Tmèktol

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Tmèktol is a Southern language spoken in the eponymous locale.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal
Nasal m n ɲ ŋ
Stop p pʰ t tʰ k kʰ q qʰ ʔ
Affricate pf pfʰ ts tsʰ tʃ tʃʰ
Fricative f s ʃ x χ h
Lateral Fricative ɬ
Resonant l j w
  • /ts tsʰ/ are written c cʰ.
  • /ɬ/ is written ł.
  • /tʃ tʃʰ ʃ j/ are written č čʰ š y.
  • /χ/ is written .

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i
Mid e o
Low a

There are two tones: High (unmarked) and low (denoted with a grave accent, as à).

Numbers

Tmèktol counts in a base-12 system. Zero is owto.

  1. tʰà
  2. po
  3. tòtʰa
  4. mìwsa
  5. mìčʰtʰàn
  6. sčawta
  7. iḥqò
  8. nìkʰà
  9. swòn
  10. qsòtʰà
  11. mìsi

Morphology

Verbs

Verbs can take one of several endings: -ci, -cʰi, -čyò, -čʰyò, -nè, -o, , or -syo.

Negation

Negation is achieved using a prefix qo(w)-; this w appears when the prefix would come into contact with another instance of o:

  • qo-Ø-qsišci
    NEG-SG-breathe
    he isn't breathing
  • qow-Ø-o-mà~màwsci
    NEG-SG-1-PST~dream
    I did not dream


Person-marking

The unmarked, default form of the verb is the second-and-third-person singular:

  • Ø-Ø-čwècʰi
    SG-2-protest
    you object

To denote the first-person singular, one prefixes o-:

  • Ø-o-čwècʰi
    SG-1-protest
    I object

Plural agreement is indicated with a prefix š- in addition to the marking of the actor:

  • š-čwècʰi
    PL-1-protest
    we object
  • š-čwècʰi
    PL-2/3-protest
    you all object, they object


Tense

Present tense

The present tense is the default, unmarked form.

Past tense

The past tense is formed via reduplication of the first syllable, with complications. In general, the sequence in- is prefixed before the reduplicand unless the verb is vowel-initial, in which case the prefix is simply n-. If the first consonant of the reduplicated segment is an aspirated consonant, the prefixal n instead becomes a copy of that consonant.

  • in-čwè~čwècʰi
    PST-PST~object
    you objected
  • it~itʰaci
    PST~witness
    you witnessed
  • in-ka~kalci
    PST~take
    you took
  • in-łwò~łwòʔnci
    PST-PST~exchange
    you exchanged
  • now~oʔci
    PST-PST~slice
    you sliced


Future tense

The future tense is formed via a prefix in- (or ny- if the form is vowel-initial), without reduplication:

  • in-čwècʰi
    FUT-object
    you will object
  • in-itʰaci
    FUT-witness
    you will witness
  • in-kalci
    FUT take
    you will take
  • in-wòʔnci
    FUT-exchange
    you will exchange
  • n-oʔci
    FUT-slice
    you will slice


Nouns

Nouns do not decline for number or case. A preposed particle iḥo is used for plurals of items greater than two:

  • iḥo ŋàka
    PL stick
    sticks
  • iḥo mèʔo mìčʰtʰàn
    PL small.dagger six
    six daggers

The sole exception to this is when po 'two' is used; it appears before the verb, without iḥḥo:

  • po icʰwò
    two person
    two people