Stuhmì

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Stuhmì is a Southern language spoken in the eponymous locale.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n ŋ
Stop p pʰ t tʰ tʲ tʲʰ k kʰ ʔ
Affricate pf pfʰ ts tsʰ tʃ tʃʰ
Lateral Affricate tɬ tɬʰ tɬʲ tɬʲʰ
Fricative f s ʃ x h
Lateral Fricative ɬ ɬʲ
Resonant j w
Lateral Resonant l
  • /ts tsʰ/ are written c cʰ.
  • /tɬ tɬʰ tɬʲ tɬʲʰ ɬ ɬʲ/ are written ƛ ƛʰ ƛʸ ƛʸʰ ł łʸ.
  • /nʲ tʲ tʲʰ tʃ tʃʰ ʃ lʲ j/ are written nʸ tʸ tʸ č čʰ š lʸ y.

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid e o
Low a

There are two tones: High (unmarked) and low (denoted with a grave accent, as à).

Numbers

Stuhmì counts in a base-12 paradigm. The word for 'zero' is owt.

  1. in
  2. pu
  3. impu
  4. tùŋ
  5. mìwš
  6. mìnalàn
  7. škawtal
  8. imuʔ
  9. nìn
  10. swònʸ
  11. en
  12. mìn

Morphology

Verbs

Verbs can take one of several endings: -c, -cʰ, -h, -k (rarely), -l, -yèy, or any nasal.

Negation

Negation is accomplished via a prefix ko- (kow- before o):

  • ko-pewyèc
    NEG-listen
    you don't listen
  • kow-oxwèn
    NEG-fight
    you don't fight


Person-marking

Stuhmì marks verbs for the person and number of the subject. The base form of the verb, which is unmarked, is the second-person singular:

  • Ø-Ø-kòtnàc
    SG-2-hold
    you hold

The first person is indicated with a prefix o-:

  • Ø-o-kòtnàc
    SG-1-hold
    I hold

Ablaut of the final stem vowel indicates the third person:

  • Ø-kòtn<ò>c
    SG-hold/3
    he holds

To these forms, łʸ- is prefixed to indicate plurality:

  • łʸ-o-kòtnàc
    PL-1-hold
    we hold
  • łʸ-Ø-kòtnàc
    PL-2-hold
    you all hold
  • łʸ-kòtn<ò>c
    PL-hold/3
    they hold


Tense

Present tense

The present tense is the default, unmarked form of the verb.

Past tense

The past tense is formed by prefixing in- before a consonant and n- before a vowel and concurrently reduplicating the first syllable of the verb stem, with complications. If the verb stem is consonant-initial, that consonant deletes on the reduplicand:

  • in-a~tayan
    PST-PST~guide
    you will guide
  • in-e~tʸēyīŋ
    PST-PST~slurp
    you will slurp


Future tense

The future tense is formed by simply prefixing in- before a consonant and n- before a vowel, with no reduplication. Again, a consonant deletes if it would form a cluster with this nasal, but not before the nasal assimilates in place of articulation:

  • in-ayan
    FUT-guide
    you will guide
  • inʸ-ēyīŋ
    FUT-slurp
    you will slurp


Nouns

Nouns themselves do not decline for number or case. The nominal plural is formed by a preposed particle ixo:

  • ixo ti
    PL shoe
    shoes
  • ixo lò tùŋ
    PL hill four
    four hills


All numbers, with the exception of pu 'two', follow the noun they modify. When it occurs, pu does not occur with ixxo:

  • pu hal
    two son
    two sons