Meyak i-ñarōt.
    • 1sg-com
    • It is your duty to be with me.

Complex sentences


The four most commonly used coordinative conjunction are:

"and"; "nor" (in negative sentences)

  • sōhīt sōmērīm, nī səlumērīm
    that-ill go-past-1sg, and see-past-1sg
    I came and I saw.
  • nī mē kīŋōrī, nī tō kīŋōrī
    and 1sg neg-know-3sg, and 2sg neg-know-3sg
    Neither I know, nor you do.


  • īpəkīmīt, wą īkīpəkīmīt
    3sg-love-ger-dat, or 3sg-neg-love-ger-dat
    Love it or not.
  • wą tō īsəlumītī, wą towīt īsūrēmītīm
    or 2sg 3sg-see-fut-3sg, or 2sg-dat 3sg-speak-fut-1sg
    Either you'll see it yourself, or I'll tell you about it.

"so", "therefore", "that is"

  • ī mēteyī, sē numufē keyī
    3sg 1sg-man-3sg, so 1pl-house one-3sg
    He is my husband, so our house is one.
  • sələna-kīmowōt, sē īniyī tōsələ-kīmowī
    see-pass-neg-n.poss-2sg, so all 2sg-see-neg-n.poss-3sg
    You are invisible, that is noone can see you.

sēw "but", "whereas"

  • tōsəlēm, sēw mēkīsəlōt
    2sg-see-1sg, but 1sg-neg-see-2sg
    I see you, but you don't see me.
  • lahī, sēw īkīpəkiyēm
    good-3sg, but 3sg-neg-love-1sg
    It is good, but I don't like it.


Relativization on subject

The basic method used for relativizing the subject is putting the subordinate predicate in its impersonal form:

  • mēfeyūh umērī
    1sg-house-ine be-past-3sg
    He was in my house.
  • mēfeyūh umērə (teyə)
    1sg-house-ine be-past (man)
    (the man) who was in my house


  • çə6
  • çiñąsource
  • çiñanēwell (← çiñą)
  • ērəlate, recent (← ə)
  • ērəkbuttocks, fool (← ə)
  • ēręylast (← ə)
  • ērībackside, rear (← ə)
  • əto be
  • əsiçto be possible (← ə, siç)
  • ətahto be inevitable (← ə, tah)
  • ęmūto have to do with
  • ęyīeverybody, everything (← īniyī)
  • house
  • fəlapple
  • fōlabove
  • fōnhuman, person
  • howecone and a half (← )
  • 2
  • iñarto be required (← ə, ñar)
  • īhe, she, it
  • īniyīeverybody, everything (← ī, )
  • īrover there (← ə)
  • ītəearly (← ə)
  • ītęyfirst (← ə)
  • ītīface, front (← ə)
  • īwhere, now (← ə)
  • īwanīwho, what, somebody, something (← ī, )
  • īwumpresent (← īw)
  • kąç7 (← , çə)
  • kąyō3 (← , )
  • keyecthree quarters (← )
  • 1
  • kəhhigh, tall
  • kiyə0 (← )
  • not
  • kīkəto lack, to miss, to want, to need (sth) (← ə)
  • kōnąytree (← , wąnī)
  • lahgood
  • lęcəto imprison
  • lęcənomprison (← lęcə)
  • 4
  • ma10
  • manūgrandmother (← )
  • mom, parent
  • mąnflower
  • mąnato be born (← )
  • mąyōrmother (← , yōr)
  • mec9 (← ma)
  • I
  • miyamuch, many, very
  • hand
  • mīk5 (← )
  • mīrafree
  • mīrakērelease (← mīra)
  • to be allowed to
  • nənīthey (← ī)
  • and
  • numwe
  • ñarto have to
  • ŋąyou
  • ŋēto take
  • ŋōrto know
  • ofbehind
  • pəkīto love
  • name
  • romto give
  • ropwater
  • sathat
  • sarto die
  • therefore (← sa)
  • sēwbut (← sa)
  • səknear
  • səlto see
  • sələkīsiçblind (← səl, , sīç)
  • sələnasiçvisible (← səl, siç)
  • sęrparent, relative
  • sęrūgrandparent, ancestor (← sęr)
  • sęsī1000
  • siçto be able to
  • 100
  • to go
  • mouth
  • sūrword (← )
  • sūrēto speak (← )
  • sūrēkīsiçmute (← sūrē, , sīç)
  • sūrēnasiçspeakable (← sūrē, siç)
  • tahto need to
  • teyəman
  • teyęmūmanly (← teyə, ęmū)
  • tēmąfather (← teyə, )
  • thou
  • ufhalf
  • ufecquarter (← uf)
  • umērumpast (← ə)
  • umītumfuture (← ə)
  • umōto be allowed (← ə, )
  • ūnīwho, what, somebody, something (← īwanī)
  • or
  • wąnīforest
  • 8
  • wōtęmighty
  • wōtęmpower (← wōtę)
  • yōrwoman
  • yōręmūwomanly