User:Zju/RED

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Introduction

This is Ronquian Etymological Dictionary, an etymological dictionary of the Ronquian (a.k.a. Rompian) language family.

Where no PR meaning is given, it is assumed to be the same as the one of its descendants.

The dictionary

RT Meaning RTJ Meaning MT Meaning PR, * Notes
kuc (3a.du pronoun) gúd the two of them gut
ndzì (3a.pc/coll pronoun) tgi /tʰkɪ/ them (paucal)
ndźí (3a.pl pronoun) they, their gli /klɪ/ they ŋki, ki, gdi
tśi (3a.sgv pronoun) he, she, it; his, her, its ki /kʰɪ/ he, she, it gi
hkáe (3i.du pronoun)
ndáo (3i.pc/pl pronoun)
to (3i.sg/coll pronoun) it, they, all of it, all of their, its, their to /tʰɔ/ it, they, all of it, all of them (inanimate) do
ndro (3i.sgv pronoun) ĕdŏ it, its mro /mrɔ/ it mdo <m-do
sru (animate indefinite)
tenc (complementizer)
rei (complementizer, quotative)
ta (imperative particle)
tsu (inanimate indefinite)
sró (no attr) (interrogative copula) srŏ stand (used as a copula) /so/ stand (used as a general copula) sro
trá (question particle)
hréc (no attr) (question verb)
bùn (relative pronoun: animate) hmo animate relativizer kambum /kʰəmbʊm/ relativizer -bum
gyào (relative pronoun: inanimate)
mba (singulative particle)
ngei a little, a small amount of ngàì a little ngai /ŋaɪ̯/ a little ŋaj
ndźi much, a lot, a large amount of hnyĭ a lot ndé /nde/ a lot ndje
ĕbógĕtrub a 'tithe' paid to the family of the queen during major seasonal festivals
khŏ khŏ abacus, any counting tool qo
pìnc sgv pyènc acorns p’íd acorn(s) p’in /p’ɪn/ acorn(s) pʔint
paec pass páec, attr gwaec acquire, buy págh recieve in trade, buy pēc /pʰɛ̤ʔ/ receive in trade pCeq
zào pass hsào, attr dzào add, mix in sĕrrĕtá add, mix in sâu /sa̤ʊ̯/ add, mix in
ndù pass syù, attr gundù admit, confess hnô admit, confess dandu /təndʊ/ admit, confess ndu
nàc rò adopt (children)
pass hrò, attr krò embrace; accept ro /rɔ/ choose, select, settle on, adopt ro
nàc pass tàc, attr dàc choose, take, use cáb choose, pick, select, take dāph /tə̤ɸ/ pick, select, take dʔap
xe pl nae adze grĕ adze īwū /ɪ̤wṳ/ adze ʀe
hmi for as long as hmì age, epoch, long time, long period mhírí /m̥iri/ age, epoch, long time, long period hmij
agree /kʰu/ agree with gju
mbà pl nambà yard, enclosed area ĕbă hmâ agricultural field, yard, garden namba /nəmbə/ garden, yard mba
wei sgv yèi air air, emptiness wij
na all (of many) all /nə̤/ all nha
dzá all (of a few)
hnâ all three tna /tʰn̥ə/ all three tna
twi pass twí, attr gudwi allow, let, permit drĭ allow, let, permit twí /tʰwi/ allow, let, permit dRi
tsí already already thi /θɪ/ already ti
hnĕlágh altar nhau /n̥aʊ̯/ altar
although, even if ti although tha /θə/ although ta the vocalism is puzzling - RT and RTJ suggest a front vowel, but lack the palatalisation, which it would have triggered
myuc among, in reach of, connected to
an pl nan amphora, flask (ceramicware for liquids) ràì vase, ceramicware for holding liquid anggó /əŋgo/ vase, amphora, ceramicware for liquids
ĕró ancestor rusú /rʊsu/ ancestor sju
kèc sgv kì ancestors
o and, also o and (coordinates clauses) o /ɔ/ and o
na and ne and (coordinates non-subject nouns) na /nə/ and, with (of noun phrases)
to and (used to link sequential verbs)
dāth /tə̤θ/ anger
céd be angry dāth /tə̤θ/ be angry dV?t
guo attr kyuo be angry ngô anger
ragá pass hragá, attr gragá bend ĕrĕ angle, curve, bend saye /səjɛ/ angle, curve, bend
śec pl síec animal xég ĕrég animal, creature sakh /səx/ animal, creature sek
ĕhxíg ankle ascikh /əsʔɪx/ ankle, talus bone, dice asʔik
ruguo pass hruguo, attr gruguo annoy, bother
pwo pass pwó, attr gubwo answer blŏ reply, respond /pʰo/ reply, respond blo
dóg ant tong /tʰɔŋ/ ant doŋk
taenc sgv tsaenc ants dVVŋk
idré (no pl) anus
anus khe /xɛ/ anus ke
any (of many) c’ĕ any t’e /t’ɛ/ any tʔe
omàc (no sgv) large village, town rrĕpád any large, permanent settlement rómbāth /rombə̤θ/ town; large, permanent village
dĕt’ód any of three tat’oth /tʰət’ɔθ/ any of the three datʔot
kĕdĕt’ód any two of three kadatʔot
hngâ applaud ganga /kəŋə/ applaud
múwe /muwɛ/ cider (alcohol made from apples)
mandú /məndu/ apple orchard, grove of apple trees monduw the original vowel of the first element could have been either o, reduced to a in MT, or a, rounded to o elsewhere
mándú /mandu/ apple tree m?onduw
ndùo (no sgv) apple trees ĕdú apple trees nduw
muo sgv myuo apple(s) apples, cider (alcohol made from apples) mo
múwong /muwɔŋ/ apple(s)
hfég srég thanks safeng /səfɛŋ/ thanks safeŋk ~ sfeŋk
dwenc attr gudwenc appreciate, be grateful bég thank peng /pʰɛŋ/ thank dbeŋk
nggà pass hxà, attr ganggà approve, agree
waon sgv yàon arable land
twíc pass htwíc, attr gudwíc disagree, protest, argue tríd argue with thíth /θiθ/ argue with trit
saríth /səriθ/ argument sarit ~ srit
tríd argument trit
tsie pl trac arm arm /tʰi/ arm dij
yairí /jaɪ̯ri/ armband
ĕrĕzrí armband, arm ring
màì armor, shell (e.g. of a turtle) mamā /məmə̤/ turtle shell, armor
zĕhféd armory, army teSfet < fet 'warrior'
fandeth /fəndɛθ/ army, militia fəntet < fet 'warrior'
rie around
nrìn sgv nyèn arrow(s) nyè arrow(s) gín /kin/ arrow gin
arrowhead, spearhead ānggén /ə̤ŋgen/ arrowhead ha
bwá attr gubwá be similar, be like, resemble
pa as, like be similar to, be like, resemble ba /pə/ be similar to, be like, resemble ba
kóláth /kʰolaθ/ ash tree gowlat
koa sgv kyoa ash trees ghŏ grove of ash trees holath /hɔləθ/ grove of ash trees ɢo
śenc (no sgv) ashes xéd yéd ash, ashes xan /χən/ ashes χent
śae pass hśae, attr gźae ask (sb.) ask, question, interrogate (never "request") sai /saɪ̯/ ask, question, interrogate sja, sjaj, sjaJ
hláo pass hahláo, attr tláo ask, plead, request (sth.)
ndźec (no sgv) asters (type of flower) hmĕjéd ĕjéd asters (flower) mhalath /m̥ələθ/ asters (type of star-shaped flower) hmeget
rae at the edge of
ke at the rear of, behind
nic at, on
suo at, on
dadào pl ndadào atlatl (spear-thrower)
dric pass htric, attr kric attack rrĕzríd attack raríth /rəriθ/ attack, assault radrit
nggèi (no sgv) autumn, fall nĕdrí autumn, fall nínggí /niŋgi/ autumn ? ŋkej
fafai /fəfaɪ̯/ avalanche, landslide
sĕwŏ await
húyākh /hujə̤x/ ax
tlú pl ndlú axe trŭ axe
mbò pl mpwò baby hmô ĕbŏ baby mpo
nyè baby bird
kmalau /kʰm̥əlaʊ̯/ bad
/fu/ bag, waterskin
páon pass hpáon, attr gwáon bake pàì bake phem /ɸɛm/ bake pem
pàì baked goods, pastries sawem /səwɛm/ baked goods
lód ball loth /lɔθ/ ball, sphere lot
hrèc (no sgv) band, tribe, ethnic group
nòa (no sgv) bandage nūrau /nʊ̤raʊ̯/ bandage(s)
ĕhlĕzó bandage
bar, keep out lu /lʊ/ bar, keep out lu
mĕwè bark cloth mwímbōm /mwimbɔ̤m/ bark cloth
dec sgv dzec barn, stables zĕhxég barn, housing for animals sréth /sreθ/ barn, corral, housing for animals sret
ngèa-póu pl ngào-póu barrel
rrĕkh’áí barrel rók’ē /rok’ɛ̤/ barrel roqʔeh
q’épegh barter, trade with (a partner)
k’ă basket ca /ʔə/ basket kʔa
nggàc pl nanggàc basket
xàe (no pl) bat
bat
súsú /susu/ bat
bĕdrĕhì battle, make war on
ndùc pl nundùc battle, skirmish ĕdúd battle, skirmish nanduth /nəndʊθ/ battle, skirmish ntut
ndźéan pl nindźéan bay ĕqàì ĕjàì bay mlan /mlən/ bay
ngóu (no attr) be (copula)
dră be able /ta/ be able dra
ndèin attr gindèin be about to
ĕjí be afraid
langgú /ləŋgu/ be afraid
hmê be alone
byùc attr gibyùc be ambitious
céd be angry dāth /tə̤θ/ be angry dV?t
guo attr kyuo be angry
xĕtĕhxú be ashamed
yunc attr tśunc be awake yúb be awake yum /jʊm/ be awake jump
huo attr kúo be bad ĕqé ú be bad
mlau /mlaʊ̯/ be bad, behave badly
î /i̤/ be beautiful, be pretty
rrĕwŏ ĕwŏ be big
attr kwò be big, be large, be tall
ríb be black
pyonc attr gibyonc be black, be dark
fyou attr givyou be blind be blind /fu/ be blind fow
ngùo attr gùo be blue, be green be blue/green guə
mbrinc attr gimbrinc be brave, be courageous mríd be brave, be courageous myin /mjɪn/ be brave, be courageous mrint
bwí attr gubwí be bright
ó be calm (of sea or weather) ú /u/ be calm (of weather or water) ow
attr glò be calm, be silent
làe attr tlàe be calm, be sunny (of weather)
naonc pass náonc, attr daonc be characterized by
póu attr gwóu be closed be closed
dimbléi attr glimbléi be cloudy (of weather)
mbyu attr gimbyu be coarse, be rough
tsao attr gzao be cold (of things); feel cold (of people)
trae attr grae be cold (of weather) dĕzrá be cold, feel cold
dinggéc attr glinggéc be colorful
rró be content, fulfilled /rʊ̤/ be content, be fullfilled ruX
hfí be course, rough
dzèa attr ksèa be creative, have an idea
didyèi attr glidyèi be critically ill
attr gyá be crooked, be bent trĕ be crooked, be bent
danggae attr glanggae be cruel, be bloody
be cunning /tə̤/ be cunning, sly daX
lae attr tlae be dangerous be dangerous /li/ be dangerous lVV
rrú be deaf /ru/ be deaf ruw
yòu attr kyòu be deep ĕváú yáú be deep jaw / xaw
bzìc attr gibzìc be delicate, be fragile
pie attr gwie be determined, be strict
p’è be diagonal to p’ang /p’əŋ/ be diagonal to pʔeŋ
ngèn attr gèn be different, be unusual, be foreign ngàì be different, be unusual, be another gen /kɛn/ be different, be unusual, be another ŋken
c’ĕdĕră be difficult t’irá /t’ɪra/ be difficult ? tʔidra
danggan attr glanggan be difficult, be problematic
bli attr gibli be disgusting; be worthless
nggù attr gunggù be distant, be far away
attr kwè be drunk, be intoxicated
rùo attr krùo be dry, be barren rrú be dry ruə
dráo attr kráo be eager, be motivated
c’ă be easy t’a /t’ə/ be easy ? tʔa
tùnc attr glùnc be edible; be nourishing
yúgh be empty
bri attr gibri be evil, be malicious
bréd be exchanged for, switch with
nyà be excited nám /nam/ be excited njam
hmà be expensive, precious, dear
khíth /xiθ/ be fair, be honorable, be just
hngô be far, faraway, distant
ráon attr tráon be fast, be quick hràì be fast, quick hém /hem/ be fast, be quick hrem
źù attr dźù be fearful, be afraid
la attr tla be female be female, be feminine la /lə/ be female, be feminine la
pwaon attr gubwaon be fertile
be fine
íb be foolish, stupid
nàe attr dàe be fragrant
be fragrant, smell good
ĕwí be friendly
tún attr glún be full dĕt’è be full of tat’am /tʰət’əm/ be full of detʔVm
wób be full (from eating) woph /wɔɸ/ be full (of food) wop
dzì attr ksì be full (of food)
mbùn attr mùn be good; do well hmò be good, well mpun
sĕwă sră be great
yonc attr tśonc be happy yágh be happy yaŋ /jəŋ/ be happy jaɴq
nrágh be hard
poc attr gwoc be hard, be solid
dóc attr ksóc be heavy, be massive
pwec attr gubwec be heroic, be famous, be noble
bĕp’ò p’ò be high, tall
tśí attr gźí be hollow be hollow ki
drac attr krac be holy, be sacred, be magical ĕrŭ rrŭ be holy, sacred
ĕmàìd be honest, be honorable
jĕqó be hot, warm
wĕzrób be hungry wiróph /wɪroɸ/ be hungry widrop
yoc attr tśoc be hungry; be empty
màù be important /mɔ̤/ be important moX
pòun attr gwóun be important, be relevant, be prominent
be in pain /kə̤/ be in pain gaX
dandza attr glandza be in trance
be industrious, dilligent, hardworking
hmĕzrá be inexpensive, cheap
pín attr gwín be innocent, be peaceful
nàenc attr dàenc be intelligent, be clever be intelligent, wise dang /təŋ/ be intelligent, be wise ?? daVŋk
ndroa attr gundroa be irrelevant, don't matter
tríd be just
ngwi attr gwi be kind, be gentle ngù be kind ngí /ŋi/ be kind ŋwi
hngô kh’ŏ be last, the last
mònc attr bonc be lazy wób be lazy wom /wɔm/ be lazy, unhelpful, useless momp
psòn pass hpsòn, attr gubzòn be less than
mbí attr gimbí be lonely mĕhmê be lonely mpi
mama /məmə/ be lonely
mbàn attr gambàn be long bĕp’à p’à be long
dyò attr gidyò be loud, make noise
attr gwè be male p’ĕ be male, be masculine p’e /p’ɛ/ be male, be masculine pʔe
cágh be massive, heavy
yein attr kyein be naked
srŭ be near, nearby, close, neighboring
nyèn attr dźen be new, be young ĕnyàì lyàì be new, young njajn
ĕnyàì yàì be next
p’àù be noble p’om /p'ɔm/ be noble pʔom
úb be old
hun attr kún be old (of people and animals)
vùnc attr bunc be old, be ancient (of things)
ngwìn attr gwìn be open ngò be open
pùnc pass hpùnc, attr gùnc be/move parallel to p’úb be parallel to p’um /p’ʊm/ be parallel to pʔump
be peaceful, calm (of emotions) phing /ɸɪŋ/ be peaceful piŋ
bòu pass hpòu, attr kwòu be/move perpendicular to be perpendicular to /hʊ̤/ be perpendicular to hbow
dzùo attr ksùo be poisonous
dyáe attr gidyáe be polite
ĕdrĕ be poor ranggé /rəŋge/ be poor
ngéi attr géi be popular
da attr ksa be powerful, be influential
nggò attr gunggò be precious, be valuable, be of high quality
kekh /kʰɛx/ be pregnant
dùonc attr ksùonc be pregnant
su attr gzu be present, be in reach
xei attr kei be pretty, be beautiful
yĕrĕ ĕrĕ be previous, be (the) one before
bíg be private, be personal
p’íg be public p’ing /p'ɪŋ/ be public pʔiŋk
t’ŏ be quiet t’o /t’ɔ/ be quiet tʔo
be ready wai /waɪ̯/ be ready, get ready, prepare ? waj
hśac attr kśac be ready, be finished
be red
pwae attr gèi be red
jĕhvĕhí be renowned, respected, famous
hnyèb be rich nanem /nənɛm/ be rich nemp
onc attr konc be right, guess correctly ágh be right, guess correctly ang /əŋ/ be right, be correct, guess correctly aɴq
loc attr tloc be rough (of weather) lúgh be rough (of sea or weather) luc /lʊʔ/ be rough (of weather or water) luq
pyei attr gibyei be round (2D)
ploc attr gubloc be round (3D)
yèanc attr kyèanc be sad yĕzrágh be sad yuyang /jʊjəŋ/ be sad CVCaɴq
nye attr dźe be safe nyê be safe /ne/ be safe nje
pric attr gibric be salty
brinc attr gibrinc be secret, be confidential, be hidden p’ĕzríg be secret p’iríŋ /p'ɪriŋ/ be secret pʔidriŋk
attr bí be separate, be on one's own
dźie attr kśie be sharp hxí be sharp
yin attr tśin be short nyè è be short njen
bĕprég brég be sick
dyèi attr gidyèi be sick, be ill
attr gló be significant, have a hidden meaning
be silent lu /lʊ/ be silent lu
bwá attr gubwá be similar, be like, resemble be similar to, be like, resemble ba /pə/ be similar to, be like, resemble ba
tsèa attr gzèa be simple, be easy
attr bì be skilled
sruc attr gruc be slow srúg be slow súkh /sux/ be slow sruk
mbìn attr mìn be small hmè be small mpin
hnyâ be smooth
hngê be soft
nggí attr ginggí be soft, be smooth
attr kró be special, be unique
sangga /səŋgə/ be sticky
dlĕdrĕ be sticky
kyuc attr gigyuc be straight júb gĕjúb be straight gjump
twó attr glúo be strong dĕdrŏ trŏ be strong
ndza attr gandza be successful, hit the target
prec attr gibrec be surprising, do suddenly
va attr ba be sweet
be talented pim /pʰɪm/ be talented, have talent bim
móu attr bóu be tame (of animals)
grĕgré gré be the middle one, be in the middle
ĕnòb lúb be thick
lunc attr tlunc be thick (2D)
nrùnc attr drunc be thick (3D)
cíb dlyíb be thin
líc attr tlíc be thin (2D)
bwíc attr gubwíc be thin (3D)
ròu attr kròu be thirsty ĕrí be thirsty /ji/ be thirsty r?i
manc attr banc be tired màd be tired man /mən/ be tired mant
fào attr gwào be together fanggau /fəŋgaʊ̯/ be together, be in a group
be together, be in a group
dzónc attr ksónc be true, be correct
úd be unfortunate, be unlucky
mĕzráú be unimportant mirô /mɪro̤/ be unimportant midroX
nyĕhnyè be unknown ndiŋai /ndɪŋaɪ̯/ be unknown ndi
í be unreal, imaginary î /i̤/ beauty iX
attr glú be unusable, be defunct (of tools etc.)
myèn attr byèn be usual, be ordinary, do habitually
tśáo attr gźáo be warm, be hot (of things); feel warm (of people)
kwéi attr gugwéi be warm, be hot (of weather)
zròc attr dròc be weak dĕcr'áb zráb be weak
zrénc attr drénc be welcome
c’à be wet
bou attr kwou be wet, be damp
rén (no attr) be what? hràì be what? (inanimate) hren
ù k’íb be white
pàonc attr gwàonc be white, be pale
róu (no attr) be who? hráú be who? (animate) hraw
hrùn attr dùn be whole, be complete, be functional
piec attr gwiec be wild, be fierce
attr gú be windy (of weather)
tsáo attr gzáo be wise
lùo pass hlùo, attr tlùo be worried about
gré gĕgré be wrong iráng /ɪraŋ/ be wrong
mào attr bào be yellow be yellow
dĕcr’àù hnàù beach
gròn sgv gyòn beach, gravel bank
gáú ngàù bead(s)
fwēc /fwɛ̤ʔ/ beads, money
ngòu sgv nyòu beads, pearls
nggae (no pl) beak (of a bird) k’í beak k’í /k’i/ beak kʔij
hlo sgv syo beans dlrŏ beans sówai /sowaɪ̯/ beans ɬro
tśao pl kyáo bear kau /kʰaʊ̯/ bear kjaw
ĕnà bear
kàc pass hkàc, attr gyàc bear, carry kh’ád bear, carry qʔat
ngà bear, give birth to can /ʔən/ bear, give birth ŋan
nínc sgv nyénc beard zĕhíg beard nhing /n̥ɪŋ/ beard, facial hair hniŋk
nyò beauty
pyu because
lo attr tlo become
ngòb become old ngum /ŋʊm/ become old ŋump
t’án /t’an/ become wet, be wet
ninc pl ndinc bed nàì bed niNT
músandai /musəndaɪ̯/ bed of strawberries
nai /naɪ̯/ bed, sleeping place
rae sgv rie bee(s) ĕré bee yímú /jimu/ bee ? rij
píyi /pʰijɪ/ beech tree
mauyí /maʊ̯ji/ beehive
pe sgv pye beer beer pe /pʰɛ/ beer be
fóg beetle fokht’éph /fɔxt’eɸ/ beetle fok
nge before, in front of, across from, facing
hlá beg hlau /hlaʊ̯/ beg hlaw
mèg belief, faith, religion mekhsang /mɛxsəŋ/ belief, faith, religion mek
tsin pass tsín, attr gzin believe, trust believe tin /tʰɪn/ believe, accept as truth din
ngàù belly (exterior)
htsi (no pl) belly, stomach kícom /kʰiʔɔm/ belly, abdomen hgi
belly, abdomen (interior)
ragá pass hragá, attr gragá bend
bend ye /jɛ/ bend je
runc beside, close to
/ro/ big
ĕjú bile úlí /uli/ bile
billygoat tun /tʰʊn/ billygoat (male goat) dun
pass hlú, attr tlú bind, tie, fasten dlŭ bind, tie su /sʊ/ bind, tie ɬu
no pl hno bird
dré bird /kʰi/ bird
ĕp’à hmà bird's nest
xàon (no pl) birth
káú bitch (female dog) sácau /saʔaʊ̯/ bitch, female dog (less marked)
kónc pass hkónc, attr gyónc bite
bite t’ā /t’ə̤/ bite
black color, black pigment thí /θi/ black, dark (in color) tVV
yēt’í /jɛ̤t’i/ black obsidian
thíyāth /θijə̤θ/ black pigment, the color black
bladder
hkwi pl ngkwi blanket lyĕhfĭ blanket wikhfi /wɪxfɪ/ blanket(s) ?? hkwi
pass hrù, attr krù bless ĕrŭ bless rayu /rəjʊ/ bless rəu
blisters khú /xu/ blister(s) qVV
ĕwá éwa blood
xae sgv xèi blood âi /a̤ɪ̯/ blood
wic attr kwic blow
ngò blue/green color, pigment kngú /kʰŋ̊u/ blue, green, blue/green ʀaj
cúyāth /ʔujə̤θ/ blue, green, blue/green, those colors/pigments
kdū /kʰtʊ̤/ blunt, dull
khó khó boar (male pig) kîcoléng /kʰi̤ʔɔleŋ/ boar (male pig) qo
bei attr kwei boast, exaggerate
boat, ship yai /jaɪ̯/ boat, raft jaj
body, torso
ngĕqó boil ngangalau /ŋəŋəlaʊ̯/ boil
q’íd bone k’ith /k’ɪθ/ bone qʔit
tea sgv tśìc bones
kò mi borrow k’ĕdlŏ borrow
pass hkò, attr gyò borrow (temporary transfer of possession in either direction) /kʰo̤/ borrow (temporary transfer of possession in either direction) goX
nac both nàd both nath /nəθ/ both nat
gréi (no sgv) bottom (of a river or lake) gĕtráí gĕdráí bottom (of a body of water) yaulalai /jaʊ̯ləlaɪ̯/ bottom (of a body of water)
wóu sgv yóu bow and arrow hwó bow ûnggín /ṳŋgin/ bow hwou
kh’áí bowl, bucket cai /ʔaɪ̯/ bowl qʔaj
diec pl dac box, case
rréb boy reph /rɛɸ/ boy rep
pei pl pwéi boy, son
brain gwi /kwɪ/ brain gi infixation in MT
ngà branch
cauphgo /ʔaʊ̯ɸkɔ/ branch(es)
ngào sgv nyào branches (of a tree)
hságh drágh bread gsac /ksəʔ/ bread ksaq
baon sgv byaon bread
pass hkú, attr gyú break, destroy break, destroy hu /hʊ/ break gu
xa pl hxa breast, chest gră breast ārung /ə̤rʊŋ/ breast ʀa
hka gónc breastfeed
breath waifu /waɪ̯fʊ/ breath
wuo attr kuo breathe; be alive ú breathe í /i/ breathe ?? wu?
uwa /ʊwə/ breeze, gust of wind
nóu sgv nyóu brick hnyò brick(s) hnow infixation in RTJ
vòc-swín sgv vyòc-swín brideprice ĕbĕhsrè ĕmĕhsrè brideprice wōscayîm /wɔ̤sʔəji̤m/ brideprice woʔs?im
te pl nde bridge bridge /tʰe/ bridge te infixation in MT
nàc kàc tsì bring
kdeth /kʰtɛθ/ bronze, bronzeware
jĕnâ bronzeware, bronze
yàe-pin pl nyàe-pin broom
fye pl fwé brother ĕyă brother fafa /fəfə/ brother fə/fa infixation in RT
ngèa-kàc pl ngào-kàc bucket k’ē /k’ɛ̤/ bucket ŋkʔeX
foc pl fwóc bug, beetle
t’éph /t’eɸ/ bug, insect
pass hlá, attr tlá build, create, manufacture
mbràe pl mpràe bull (male bovine) bĕngè ĕdré bull (male bovine) banggí /pəŋgi/ bull (male bovine)
suc pass hsuc, attr gzuc bump into, collide with
rrĕràìya burial mound (of a king)
ĕmâ burial place, graveyard
fĕkŭ burn
fwi attr guvwi burn burn /χi/ burn χi
nggwi pass hunggwi, attr gunggwi burn, set on fire
dza ndè bury dĕrrĕcr’àì bury
but, however q’e but, however k’e /k’ɛ/ but qʔe
sgv tsá butter butter thai /θaɪ̯/ butter taL
kóc sgv ké buttocks kód buttocks kot
horâu /hɔra̤ʊ̯/ buttocks
ta by
byen by doing
fĕsrèrrĕdo fĕrèrrĕdo calendar
mindzìnc pl mandràenc calf (bovine offspring)
ĕrĕrég calf rayang /rəjəŋ/ calf (bovine offspring)
siphsikh /sɪɸsɪx/ calf, lower leg
attr kù call out, roar (of animals) perhaps an onomatopoeia
hóu pass fóu, attr kóu call, shout háú call, shout hau /haʊ̯/ call, shout haw
hindzic (no pl) camp
nrà attr drà can, be able
zég nyég candle
dakh /təx/ candle(s)
akhnath /əxnəθ/ canine tooth, eye tooth, fang
captain (of a boat or ship)
tsóu pl htsóu captive, hostage, slave záú capture, keep hostage djaw
htśenc (no pl) carp qéd carp fálan /falən/ carp
cath /ʔəθ/ carry
brĕ castrate
káenc pl kwáenc cat trég cat khang /xəŋ/ cat k?Vŋk
pass hpí, attr kwí catch, capture
jĕgĕtráí catfish kalalai /kʰələlaɪ̯/ catfish
/ru/ cause
tśòa pl ndźòa cave, cavern /ʔɔ̤/ cave
celebrate
dau /taʊ̯/ celebrate, honor
sĕgré center, middle salú /səlu/ center, middle saʀu
śoun pl śwóun centipede centipede, millipede xám /χam/ centipede, millipede χjam
kàonc sgv kyùnc chalk, limestone k’íb ngè chalk, calcium, white color, white pigment k’imac /k’ɪməʔ/ chalk, calcium kʔimp
tei nu challenge, provoke, tease
brĕ change pa /pʰə/ change
zróu pass hsróu, attr dróu change, convert, turn into
tíyā /tʰijə̤/ charcoal, coal(s) (of a fire)
sro pass hsro, attr gro chase, pursue, hunt srŏ chase, pursue syo /sjɔ/ chase, pursue
ko drá check, test
súb cheek sumbōm /sʊmbɔ̤m/ cheek sump
chest (body part) tung /tʰʊŋ/ chest doŋ
kmirâ /kʰm̥ɪra̤/ cheap, inexpensive
yùo pass syùo, attr kyùo chew chew /ji/ chew juə
nyào pl kyáo chick, baby bird ngaungau /ŋaʊ̯ŋaʊ̯/ chick, bird offspring, baby bird ŋjaw
ugei pl uhkei chieftain, leader
pwanc pl dànc child blád dlád child pán /pʰan/ child bant
bĕnà hnà children (collective plural) ? ba na
rrŏ hnà children (collective plural)
nèa pl ndèa chimney nyâ chimney, smokehole dawō /təwɔ̤/ chimney, smokehole da?
híg chin hing /hɪŋ/ chin hiŋk
dunó pl ndunó chisel
cáb choose, pick, select, take
ro /rɔ/ choose, select, settle on, adopt
nàc pass tàc, attr dàc choose, take, use
Wekh /wɛx/ chthonic god of wisdom and magic
Gĕgĕsă chthonic home of evil spirits
múwe /muwɛ/ cider (alcohol made from apples)
ĕré circle (shape) raisau /raɪ̯saʊ̯/ circle raj
clap (hands) ca /ʔə/ clap (hands) ga
c’è claw t’ing /t’ɪŋ/ claw tʔiŋ
mbza (no sgv) clay srĕ clay samam /səməm/ clay
pamban /pʰəmbən/ clean up
bwìn pass hpwìn, attr gubwìn clean, tidy up
nóa pl ndóa cliff, rocky slope nūfai /nʊ̤faɪ̯/ cliff(s) nuX
swo /swɔ/ climb, ascend
gra attr gagra climb, go up
jĕbĕtàì cloak sawi /səwɪ/ cloak
phundú /ɸʊndu/ close
rubóu pass hrubóu, attr grubóu close
lic sgv yec cloth, fabric likh /lɪx/ cloth, fabric lik
nu sgv nyu clothes ngò clothes ngúfamo /ŋufəmɔ/ clothes ŋu?
dlyí cloud lílā /lilə̤/ cloud
léi sgv yéi cloud(s)
kwei pl nggwei club, bludgeon
téi sgv tséi coal zĕkhă coal de
kandafú /kʰəndəfu/ coarse, rough
xáí ĕráí coast sêyâi /se̤ja̤ɪ̯/ coast
ksùn (no sgv) coast (of the ocean)
swi pl ndzwi coat, cloak
vĕgrúb hlúb cockroach xcúph /χʔuɸ/ cockroach ? xʀup
tau /tʰaʊ̯/ cold
rrú cold, cold weather
tambú /tʰəmbu/ collaborator, colleague
hríe attr kríe collapse, fall apart, decay, rot
ngúoc pass hxúoc, attr gúoc collect, gather
ngèi pl nggèi color
ĕkád ĕgád color, stain āth /ə̤θ/ color(s) ?at
bwóu pass hpwóu, attr gubwóu come up with, invent
mya attr bya come, approach (towards listener) come, approach (towards listener) /ma/ come, approach (towards listener) ma, mja
dźi attr kśi come, approach (towards someone other than speaker or listener)
do attr dlo come, approach (towards something) come, approach (towards somewhere other than speaker or listener) lo /lɔ/ come, approach (towards somewhere other than speaker or listener) lo
tsì attr gzì come, approach (towards speaker) c'ĭ come, approach (towards speaker) t’i /t’ɪ/ come, approach (towards speaker) tʔi
vei coming from; made of
ĕdrĕ commit wra /wrə/ commit
dźìc attr kśìc commit incest dĕtĕzríb commit incest with ténggiph /tʰeŋgɪɸ/ commit incest gip
kamban /kʰəmbən/ common
hei pl hae companion, fellow, coworker
zei pl ndzei competition, contest
idric pass hidric, attr gidric complain about ĕzríb complain about, protest iríph /ɪriɸ/ complain about, protest idrip
ĕwáígh complain, gripe
completely, perfectly kha /xə/ completely, well ka~kja
kbau /kʰpaʊ̯/ complimentizer
moc pass móc, attr boc confuse, mix up, fail to distinguish muc /mʊʔ/ confuse muq
sáng /saŋ/ coniferous tree
hsà ĕgrà coniferous tree forest sāng /sə̤ŋ/ coniferous tree forest hsaŋ
fĕwíg consider
dzùn pass htsùn, attr ksùn contain
dĕdró control
gyác pass hkyác, attr gigyác control, manage, rule, govern
dào pass htào, attr ksào convince, persuade rrĕdró convince, persuade rlú /rlu/ convince, persuade
ndźáo pass handźáo, attr gandźáo cook ĕqó cook nglau /ŋlaʊ̯/ cook
gĕzréd copper, copperware theth /θɛθ/ copper tet~dret
hnò corner, cliff nhūsaye /nhʊ̤səjɛ/ corner hnoX
venc corresponding to, depending on, modeled on, in the style of
húnc sgv ngkwac council of elders húb húb council (organization) hump
uwūm /ʊwʊ̤m/ council, advisers to a ruler
gyoa pass hkyoa, attr gigyoa count khŏ count gyo /kyɔ/ count qo affixation and infixation
fōsó /fɔ̤so/ counting beans
hxà courage, bravery tēm /tʰɛ̤m/ courage, bravery
pass fwó, attr bó cover, protect hmô cover mho /m̥ɔ/ cover hmo
fi mó śea cover sth. completely
zìnc pl zràenc cow (female bovine) ĕrég cow (female bovine) rang /rəŋ/ cow (female bovine) riŋk
co-worker, collaborator, colleague
lá lei craft, create (artwork)
zamblá pl damblá craftsman
lin kòun crawl lyèk’a crawl
cream /jə̤/ cream jaX
lá nàc create for oneself
mbenc pl mbíenc creek, brook, small river
sréc sgv śéc crime, misbehavior
zinggrèa pl dinggrèa cripple, disabled person
kla /kʰlə/ crooked, bent
sambi /səmbɪ/ crop(s)
dĕbáú cross tambau /tʰəmbaʊ̯/ cross dampaw
hsă sră cross cousin
grógĕk’ud crotch, groin uwōngk’uth /ʊwɔ̤ŋk’ʊθ/ crotch, groin area kʔut
cĕk’à crouch
tyá pl tíe crow crow khalí /xəli/ crow ka, kja
tóun pass htóun, attr glóun crush, grind crush, grind tham /θəm/ crush, grind tam
jíg cry, cries, vocalization(s) king /kʰɪŋ/ cry, cries giŋk
nwao attr dwao cry, weep nyé cry, scream nau /naʊ̯/ cry, scream naw
ĕgĕtr’íg crystal(s) ak’íkh /ək'ix/ crystal(s) kʔik
nudróu pass hnudróu, attr gunudróu cultivate, grow (crops)
dru pass htru, attr kru curse, condemn rayirú /rəjɪru/ curse
cut tau /tʰaʊ̯/ cut djaw
tsao pass tsáo, attr gzao cut (into), carve
twè pass htwè, attr gudwè cut apart, split, cleave
fĕzrè fĕsrè cycle, recurring event or process frén /fren/ cycle, recurring event or process fedren
drĕwíd dagger, sword (of copper or bronze)
hxú hnyú daisies basú /pəsu/ daisies basju ? bsju
ntào pass ntsào, attr gantào dance hxú ĕsrú dance
źwi sgv źu dance; celebration dance sasí /səsi/ dance(s), game(s) (for playing)
hxĕmò hnyĕmò dandelion múmbú /mumbu/ dandelions mbow
dàon attr ksàon dare, venture, take a chance
vób darkness xom /χɔm/ darkness xomp
gràì daughter īnīn /ɪ̤nɪ̤n/ daughter(s) ʀin
plŭ day
man (no pl) day man /mən/ day man
ĕnrĕdĕpĭ daybreak, sunrise, dawn rangammwi /rəŋəmmwɪ/ daybreak, sunrise, dawn
śao pl śwao dead body
kmā /kʰm̥ə̤/ dear, expensive, precious
gu (no pl) death
hmâ death sama /səmə/ death sma
kenc pass kénc, attr gyenc decide, judge
láth /laθ/ deciduous tree
dzéi pass htséi, attr kséi declare, announce dĕtáí declare, announce detaj
trai /tʰraɪ̯/ declare, announce, proclaim
lei pass léi, attr tlei decorate
yau /jaʊ̯/ deep
mae pl mfwáe deer deer /mi/ deer mij
wĕdró defeat warū /wərʊ̤/ defeat wadruX
ndźác pass handźác, attr gandźác defeat
gró defecate /hṳ/ defecate ʀuX
kwóa attr gugwóa defecate, poo
sĕrá demand syai /sjaɪ̯/ demand
kèi attr gyèi depart, leave, go away (from listener) k’áí depart, leave, go away (from listener) cai /ʔaɪ̯/ depart, leave, go away (from listener) kʔaj
pei attr gwei depart, leave, go away (from someone other than speaker or listener) báí depart, leave, go away (from somewhere other than speaker or listener) pai /pʰaɪ̯/ depart, leave, go away (from somewhere other than speaker or listener) baj
blo attr gublo depart, leave, go away (from something)
kein attr gyein depart, leave, go away (from speaker) jàì depart, leave, go away (from speaker) keng /kʰɛŋ/ depart, leave, go away (from speaker) geŋ
rrĕgrĕyágh depression, despair, agony, tragedy rôyuyang /ro̤jʊjəŋ/ depression, despair, tragedy roʀujaɴq
pl ndò descendant, offspring p’ŏ descendant p’o /p’ɔ/ descendant pʔo the onset correspondance is interesting, it could be that ʔ is an infix and the original word was bo
ngà ngàd desert, infertile land, uninhabited land
wùo pass fùo, attr kùo deserve, be worthy of deserve wa /wə/ deserve wa
klu /kʰlʊ/ destroy lku
mpa pass dwá, attr glàc destroy, devastate
ĕkŭ destruction, ruin salcu /səlʔʊ/ destruction, ruin lku / s(a)lku
dew /me/ dew me?
ma attr ba die ma /mə/ die ma
ganggen /kəŋgɛn/ different, unusual, another
dza pass htsa, attr ksa dig dig ta /tʰə/ dig da / dja
digging stick, any digging tool
tíb digit, finger (not thumb)
dirt, floor
jĕzró disagree kirú /kʰɪru/ disagree with gidrow
twíc pass htwíc, attr gudwíc disagree, protest, argue
dzóc pass htsóc, attr ksóc disconnect, loosen, untie
bĕpáú discover, invent
tyuc pyec pwo discuss, negotiate
kyao pl nggyao disease, illness kwau /kʰwaʊ̯/ disease, illness k?aw
nggóa pass hxóa, attr gunggóa dislike nghō /ŋ̊ɔ̤/ dislike
bĕzrè dislike
dandáen pass htandáen, attr glandáen dismiss, reject, repudiate
hnàì distribute, share knai /kʰn̥aɪ̯/ distribute, share knaj
mhawō /m̥əwɔ̤/ ditch(es) hmawoX
xéjub ditch, line, border
sgv myá ditch, moat, trench, furrow
won attr kwon do a little bit, do partly
tre attr gre do never
bìc attr kwìc do once
ngwae attr gwae do properly, do well
dwao attr gudwao do several times, do every now and then
dro (no attr) do the same
dròc attr kròc do three times
tyáon attr gidyáon do too much, do excessively
drae attr krae do twice
śac pass hśac, attr gźac do, make
hnyà dock, harbor, port
ùdau domestic cow
pòc nwì donate, give gifts to p’oth /p’ɔθ/ donate, give freely, give as a gift pʔot
nyù pl ndźù door, gate nyò door /ku/ door, entry gjow
ĕtrád dot, mark, blemish ngláth /ŋlaθ/ dot, mark, blemish lŋrat
táen pass htáen, attr gláen doubt tràì doubt thang /θəŋ/ doubt
bwaon (no sgv) dough práí dough phā /ɸə̤/ dough pCa-
le pl hloa dove lyĕ dove lelí /lɛli/ dove, pigeon lje
li soc tsì drag
yenc gyáe nyu dream dream
tśic pass tśíc, attr gźic drink jíd drink kith /kʰɪθ/ drink git
í drip on í /i/ drip on ? ij
lyé drip, drops lau /laʊ̯/ drip, drop(s)
rrĕfá drop
lou pl ndlou drop (of water)
ravae pass hravae, attr gravae drop, cause to fall
nyĕhnyè drown nganí /ŋəni/ drown
ngòun sgv nyòun drums ngè drum gam /kəm/ drum gam
/kʰi/ dry
mbzac pl mpsac duck, goose hsád hnád duck mhásath /m̥asəθ/ duck mpsat
bzèi due to (the fact that), because (of)
due to; made by
dlyíb ĕlríb dung síph /siɸ/ dung ɬjip
wáo sgv yáo dust, dirt hyó gró dust haumam /haʊ̯məm/ dust haw / waw (? hwaw)
tśa pass tśá, attr gźa dwell at, live in jáí dwell, live in /kʰe̤/ dwell in, live in geX
nya (no pl) dwelling, home jáí nyàì dwelling, home ŋgeX
jĕbú dye, paint
hac each (member of a collection) dlréd each hath /həθ/ each ɬrat
zoc pl hsoc eagle ságh ságh eagle asac /əsəʔ/ eagle ssaq
ghă ear hara /hərə/ ear ɢa
tséa pl tác ear earlobe taca /tʰəʔə/ earlobe
wùo mi earn wĕdlŏ earn
ga pl ngga earring (jewelry) ĕrĕghă earring yaica /jaɪ̯ʔə/ earring -ɢa
myaon (no sgv) earth, soil mam /məm/ earth, dirt mam
dĕtr’íd earthquake tat’íth /tʰət’iθ/ earthquake datʔit
zrĕgá earthworm tácā /tʰaʔə̤/ earthworm dragaX
dlĕkhă dlĕkhă earwax hwuthca /hwʊθʔə/ earwax -ɢa / -qa
ngu /ŋʊ/ east
tyòu pass htyòu, attr gidyòu eat
khúb eat, consume hum /hʊm/ eat, consume qump
blao (no pl) eclipse
hsá eclipse
yâi /ja̤ɪ̯/ edge, margin, border
kwenc (no pl) eel
mwác sgv myéc egg(s) hmàd egg(s) mháth /m̥aθ/ egg(s) hmat infixed -w-
kóu 18 khó eighteen /hu/ eighteen qoɬ
dzòc either, any (of a few) t’ód either t’oth /t’ɔθ/ either tʔot
rrĕgrágh elation, joy, ecstacy rôyang /ro̤jəŋ/ elation, joy roʀaɴq
sae pl syoc elbow elbow sísaye /sisəjɛ/ elbow
sran (no pl) elder, experienced person
ĕkă elephant /mə̤/ elephant ??? mka
ranggeth /rəŋgɛθ/ ember
saen sgv śin embers sràì embers
qéd embrace
pass hrò, attr krò embrace; accept
yuc /jʊʔ/ emptiness, air j-uq
ĕdúgh túgh empty kúc /kʰuʔ/ empty d-uq, g-uq
yunduc /jʊndʊʔ/ empty, unload j-(u)-nd-uq
yàc (no pl) end; culmination; result srégh end, ending, culmination sayec /səjɛʔ/ end, ending, culmination sCjeq
xĕtàì endure, withstand
bĕré enemy (a person) púyú /pʰuju/ enemy (a person)
dyao (no sgv) enemies (as a group) dĕbré enemy (as a collective group) tuwú /tʰʊwu/ enemy (as a collective group), "the enemy"
zĕcè enemy nation, rival clan
kĕxíg entire leg hausikh /haʊ̯sɪx/ (entire) leg ? kuwsik
màxeg equinox mandang /məndəŋ/ equinox maseŋk, mantaŋk < maŋk
mbyo attr gimbyo err, be mistaken
tswi pei escape (from)
ngónc (no sgv) evening hngòb evening nghom /ŋ̊ɔm/ evening hŋomp
céb event them /θɛm/ event(s) temp
méc sgv myéc events, instances, occurrences, repetitions
every every de /tɛ/ every de
núsang /nusəŋ/ evidence, proof
ewe, sheep (less marked) thin /θɪn/ ewe (female sheep; less marked) tin
laláo pass hlaláo, attr glaláo examine, study lĕdlré examine, inspect, investigate, study lalú /ləlu/ examine, inspect, investigate, study
nwa pass nwá, attr dwa exceed, surpass exceed, surpass, be greater than /na/ exceed, surpass, be greater than na, nwa
ĕnyà excitement nám /nam/ excitement njam
ra /rə/ exert influence on, have an impact on
drundronc attr grundronc exhaust oneself
trà attr grà exist cr’ă exist t’á /t’a/ exist tʔra
sruo ndźei expect, anticipate, wait for sĕwĕhnyé expect, anticipate
trĕdrĕ explain thónda /θondə/ explain tro-
ndàc pass handàc, attr gandàc extinguish, put out (fire) dígh extingush, kill, destroy completely dac /təʔ/ extinguish, destroy daq, diq
nyê eye ge /kɛ/ eye ge
ngòc sgv ngè eye(s) geC, sgv ge
lyíg fabric
face kíwom /kʰiwɔm/ face qi
sunc (no pl) face
pyó pass hpyó, attr gibyó face, be oriented towards; take aim at
fact(s) xusang /χʊsəŋ/ fact(s) xu
ngunc attr gunc fade, wither
co /ʔɔ/ fail
tśèa pl kíe falcon
fae attr gwae fall fall fai /faɪ̯/ fall faj
yàc-ntrae (no pl) fall equinox
mamaenc pass hmamaenc, attr babaenc fall in love with
yie pass hie, attr tśie fall on, crash on, hit from above
zwì pl htúo family, clan hnyè hnyè family, clan (of human beings)
thandim /θəndɪm/ family, clan, tribe, ethnic group < tim
rég fang(s)
cu /ʔʊ/ far, faraway, distant
grunc attr gugrunc fast (abstain from eating) kĕzrúb fast (abstain from eating) khirúm /xɪrum/ fast (abstain from eating) kidrump
fwin sgv fyun fate, destiny, luck fate, destiny pung /pʰʊŋ/ fate, destiny puŋ
myè pl pyé father, paternal uncle father, paternal uncle bamba /pəmbə/ father, paternal uncle mpV
lyí fear, be afraid of /lu/ fear, be afraid of lju
langgú /ləŋgu/ fear, fright
ĕlrí fear, fright
pàc sgv pyàc feather(s), coat of feathers p’régh feather(s), coat of feathers p’ac /p’əʔ/ feathers, coat of feathers pʔ?q
(no sgv) feces
gónc pass hkónc, attr kyónc feed, nourish rūm /rʊ̤m/ feed CCump
roa attr troa feel comfortable, be at ease
heanc attr kéanc feel melancholic, feel nostalgic
yéa pass syéa, attr tśéa feel, sense háí feel, sense /hɛ̤/ feel, sense heC
ĕháí gréya feeling, sense, intuition ē /ɛ̤/ feeling, sense, intuition perhaps different derivations
trá sgv níc feet
kh’ă female bird calí /ʔəli/ female bird qʔa
gou pl hkou female dog, bitch
nyec pl tśinc female horse, mare
tsín pl dźá female sheep, ewe
wam /wəm/ fertile soil
trúb festival, feast húm /hum/ festival, feast, holiday Crump
few
dróu pl ndróu field
en pass hen, attr ken fight àì fight en /ɛn/ fight en
sen /sɛn/ fight, conflict s-en
hnè fill
thundam /θʊndəm/ fill, load
tu pl túo fin (of a fish) fin tu /tʰʊ/ fin du
hlou kyá find intuitively
pou pass póu, attr gwou find, discover báú find pau /pʰaʊ̯/ find, discover, invent baw
kandalo /kʰəndəlɔ/ fine
túnc (no pl) finger tham /θəm/ finger tump
ĕrĕtrúb finger ring yairum /jaɪ̯rʊm/ finger ring -drump
ndzei (no sgv) fingernail(s) ĕzí hnyí fingernails mrai /mraɪ̯/ fingernail(s) mdaj
fingertip wau /waʊ̯/ fingertip
dzac pass htsac, attr ksac finish, complete xégh finish, complete sec /sɛʔ/ finish, complete Cseq
kec sgv tśec fire jéd fire keth /kʰɛθ/ fire get
ngglónc pl ngglúnc firefly hlyób hnyób firefly ngholóm /ŋ̊ɔlom/ firefly hŋlomp
hinggec (no pl) fireplace
glà sgv gzà firewood dĕt’ă firewood kdarokh /kʰtərɔx/ firewood ? gdʔa
mác first hmèg first (ordinal) mhakh /m̥əx/ first hmak ? hmək
xie pl hxáe fish grí fish î /i̤/ fish(es) ʀij
hfă gră fish scales wōyî /wɔ̤ji̤/ fish skin, fish scales
tyéi (no pl) fishhook
dlíe pl dlác fist dlyă fist sawú /səwu/ fist
fyein 5 fàì five fang /fəŋ/ five fjaɴ, faɴ singulative infix optional
wein five times əwaɴ the vocalism is mysterious, maybe it was different in the first place
ruhrùn pass hruhrùn, attr gruhrùn fix, repair hnò fix, repair bundum /pʊndʊm/ fix, repair ntum
yammokh /jəmmɔx/ flat grassland, meadow, pasture
srec pl śwéc flea srĕbĭ flea sékh /sex/ flea srek
ĕdá ĕdá fleet, group of boats (collective plural)
k’an /k’ən/ flesh, meat
bik'én /pɪk'en/ fletching (of an arrow)
bĕhnyè mĕhnyè fletchings (of an arrow)
oc-ngòa sgv moc-ngòa flint ghŏ ngô flint ŋo
bumac /pʊməʔ/ flint, chert
ĕjĕ float nle /nlɛ/ float nge
hnè hnè flock of goats
hnèhnya flock of sheep
thandin /θəndɪn/ flock of sheep and/or goats < tin
xáb ĕráb flood sám /sam/ flood sjamp
mei (no sgv) flour màì flour mai /maɪ̯/ flour maj
ngge attr gingge flow (of liquids)
ĕwíg flow, blow ríkh /rix/ flow, blow (of gasses or liquids) CCik
mou sgv myou flowers mòpe flowers múmú /mumu/ flowers moɬ
vaen pl mbaen flute, ocarina
dao attr ksao fly fly srau /sraʊ̯/ fly sdaɬ
dĕnrè dĕnrè fly (insect) tní /tʰn̥i/ fly dnri
mandaoc pl mindźinc foal (horse offspring) nyĕhnyèg foal (horse offspring) nanakh /nənəx/ foal (horse offspring)
tléi (no sgv) fog, mist hlyí fog tɬVV
so pass hso, attr gzo follow, accompany follow so
food ti /tʰɪ/ food di
gonc sgv gyunc food; meal (event of eating)
hnyèg foot nhikh /n̥ɪx/ foot ntik
źíc (no sgv) footprints, trace
hmi for as long as
wonc for the benefit of
for, to (dative)
hwíd forage, be a forager hóth /hoθ/ forage, be a forager h??t
xo pass hxo, attr ko forbid, ban, disallow, refuse, deny gră forbid, ban ō /ɔ̤/ forbid, ban ʀo
force, dynamic wan /wən/ force, pressure wan
frambau /frəmbaʊ̯/ ford, river crossing
nggá pl ngkwá forest elephant
san sgv śein forest of coniferous trees
lenc sgv yenc forest of deciduous trees lyég forest of deciduous trees leng /lɛŋ/ forest of deciduous trees leŋk
ngglóc pass ksóc, attr klóc forget, neglect, lose sight of
pyáo 4 four phau /ɸaʊ̯/ four paɬ, pjaɬ optional singulative infix
dzùnc four times
xan pl hxan fox
kandí /kʰəndi/ fragrant
dlu pl ndlu free-standing wall, fortification, barrier, fence ĕdrŭ free-standing wall, fortification, dike elú /ɛlu/ free standing wall(s), fortification(s), barrier(s) Cdlu
ríwau /riwaʊ̯/ freezing cold, freezing weather
nyê freshwater eel giyî /kɪji̤/ fresh-water eel gi
ĕjà fresh-water salmon alam /ələm/ fresh-water salmon
ĕdráíja fresh-water turtle
fyao pl fwáo friend
bré friend, companion /pʰu/ friend, companion brV
ngá pl mfwá frog hngâ frog nganga /ŋəŋə/ frog ŋa
q’íd frost tauk’ith /tʰauk’ɪθ/ frost qʔit
swec sgv syec frost, dew
màen sgv myàen fruit màù fruit
bong /pɔŋ/ fruit(s)
cágh fry
kdam /kʰtəm/ full
ohán pl ufwán full moon rrĕhà full moon róyān /rojə̤n/ full moon rohan
rrĕjé fungus, mushroom(s), fairy ring ralai /rəlaɪ̯/ fungus, mushroom(s), fairy ring rgaj
gale, gust
hxí ĕsrí game (for playing)
xon /χɔn/ game (hunted animal)
yon pl yàon game animal, prey
fándeth /fandɛθ/ gang, warband, unit (of an army) <fet
namba /nəmbə/ garden, yard
hóu pou nàc gather, summon (people) hĕcáb gather, summon (people)
syan /sjən/ get up (from sitting or lying), rise
dlŏ get, recieve so /sɔ/ get, receive ɬo
mi pass mí, attr bi get, receive
fód gill foth /fɔθ/ gills fot
nonc pl mfwónc girl, daughter nògh girl nonnong /nɔnnɔŋ/ girl noɴq reduplication in MT
soc pass hsoc, attr gzoc give (in general) sód give soth /sɔθ/ give sot
pòc pass hpòc, attr gwòc give (as a gift) p’ód give (as a gift), donate pʔot
ngànc pass kànc, attr gànc give birth to
q’é give in trade, offer in trade, sell k’au /k’aʊ̯/ give in trade, offer in trade qʔVV
ĕré glacier súyan /sujən/ glacier
yēcú /jɛ̤ʔu/ glass (vitreous substances produced as byproducts of bronze smelting)
dlá (no sgv) glue
pass hpí, attr gwí go between go between, pass between, be between phi /ɸɪ/ go between, pass between, be between pi
kwá attr gugwá go down, descend go down, descend, climb down /ha/ go down, descend, climb down ? kwa kpa
nòu attr dòu go downstream, follow the flow go downstream, follow the current /tu/ go downstream, go downhill, take the easier course of action dVC
dróg go hunting, be a hunter
lea pass léa, attr tlea go into, enter
kòun attr gyòun go nowhere in particular, move around, roam, wander
pya pass pyá, attr gibya go out of, exit
dzic pass htsic, attr ksic go through, pass through xíb go through, pass through siph /sɪɸ/ go though, pass through sip
sĕwŏ go up, ascend, climb
sao attr gzao go upstream, go against the flow, push through go upstream, go against the current /su/ go upstream, go uphill, take the more difficult course of action suɬ, sjuɬ
nin pl mfwín goat
wec pl ufwéc god vec
twéc (no sgv) gold zedĕheg gold terēkh /tʰɛrɛ̤x/ gold deCek
bum /pʊm/ good, well
hxá hxá goose hasā /həsə̤/ goose
rĕhxĕqáígh govern, rule, have power over
mèi sgv myèi grain, seed(s)
pyè (no pl) grandfather p’ă grandfather p’amba /p'əmbə/ grandfather pʔa
pl twá grandmother t’ă grandmother t’anda /t’əndə/ grandmother tʔa
k’íd grandparents k’andath /k’əndəθ/ grandparents kʔit
oc-pè sgv moc-pè granite p’ĕ granite p’eyac /p’ɛjəʔ/ granite
tsào (no sgv) grape(s) c’ó grape(s), wine thau /θaʊ̯/ grape vine(s), vineyard tsʔaw
t’auwong /t’aʊ̯wɔŋ/ grapes tʔaw-
zèi (no sgv) grass hnyè grass sandai /səndaɪ̯/ grass Ctaj
hli-zèi pl fwá-zèi grass snake ĕcé grass snake soléndai /sɔlendaɪ̯/ grass snake
mbze pl mpse grasshopper ĕbrí grasshopper máse /masɛ/ grasshopper ???
dudźoc pl ndudźoc grate, grill
ràìya grave
ròc sgv yèac gravel
ngùnc sgv ngìnc grease, fat ngè ngèd grease, fat cón /ʔon/ grease, fat ŋont suppletivism in RTJ
bźec pass hpśec, attr gibźec greet, welcome
yinyèanc pass hinyèanc, attr tśinyèanc grieve, mourn
dlŏ grime, filth, muck, garbage, human feces lalo /ləlɔ/ grime, filth, muck
dĕdì groan, grumble, mumble
kwé sgv kyé ground, floor /he/ ground, floor
źec (no sgv) group ĕzĭ group, organization, society nandi /nəndɪ/ group
pándan /pʰandən/ group of children, all the children, ones children infixation
ghŏ grove of ash trees holath /hɔləθ/ grove of ash trees ɢo
brĭ grove of beech trees pílath /pʰiləθ/ grove of beech trees bri
lyéd grove of deciduous trees
hsóg hsóg grove of pine trees
hlyŭ dlyŭ grove of poplars folú /fɔlu/ grove of poplars folju
hngê ĕghĕ grove of rowans gangge /kəŋgɛ/ grove of rowans kaŋke
sĕrĕjĕ grove of willows
attr gwì grow p’ĭ grow p’i /p’ɪ/ grow pʔi
ĕp’ĭ grow up, become an adult mbi /mbɪ/ grow up, become an adult mpʔi
/wə̤/ guard, protect, nurture, raise (dependent)
prei pass hprei, attr gibrei guess p’ĕdráí guess
tsíe pl htsíe guest, visitor
srĕ guts xa /χə/ guts, innards χe
ĕhlrĕ gypsum asca /əsʔə/ gypsum
tr’íg hail k’íkh /k’ix/ hail kʔik
gein sgv gyein hail (weather)
ya /jə/ hail! goodbye! ja
hail, greet, say goodbye ya /jə/ hail, greet, say goodbye ja
tsyú sgv tsóu hair hair dju
póu pl mbóu hammer páú hammer phau /ɸaʊ̯/ hammer pau
myù pl myùc hand hand /pu/ hand buɬ infixation in RT
dagàc pl ndagàc handle (for carrying)
tśèin attr gźèin hang, be suspended
fyec attr givyec happen, occur fáth /faθ/ happen, occur fat
grágh happiness yaŋ /jəŋ/ happiness ʀaɴq
ma /mə/ hard
hsó dlád harvest sayî /səji̤/ harvest
sĕgró harvest /si̤/ harvest
ntrae (no sgv) harvest season
syéi (no attr) has been done already
sĕzríb hate, hatred saríph /səɾiɸ/ hate sadrip
ngunggóa pass hngunggóa, attr gunggóa hate
bwác fwi have a fever bĕprĕhfĭ have a fever
have achieved mastery, be a master bi /pɪ/ have reached mastery (of a craft or art), be a master bi
rèn pass hrèn, attr krèn have sex with ĕràì have sex with (vulgar) yen /jɛn/ have sex with Cren
tác pass htác, attr glác have, hold, own, possess
q’ă hawk k’alí /k’əli/ hawk qʔa
pàù head phom /ɸɔm/ head pom
ngglì (no pl) head
mbóun pl numbóun headgear, hat p’àù headgear, hat p’om /p’ɔm/ hat, headgear pʔom derivation from head
kwàe sgv kyàe heap, batch, amount (of sth.)
wuc pass huc, attr kuc hear, listen úb hear uph /ʊɸ/ hear wup
grób hearing
túc (no pl) heart túb heart thuph /θʊɸ/ heart tup
hká (no pl) hearth khă hearth, firepit
ngêleth /ŋe̤lɛθ/ hearth, firepit
ĕdrú heir
úgh help, assist ung /ʊŋ/ help, assist uɴq
mògh help, assistance ung /ʊŋ/ help, assistance muɴq
ĕrĕwég henge, circular earthwork
herd fe /fɛ/ herd fe
tòc wa herd (animals), watch over (children)
zèc (no sgv) herd (of animals)
ĕnràìtau herd of (domestic) cattle (collective plural)
randang /rəndəŋ/ herd of cows, herd of cattle raŋ infixation
nandin /nəndɪn/ herd of goats nin infixation
twinc here dríd here (near the speaker) tín /tʰin/ here dRint
ngé pl mfwé heron hnyê heron nghelí /ŋ̊ɛli/ heron hŋe
hec pass héc, attr kéc hew (with an axe) hág hew (with an axe) hakh /həx/ hew (with an ax) hak
śea pass hśea, attr gźea hide /sa/ hide sja
rrà high tide
p’un /p’ʊn/ high, tall
ndrún pl ntrún hill fort
ngò sgv nyò hills ghŭ ngô hills cuk’a /ʔʊk’ə/ hills ɢu
kang /kʰəŋ/ hinder, block
myèi pass pyèi, attr byèi hint, suggest hint, suggest /pi/ hint, suggest ? bij
nggóu sgv tśù hips k’ŭ hip cusú /ʔʊsu/ hip kʔu
atáonc (no sgv) history
kèa pass hkèa, attr gyèa hit, strike kh’ĕ hit k’e /k’ɛ/ hit kʔe
moc’éb hive
lóc pass hlóc, attr tlóc hold, cling to
hold, grip, catch mi /mɪ/ hold, grasp, catch mE
kóa pl nggóa hole, opening káú hole /hɔ̤/ hole(s) koX
kli /kʰlɪ/ hollow
ridźí pass hridźí, attr gridźí hollow out
ru /rʊ/ holy, sacred
/ke̤/ home, shelter
kbán /kʰpan/ homeland
rèi-rae sgv yèi-rae honey
hxég hxég horde, throng, swarm tusakh /tʰʊsəx/ horde, throng, any large, disorganized group tusek
myào pl pyáo horn (of an animal) horn (of an animal) bau /paʊ̯/ horn (of an animal) ? baw, bmaw, mbaw infixation in RT
turim /tʰʊrɪm/ hostile tribe or village, enemy nation
khau /xaʊ̯/ hot, warm
báth /paθ/ house, building
ĕtò ĕdò house, home
tuya /tʰʊjə/ human feces
túwom /tʰuwɔm/ human head hair
gĕtr’óg hunt gak’ókh /kək’ox/ hunt gakʔrok prefix ga-
gókh /kox/ hunt, go hunting, be a hunter grok
nròc pl hnròc hunter ĕdróg hunter ínggókh /iŋgox/ hunter, predatory animal -ŋgrok
grág kág hurt, wound, injure, harm āng /ə̤ŋ/ hurt, wound, injure, harm ʀaŋk
kírû /kʰirṳ/ husband
ne I nyâ hnyè I, me, my na /nə/ I, me ? na nə ne
yein sgv myein ice ice yan /jən/ ice jan
idea, notion, purpose /tʰɪ̤/ idea(s), notion(s), purpose(s) dEX
xiec pl niec idea, concept, notion, purpose
mao if hmo if hmaw
rrĕfĭ ignite
gró illness, disease
gyáe pass hkyáe, attr gigyáe imagine gyai /kjaɪ̯/ imagine gjaj
blei pass hpsei, attr giblei imitate bĕzí imitate bdej
hĕcră improve, make perfect hla /hlə/ improve, make perfect
rao in order to, with the goal of
hkwì in the manner of, in such a way that
gao in the middle of
hihtsea in the unlikely event that
ngoun in, inside
bĕp’o inanimate relativizer
nithdau /nɪθtaʊ̯/ incisor, front tooth
dou pass htou, attr ksou indicate, be evidence for
mak’íkh /mək’ix/ individual crystal, piece of crystal
sambá /səmba/ individual plant
mac /məʔ/ individual rock, piece of stone, stone block
kdá /kʰta/ industrious, diligent, hardworking
bombo /pɔmbɔ/ infant, baby
p’ríd influence p’íth /p’iθ/ influence pʔrit
rră influence, have an impact on
zandźa pl dandźa inhabitant
dlyú inhabitant (of a settlement), citizen (of a polity), subject (of a ruler)
inherit
xanc pass hxanc, attr kanc injure, harm
c’éb insects, bugs, swarm of insects (collective plural)
instead of, in contrast to, rather than
intend ú /u/ intend
sré intention, plan súrī /surɪ̤/ intention(s), plan(s) sVrEX
tei twè interrupt sb. (through speaking)
ĕcrĕ intestine, rectum yale /jəlɛ/ intestine, rectum
xéa (no sgv) intuition
hóu dźi syu invite
trou pl ndrou island zráú island tiyau /tʰɪjaʊ̯/ island(s) draw ~ diraw
dźéc (no attr) it is desired; may...!
tyein attr tśein it is necessary
táo (no attr) it is planned; it has been decided; shall; will
dlò (no attr) it is possible
tráe (no attr) it is preferable; would rather
dyá (no attr) it is required; should
q’è itch, irritate k’in /k’ɪn/ itch qʔin
bóc attr kwóc itch
hmàgh hmàgh jadeite
kyèi pl kì jar, bowl
rrĭ jaw ri /rɪ/ jaw ri
hinc pl fwinc jaw, chin
grec sgv ksec jewellery rrĕgĕtr’íg jewel iyak’íkh /ɪjək’ix/ jewel rigakʔrik
job, occupation, role, habit, project, work
fundau /fʊndaʊ̯/ join, be with, bring (a person)
join, participate, partake in
zènc attr dzènc joke, be playful
jéd judge, conclude, decide ken /kʰɛn/ judge, conclude, decide gent
ĕjéd ĕxéd judgement, decision mgent
rèi sgv yèi juice, sap
tswi attr gudzwi jump, leap jump, leap /pʰi/ jump, leap Cbwi ?
sĕdríd justice salíth /səliθ/ justice, law enforcement saCCit (sagrit?)
pyec attr gibyec keep happening; continue
fe pass hfe, attr gwe keep, raise (domesticated animals)
dlágh keep, retain, hold onto sac /səʔ/ keep, retain, hold onto ɬaq
gyóc pass hkyóc, attr gigyóc kick ghúgh kick huc /hʊʔ/ kick ɢuq
nyĕhnyè kid (goat offspring) ninanin /nɪnənɪn/ kid (goat offspring)
wód kidneys woth /wɔθ/ kidney wot
móc pass fwóc, attr bóc kill
rama /rəmə/ kill
xwi /χwɪ/ kindle, ignite, burn
rrĕjí king, ruler rólí /roli/ king, ruler, chieftain roCCi (rorgi?)
pàc pass hpàc, attr gwàc kiss p’ád kiss p’ath /p’əθ/ kiss pʔat
nyèd kitten neth /nɛθ/ kitten net
knead /mu/ knead moɬ
dyóu pl tyóc knee knee Ctiw ?
at'í /ət'i/ knee, knee cap -tʔiw ?
kneel the /θɛ/ kneel te
dyòun attr gidyòun kneel, squat, crouch dyâu /tja̤ʊ̯/ kneel, squat, crouch
htsao pl ntsao knife ĕcó knife frau /fraʊ̯/ knife
ri pl ndri knot rrĭ knot
thóya /θojə/ knot
ndai /ndaɪ̯/ know (a person), be acquainted with
tùc pass htùc, attr glùc know (how to do sth.) t’úg know (facts, how to do something) t’ukh /t’ʊx/ know (facts, how to do something) tʔuk
ndźei pass hindźei, attr gindźei know, be acquainted with hnyé know, be acquainted with
pyù pl hpyù knuckle, wrist, joint ĕpú knuckle ap'ú /əp'u/ knuckle, knuckle bone apʔu
rrĕ lack, miss, be without re /rɛ/ lack, miss, be without re
ekhsa /ɛxsə/ lacquer, glue
zuo sgv zwea ladder hsĕwĕ hsrè ladder saswo /səswɔ/ ladder
rrĕhnòg lagoon, estuary
yaon pl yáon lake àù lake, inland sea am /əm/ lake am
mindzín pl mandźá lamb (sheep offspring) zĕc’è lamb tat’in /tʰət’ɪn/ lamb (sheep offspring) detʔin
tou sgv tsou land dáú land, ground, property, territory tauyê /tʰaʊ̯je̤/ land daw
fwae sgv fyae landslide hfá landslide, avalanche
ronc pl raonc language rom /rɔm/ language romp
ĕhlrĕ laquer, glue
omàc (no sgv) large village, town
kòa last, final co /ʔɔ/ last go
hlun (no sgv) late winter / early spring srò ĕlrò late winter / early spring
sawum /səwʊm/ late winter/early spring
laugh lau /laʊ̯/ laugh
beanc attr kweanc laugh
kakh /kʰəx/ lead, govern, rule, control
ksèc attr gigzèc lead, guide
lead, guide, be a leader /si/ lead, guide, be a leader swi
ĕsrú leader, guide ísí /isi/ leader, guide Vswi
myae pl mfwáe leader, guide, scout
ndzáo pass handzáo, attr gandzáo learn (mental knowledge)
lec pass léc, attr tlec learn (practical skills)
zúc kòun fae fae learn how to walk (of children)
dźao (no sgv) leaves hxé dĕré leaves dsau /tsaʊ̯/ leaves djsaw
tréb left (direction) thaphyâi /θəɸja̤ɪ̯/ left side, the left (direction) tremp ~ tramp
zrein sgv źein leftovers hsàì ĕsràì leftovers
saleng /səlɛŋ/ leftovers, remains
śic pl kwóu leg
undí /ʊndi/ legend, story
kò soc lend k’ĕsód lend kʔo sot
gyè lin lie down
lin attr tlin lie, recline lyè lie down, recline lin /lɪn/ lie, recline lin
kòu pass hkòu, attr gyòu lie to, deceive
suyang /sʊjəŋ/ lie(s)
gré lie, falsehood
gĕgré lie, tell a lie to klú /kʰlu/ lie, tell a lie to
wàe sgv yàe life ĕgràù life ūn /ʊ̤n/ life
śun (no sgv) light ĕlrè light
nggim /ŋgɪm/ light, shine, glow, rays
hra-tra (no sgv) lightning zrá lightning /tʰa̤/ lightning, lightning bolt(s) draX
like ping /pʰɪŋ/ like biŋ
maenc pass máenc, attr baenc like, consider attractive
mblóc sgv mbléac lily (type of flower) hlyóg hnyóg lily (flower) mholókh /m̥ɔlox/ lilies (type of flower) mpoCCok
lyă limestone lak’im /lək’ɪm/ limestone
grèa attr gigrèa limp k’àc’ĕdĕra limp
ĕdrú line of succession, heirs sandí /səndi/ line of succession, heirs
blóun pl psóun lion p’àù hlyàù lion p’olóm /p’ɔlom/ lion pʔ-om various infixations
manc sgv moun lips lip mamúth /məmuθ/ lip ma-
srè liquid swam /swəm/ liquid, fluid sRVm
ghó listen /hi/ listen ɢiC
gràù kàù live ūn /ʊ̤n/ live ʀVn
tlec pl tlíec liver jég dlyég liver hákh /hax/ liver gVk
rúoc (no sgv) livestock, domesticated animals
raonc pl hrunc lizard zră lizard
sásá /sasa/ lizard
zò soc dzùn load, fill
loam (fertile soil)
dinyù pl ndinyù lock
p’an /p’ən/ long
myen attr byen look
dĕréd gĕzréd look foreward to, be excited for
táth /tʰaθ/ look forward to, be excited for
mén /men/ look, look around
loom huyîkh /hʊji̤x/ loom
sie pl ndzie loop, noose, lug
dlyĕzrŭ loosen, untie sirú /sɪru/ loosen, untie ɬidru
htroa attr gò lose, fail; very (when used in a SVC with a negative quality verb)
lose, misplace /wi/ lose, misplace wEC
śie (no sgv) louse ĕră louse siya /sɪjə/ louse sja
bwín pass hpwín, attr gubwín love, be fond of bĕpè love pwing /pʰwɪŋ/ love
ĕpè love safwing /səfwɪŋ/ love
léac (no pl) lover, sex partner
ĕrà low tide
xíg lower leg
bsauyān /psaʊ̯jə̤n/ lunar eclipse
hoa sgv yóa lungs lungs /hʊ̤/ lungs huX
mace, scepter, weapon
nèd magic
narékh /nərex/ magic
ndlíc (no sgv) magical herbs
hngà pl hkíe magpie nyâ magpie galí /kəli/ magpie
p’áí majority p’aisani /p’aɪ̯sənɪ/ majority pʔaj
beanc nu make fun of
zènc móc make sb. laugh
drĕ make, create t’únda /t’undə/ make, create
úlí /uli/ male bird
é male bird
kác pl kwác male dog, hound tréd male dog khath /xəθ/ male dog ket, kat
rrú male fox ríyān /rijə̤n/ male fox
sóri /sorɪ/ male genitalia (collectively), testicles and scrotum
tun pl túon male goat, buck
taoc pl tśinc male horse, stallion
tśe pl kíe male sheep, ram
ĕrĕzrŭ malign spirit, witch
tao pl mwì man hxó man, adult male human /tʰṳ/ man, adult male human duX
kwì sgv kì manner, method, way p’ĭ manner, method, way /ʔi/ manner, method, way CCi
ni many ni /nɪ/ many
nyèg mare nakh /nəx/ mare (female horse; less marked) nek
ndrác pl nandrác mark, symbol
swín (no pl) marriage hsrè ĕhwím marriage, wedding sayîm /səji̤m/ marriage sCCim
gód married couple hoth /hɔθ/ married couple got
wín pass fwín, attr kwín marry hwè marry hím /him/ marry hwim
hnòg marsh nhungéng /nhʊŋeŋ/ marsh
źao (no sgv) marshland, bog
rigéi (no pl) mask rrĕkí mask, veil rwilí /rwɪli/ mask ? riwgij
ndà móc massacre, kill brutally (multiple victims)
kdac /kʰtəʔ/ massive, heavy
nòn pass tòn, attr dòn match, be equal to nàù match, be identical to, be the same don /tɔn/ match, be the same as don
soc sgv śoc material, constituent, ingredient
mbyè pl mpyè maternal uncle bĕbă maternal uncle pwa /pʰwə/ maternal uncle bVbV
mbèc maybe, possibly bĕp’ég maybe bap’ekh /pəp’ɛx/ maybe bapʔek
yàì meadow, pasture
khúb ĕkhúb meal sacum /səʔʊm/ meal(s) qump
śi pl ndźi meal, portion (of edible things)
kànc sgv tśànc meat, flesh, muscle tr’éd ŋàì meat, flesh, muscle kʔənt
syu pass syú, attr tśa meet meet /hu/ meet sju
udlúnc (no pl) meeting of villages
ruoc (no pl) megalith
ĕgĕká megalithic structure marking an astronomical alignment
fun attr gun melt dlò melt fúm /fum/ melt fCum
gàhno mend (of cloth)
éwĕdre menstrual blood âingga /a̤ɪ̯ŋɡə/ menstrual blood
drĕ ngê menstrual period gayān /kəjə̤n/ menstrual period
be sgv bye message, news, facts, information hmê news, message same /səmɛ/ news, message(s) sme
hmí nrí metal mbí /mbi/ metal mpCi
háí midday haj
púo (no sgv) midday, noon puH
phúyâi /ɸuja̤ɪ̯/ midday, noon puH + haj
gáúdlo midden, waste collection area
duya /tʊjə/ midden, waste dump
gro (no sgv) midden, waste heap
kao middle, intermediate /kʰu/ middle gVV
nga (no sgv) milk ngâ milk nga /ŋə/ milk ŋa
li hmi ... hka milk (animals)
hxaenc sgv hśinc mind, thoughts qíg hxíg mind, thoughts hling /hlɪŋ/ mind, thoughts qCiŋk (? qʀiŋk)
ghí minority kísani /kʰisənɪ/ minority ɢiH
dsí /tsi/ mist, fog bank
grĕrég dlĕrég mistress, prostitute húyakh /hujəx/ mistress, lover ʀurek
p’íb mite p’iph /p’ɪɸ/ mite pʔip
nithtam /nɪθtʰəm/ molar, back tooth
dlyĭ mold (from clay)
t’um /t’ʊm/ monkey
gàweg monumental earthwork
han (no pl) moon moon han /hən/ moon han
hlán sgv hlíen moonflower holán /hɔlan/ moonflower(s) (night-blooming flower types) hodlan
emàn (no sgv) morning lyàìma morning lámman /lammən/ morning -man
hlrĕ dlrĕ mortar (construction material) wlanú /wlənu/ mortar (construction material)
kág mortar (grinding tool) hakh /həx/ mortar (tool for grinding) kak
ngì-tóun (no pl) mortar, grinding bowl
xaon pl hxín mosquito
ĕcr'è mosquito
īndaní /ɪ̤ndəni/ mosquito(es)
kyú (no sgv) moss
pl twá mother, maternal aunt mother, maternal aunt danda /təndə/ mother, maternal aunt da
sgv kyè mountain range k’ĭ mountain range p’ungk’a /p’ʊŋk’ə/ mountain range, mountain(s) kʔi
he pl fwé mouse, rat he /hɛ/ mouse, rat he
ruc pl hruc mouth, throat rrúd mouth ruth /rʊθ/ mouth rut
cég move around, wander, go nowhere in particular thekh /θɛx/ move around, wander tek
ndźi much, a lot, a large amount of
yóu sgv láo mud dlyó mud súmam /suməm/ mud
nhúyac /n̥ujəʔ/ mudbrick
rrĕmâ murder
dźei (no sgv) mushrooms
sin sgv śin music ĕrè music sayen /səjɛn/ music sen, sin
qígh qígh musical instrument
yàe-sin pl nyàe-sin musical instrument
flic /flɪʔ/ musical instrument (general category)
zinggéc pl dinggéc musician the relation ship with 'sin' is interesting
attr tló must, should
Grĕpàì mythical homeland
nànc pl twánc name nàd name nant
dandai /təndaɪ̯/ name(s)
nyè nannygoat nin /nɪn/ nannygoat (female goat; less marked) nin
din /tɪn/ nation, tribal confederation
navigate, pilot a boat or raft
tśec near, alongside; with, containing
téc near, around
su /sʊ/ near, nearby, close, neighboring
neck tiwom /tʰɪwɔm/ neck ti
yec pl ifwéc neck
dzí pl ndzí necklace yairi /jaɪ̯rɪ/ necklace
ĕrĕcrĭ necklace, torc
ka pass ká, attr gya need, lack, miss
qĕhsrù neighbor, trading partner
dòc neither, none (of a few) tód neither stoth /stɔθ/ neither sdot
mbèin pl nimbèin nest (of birds or other animals) mbang /mbəŋ/ nest (of birds) mbeŋ
ngàoc sgv tśòa network of caves k’áú network of caves
ndán pl pyán new moon hnà nĕhnà new moon banan /pənən/ new moon
lán /lan/ new, young
rréb newt rendá /rɛnda/ newt re-
yen next, subsequent yan /jən/ next jen
gĕdrúgh nickname
śenc (no sgv) night xég ĕrég night sangngom /səŋŋɔm/ night seŋk
ngec sgv nyec nipples ngàd nipples ngath /ŋəθ/ nipple ŋat
lád nit(s) (eggs of louse or similar)
wathsiya /wəθsɪjə/ nit(s) (louse eggs)
se no, none (of many) xe no, not (negative particle) se /sɛ/ no, none se
úbreg noblewoman, clan matriarch
kh’ŭ noise culing /ʔʊlɪŋ/ noise qʔu
nomad
none of the three tre /tʰrɛ/ none of the three tre
phú /ɸu/ north
ngan pl mfwán nose ngàì nose ngan /ŋən/ nose ŋən
pec attr gwec not, be not pekh /pʰɛx/ not, be not bek
pl ndó notch, indentation hnô notch, nock (of an arrow) nonggín /nɔŋgin/ notch, nock (of an arrow) sno
hnyè notice, take note of ngangú /ŋəŋu/ notice, take note, note
htsí now hri /hrɪ/ now hti
bwìc pass hpwìc, attr gubwìc nudge, urge, insist
sgv myú nuts mhuwong /m̥ʊwɔŋ/ nut(s) ?hmu mhu
phén /ɸen/ oak tree pjent could it be from pjint instead?
pínc sgv pyénc oak forest píd oak woodland phin /ɸɪn/ oak woodland pint
gáo pl góc oar, paddle ĕkó oar elû /ɛlṳ/ oar CguX
ndúc pass hundúc, attr gundúc obey, be ruled by
yàec sgv yìec obsidian ĕgrágh obsidian
khin /xɪn/ occupation, role kin(t)
ocean dum /tʊm/ ocean
yu of, belonging to, associated with
réc pass hréc, attr tréc offend, insult, humiliate críb offend, insult thíph /θiɸ/ offend, insult trip
sĕzríb offense, insult saríph /səɾiɸ/ offense(s), insult(s) sadrip < satrip
kào pass hkào, attr gyào offer, sell, trade away
a /ə/ oh! (vocative particle)
ya oh! (vocative particle), hail!
um /ʊm/ old
ho pl fwó omen, portent, prophecy omen, portents xo /χɔ/ omen(s), portent(s) xo
poun on top of, above
xònc on, next to, touching
mìc once bik
pìc 1 p’íg one p’ikh /p’ɪx/ one pʔik
ko only, merely, barely, just, simply ghŭ only, merely, just, simply hu /hʊ/ only, merely, barely, just, simply ɢu
cundung /ʔʊndʊŋ/ open
e or e or e /ɛ/ or e
ro or
samô /səmo̤/ order(s), command(s), instruction(s) sahmoʀ
myóa pass fyóa, attr byóa order, command, instruct hmàù order, command, instruct mhô /m̥o̤/ order, command, instruct hmoʀ, hmjoʀ
hmàù orders, commands, instructions hmoʀ
pienc (no pl) orphan bád dlyád orphan púyan /pʰujən/ orphan b?ant
wèi outside of; without
dźoc pl ndźoc oven yód oven yoth /jɔθ/ oven jot
overlook, offer a view of phó /ɸo/ overlook, offer a view of po
wùo soc owe wĕsód owe wVV sot
ntú (no pl) owl owl species thulí /θʊli/ owl species -tu-
nyàb owl species ngaphkí /ŋəɸkʰi/ owl species
nyèb own, possess nem /nɛm/ own, possess
q’á pain k’ā /k’ə̤/ pain qʔaʀ
tàe pass htàe, attr glàe paint, color, dye t’ó paint, color, dye t’í /t’i/ paint, color, dye tʔVV
ĕdró painting, mural, man-made image, art sandí /səndi/ painting(s), mural(s), man made art
gwoc sgv gwa pair of shoes
ĕwĕbád palace, majesting house, dwelling of king/chieftain rómbáth /rombaθ/ palace, majesting house, dwelling of king/chieftain -baHt
támbú /tʰambu/ palm of the hand
fo pl mbo pan pan fo /fɔ/ pan fo
nóc sgv nyóc pants, trousers hnòd pants, trousers nhothngú /n̥ɔθŋu/ pants, trousers, lower body clothing hnot
ngèc sgv ngì parents ngê parent, same-sex parental sibling gandath /kəndəθ/ parents, same-sex parental siblings gVt
p’ó part, component /ʔi/ part, component pʔVV
hrào pass hahrào, attr dào participate, join
tlúnc pl ndlúnc party, celebration, social gathering
ngunc ma kànc pass (of a year or other long period)
fou attr gwou pass, move on, go forward fáú pass, move on, move toward fau /faʊ̯/ pass, move on, go forward faw
srĭ ĕwĭ patch of vetches
tlu pl tlúo paternal aunt drŭ dlŭ paternal aunt ramba /rəmbə/ paternal aunt
fwoc pl mboc path, route, road dláb path, trail, route fáph /faɸ/ path, trail fɬap
xèanc (no sgv) peace, prosperity
sīláth /sɪ̤laθ/ pear tree sjrJaC
zrà sgv źà pear trees sráí pear trees sālath /sə̤ləθ/ pear orchard, grove of pear trees sraC
sgv nyá pear(s) hnàì pear(s) nhāwong /n̥ə̤wɔŋ/ pear(s) hnaʀ
pi (no sgv) peas peas maiwi /maɪ̯wɪ/ peas bi
tsao bwìn peel
ngkùc (no pl) penis
bwin /pwɪn/ penis
people, ethnic group (irregular collective plural)
nào pass tsào, attr dzào perform (a ceremony)
perry (alcohol made from pears) nāwe /nə̤wɛ/ perry (alcohol made from pears) nəʀ
tsyún pl twín person person, individual thim /θɪm/ person, individual tim
po-tóun (no pl) pestle pestle thíyac /θijəʔ/ pestle
tsìc sgv tsèc petals c’íd petal(s) t’ith /t’ɪθ/ petals, blossoms tʔit
ngôth /ŋo̤θ/ pick (of berries, fruits)
dāph /tə̤ɸ/ pick, select, take
masca /məsʔə/ piece of gypsum
sri pass hsri, attr gri pierce, stab srĭ pierce /si/ pierce sri
hlríg hlríg piglet xoxoléng /χɔχɔleŋ/ piglet -liŋk
drác pass htrác, attr krác pillage, sack
/hu/ pilot, navigate (a canoe or raft)
tasokh /tʰəsɔx/ pine forest, pine trees
dzoc sgv dźoc pine trees tásokh /tʰasɔx/ pine tree dJasok
Halsa /Həlsə/ place of spiritual punishment, hell
gàù place, area, region hong /hɔŋ/ place, area, region goŋ
śou pl ndźou place, location, area
roun sgv youn plain, lowlands rrà plain (geographic) randau /rəndaʊ̯/ plain (geographical) ran~ram
ĕcrĕbĭ planet (astronomical)
tréc pl htréc planet, wandering star
hmê plants, crops, vegetation
śo pl ndźo platform, terrace, shelf
kéc attr gyéc play (music) qígh play (of music) khic /xɪʔ/ play (music) kiq
play with /tʰi/ play with; dance dij
nyoun attr dźoun play, enjoy oneself, have fun
reanc pass hreanc, attr kreanc please, make sb. happy
myein pass myéin, attr byein plot, conspire
màì plot, conspire, scheme méng /meŋ/ plot, conspire, scheme meŋ
dza li plow plow tra /tʰrə/ plow, till
gră point, tip
drŏ poison /tʰo/ poison dro
wínc pl nwínc pond
hlú sgv fyú poplar trees súg pool, pond sung /sʊŋ/ pool, pond suŋk
fólú /folu/ poplar tree
tró pl ndró pot, cauldron trŏ pot tro
khó /xo/ pot, ceramic vessel
fyao pass hfyao, attr givyao pour (of liquids), strew (of granular masses)
pour (of liquids), strew (of granular solids)
fau /faʊ̯/ pour, strew
tr’è powder t’ím /t’im/ powder tʔim
rră power, influence, capacity ra /rə/ power, influence, capacity ra
yic pass hic, attr tśic praise, worship íb praise iph /ɪɸ/ praise ip
pray
myei pass myéi, attr byei pray to pray to mai /maɪ̯/ pray to ? maj
manggai /məŋgaɪ̯/ pray, meditate infixation
zudźòa (no pl) prayer cave
pyo pass pyó, attr gibyo predict
ngà prepare (oneself) properly, get ready
drá pass htrá, attr krá press, poke
ya previous, preceding ya /jə/ previous, one before ja
vàù prey, game animal
vòc sgv vyòc price, value
handaŋ /həndəŋ/ pride of cats
hnàì hnàì pride of cats (collective plural)
trùc pl htrùc priest, shaman ĕtr’úg priest(ess), sage, holy person Ctrʔuk ~ Vtrʔuk
ĕcráú ĕcráú prisoner, hostage írau /iraʊ̯/ prisoner, captive, hostage, slave ? idraw
kambikh /kʰəmbɪx/ private, personal
lang /ləŋ/ problem
grĕjàì ĕhyàì problem
tei ndè promise dĕq’àì promise
udzéin pl nudzéin promise, oath, pledge rrĕcàì promise, oath, pledge, contract rórang /rorəŋ/ promise(s), oath(s), pledge(s)
hnò proof, evidence
wa pass wá, attr kwa protect, guard ĕráí protect, guard
càì gĕhxàì prove tān /tʰə̤n/ prove
li pass lí, attr tli pull lyĭ pull, milk (an animal) li /lɪ/ pull li
húoc bí lóc li soc dźi pull sb. close
súb punch suph /sʊɸ/ punch sup
kenc fwei xanc punish
rrĕrĕdráú puppy rayacau /rəjəʔaʊ̯/ puppy
manggác pl manggwác puppy (dog offspring)
nu pass nú, attr du push, have an impact on push nu /nʊ/ push nu
nàc fi yo put on (clothes)
pass hsò, attr dzò put, place sĕdŏ put, place sóndo /sondɔ/ put, place, position s?do
hnyê quantity, number sani /sənɪ/ quantity sni
dwic sgv diec quarrel, strife, conflict, rivalry
hngoc (no pl) quarry, stone pit
oc-mu sgv moc-mu quartz quartz muyac /mʊjəʔ/ quartz mu
ugwac pl uhkwac queen, matriarch ĕwĕgrég queen rócókh /roʔox/ queen, matriarch ?? udroʀok
sĕwĕgrég queendom s + udroʀok
sró quest, mission, task xúlin /χulɪn/ quest, mission, task xru
tsec pl tyéc rabbit zéd rabbit tath /tʰəθ/ rabbit det ? dət
yàe-ngge pl nyàe-ngge raft
kúd raid, rob
sgv mwì rain ĕrí rain railau /raɪ̯laʊ̯/ rain
ginggéc (no pl) rainbow gári rainbow dambú /təmbu/ rainbow
qíg ram (male sheep) khikh /xɪx/ ram (male sheep) qik
hrígh rape híc /hiʔ/ rape hriq
hsrígh ĕhrígh rape sayîc /səji̤ʔ/ rape shriq
tséc (no sgv) rapids
ngô rapids (of a river) ngofán /ŋɔfan/ rapids (of a river) ŋo
hmàb hmàb rash(es), hives, acne mhōm /m̥ɔ̤m/ rash(es), hives, breakout, acne hmo?mp
wàù rather, somewhat won /wɔn/ rather, somewhat won
dlă rattle, clatter sa /sə/ rattle, clatter ɬa
ogá pl ohká raven ĕwĕqă raven róla /rolə/ raven ?? orqa
húoc pass fúoc, attr kúoc reach out for
kyá pass hkyá, attr gíe reach, arrive at khá /xa/ reach, arrive at kja
hic pass híc, attr tśíc realize, become aware of híb realize, become aware of hiph /hɪɸ/ realize, become aware of, understand hip
really, indeed really, indeed (emphatic particle) du /tʊ/ really, indeed du
srae pass hsrae, attr grae reap, harvest
tsèi (no pl) reason, explanation, motivation c’í reason, explanation, motivation t’ai /t’aɪ̯/ reason(s), motive(s), explanation tʔaj
nwì pass twì, attr dwì receive (as a gift)
pēc /pʰɛ̤ʔ/ receive in trade
hâi /ha̤ɪ̯/ recently
págh recieve in trade, buy
ron pass rón, attr tron recite, tell (a story) rràù recite, tell (of a story) ron /rɔn/ recite, tell (a story) ron
nyu ndźei recognize nyĕhnyé recognize
slúsau /slusaʊ̯/ rectangle, square
kanggí /kʰəŋgi/ red
nyè red color, red pigment gíyāth /kijə̤θ/ red color, red pigment giH
yēk’í /jɛ̤k’i/ red obsidian
dóg reef, shoal
reflect (of light, images) alim /əlɪm/ reflect (light) Cgim
bĕpég refuse, deny pwekh /pʰwɛx/ refuse, deny b(V)pek
bronc pass hpronc attr gubronc regret báíyĕzragh regret bajjVdraq
mèc sgv myèc religion, culture
ranào (no pl) religious festival
yec pou remember
cágh remove, take away
mbàc pass hpàc, attr bàc replace, substitute, switch with
blŏ reply, respond /pʰo/ reply, respond blo
uvyèc pl mbyèc representative building; house of the chieftain
request ca /ʔə/ request ga
kan pass kán, attr gyan resist, ward off
ghĕkhó respect ɢiʀqoH
khó ĕkhó respect qoH
gáe (no sgv) respect, social standing /kʰi̤/ respect ɢiʀ
sayî /səji̤/ respect saɢiʀ
śoc attr gźoc rest, relax, take a break xáb rest sáph /saɸ/ rest sjap
ec attr kec return, come back ág return, come back akh /əx/ return, come back ək
mbíc ec revert, undo
trĕrìd ride
fríd ĕríd right (direction) fíthyâi /fiθja̤ɪ̯/ right side, the right (direction) frit
grágh rightness, righteousness ang /əŋ/ rightness, righteousness ʀaɴq
drúnc pl ndrúnc ring (jewelry)
ndzu attr gundzu rise, get up dlyè rise, get up (from sitting or lying)
binc pl mbinc ritual, ceremony
fwenc pl mbenc river dlyéd river fán /fan/ river fɬənt
nro (no pl) river crossing, ford dĕmàù dĕmàù river crossing, ford
zráb river delta léph /leɸ/ river mouth, river delta
ĕhá ĕgrá riverbank
rrúb roast rum /rʊm/ roast rump
drég rob, pillage, sack takh /tʰəx/ rob, steal; pillage, sack drək
oc sgv moc rock(s), stone(s) ágh rock(s), stone(s) ac /əʔ/ rock(s), stone(s) aq
màì rock(s), stone(s)
mwòu sgv myòu roof báú báú roof bwau /pwaʊ̯/ roof(s), roofing baw
gòrrĕfu roof
traen pl ndraen room (of a house)
zràù room, hall
kiyong /kʰɪjɔŋ/ room, hall, compartment of a house
xùon sgv màon root ráí root ā /ə̤/ root(s)
pàn sgv mpàn rope
wíg rope wikh /wɪx/ rope(s) wik
pass hpá, attr gwá row row pha /ɸə/ row pa
nggèa sgv nggyèa rowan trees ganggé /kəŋge/ rowan tree
dye pl ndye rowboat, canoe
rócoth /roʔɔθ/ royal couple
ndrì pass trì, attr gindrì rub zrĭ rub /tí/ rub dri
ĕtĕdró rudder
ekht'í /ɛxt'i/ rudder (device used to steer a boat)
tngí /tʰŋ̊i/ rule(s), law(s)
dèlo dèlo rules, laws
gwae sgv gyae rules, laws, traditions
mìnc pass pìnc, attr bìnc sacrifice hmèd sacrifice (not a human or animal) bin /pɪn/ sacrifice mint
sacrifice, give as an offering samin /səmɪn/ sacrifice (not a person or animal)
sascakh /səsʔəx/ sacrificial animal
grĕyágh sadness, grief yuyang /jʊjəŋ/ sadness ʀujaɴq
ít’ukh /it’ʊx/ sage, priest, shaman
ĕrrúd saliva úyuth /ujʊθ/ saliva, spit urut
rimyuc (no sgv) saliva
dźaon pl htśaon salmon
ric sgv yoc salt rríb salt riph /rɪɸ/ salt rip
kàgri saltwater eel
hngò hngògh salvation, rescue kné /kʰn̥e/ salvation, rescue
hluc sgv syuc sand dlúd dlúd sand hwuth /hwʊθ/ sand hɬut
á sandstorm ārófu /ə̤rofʊ/ sandstorm
rráí sap raiyâi /raɪ̯ja̤ɪ̯/ sap raj
byao xònc wa save sb.’s life
xònc pass hxònc, attr kònc save, rescue
ngò save, rescue
tei pass téi, attr glei say, speak dáí say, speak (something) tai /tʰaɪ̯/ say, speak (something) daj
hnèb hnèb scabies xaním /χənim/ scabies xanimp
mĕgră scales (of a reptile) mbō /mbɔ̤/ scales (of a reptile)
fao sgv fyao scales (of fish or reptiles)
ĕnyàì school of whales (collective plural)
trí pl tśwí scorpion crĭ scorpion thílā /θilə̤/ scorpion tri
hku pass huhku, attr guhku scream at
kháú scream at, shout at
dlrĕ sculpt, mash, put together sa /sə/ sculpt, put together, mold ɬə
t’ú sea foam
nùn (no pl) sea, ocean
hnô hnô seagull nono /nɔnɔ/ seagull no
ndźù pass hundźù, attr gundźù search for
myen mic ndźù search intensively
gáú seashell(s) xaundum /χaʊ̯ndʊm/ seashell(s)
season /ti/ season d-
seaweed
gzo second hsŏ second (ordinal) gso /ksɔ/ second gso
càì secret thang /θəŋ/ secret(s) təŋ
nyu pass nyú, attr dźu see nyè see ngú /ŋu/ see
báí màì seed (of a plant), semen (of an animal) bai /paɪ̯/ seed(s) (of plants), semen (of animals) baj
ngàì seek, look for ngai /ŋaɪ̯/ seek, look for ŋaj
ham /həm/ seem
kóan pass hkóan, attr gyóan seize, conquer khàù seize, take over, conquer, take by force hon /hɔn/ seize, take over, conquer, take by force qon
ūph /ʊ̤ɸ/ sense of hearing
ĕdláú grĕlráú sense of smell sau /saʊ̯/ sense of smell ɬaw
ĕmàg sense of taste mang /məŋ/ sense of taste maŋk
grĕgráítib sense of touch ēram /ɛ̤rəm/ sense of touch
zĕcágh separate, disconnect tac /tʰəʔ/ separate, disconnect daq
nòd serve nuth /nʊθ/ serve, be a servant nut
hxù set up shop, make oneself at home
ngàe several, some, a few
gundùn pass hkundùn, attr gindùn sew sew hun /hʊn/ sew
xu sgv xào shadow, shade háú shadow, shade tauyâu /tʰaʊ̯ja̤ʊ̯/ shadow, shade
ĕlyĕdĕtú shaft (of a spear)
withtí /wɪθtʰi/ shaft (of a spear), handle (of a long-hafted tool)
ĕlyĕhnyè shaft (of an arrow) withgén /wɪθken/ shaft (of an arrow)
trìc pass htrìc, attr grìc shake, shove, stir cr’íd shake t’íth /t’iθ/ shake tʔit
sáú shape, figure sau /saʊ̯/ shape(s) saw
dei pass htei, attr ksei share, distribute
zrŭ zrŭ shark
kdasí /kʰtəsi/ sharp
ârsí /a̤rsi/ sharp point, tip
ugou pl nugou shield rrĕgáú shield rócau /roʔaʊ̯/ shield rogaw
gyè attr gigyè shift one's position
źùn attr dźùn shine ngè shine nggim /ŋgɪm/ shine ŋgim
è shine on im /ɪm/ shine on im
shine, glow, rays (of light)
ndwin pl nundwin shirt
trĕhsrĕqà shirt, upper body clothing núngú /nuŋu/ shirt, upper body clothing
tréa attr gréa shiver tĕră shiver thá /θa/ shiver tra
sokhwuth /sɔxwʊθ/ shoal, shallow (in a body of water)
hfă ghă shoes gfa /kfə/ shoe kfa
li tào shoot (arrows) lyĕcă shoot (of an arrow or similar projectile)
sec pl swéc shooting star xéd shooting star seth /sɛθ/ shooting star set
kdónâi /kʰtona̤ɪ̯/ shore, riverbank
sáe sgv syáe shores (of a river or lake)
ing /ɪŋ/ short
troc sgv tsac shoulder(s), upper back dró shoulder súrí /suri/ shoulder
háú shout, call out hâu /ha̤ʊ̯/ shout, cry out (of a word or sound) haw
kéi pl nggéi shovel, scoop khícau /xiʔaʊ̯/ shovel, scoop
tan pass tán, attr glan show, demonstrate, explain
góyêkh /koje̤x/ shrine, temple
hao sgv hmáo siblings handú /həndu/ siblings haw
dlró ĕró siblings, parallel cousins
pakh /pʰəx/ sick
ĕnyí sight, vision ngú /ŋu/ sight, vision
rrĕhmí silver rómbí /rombi/ silver roHmpiH
similarity sawa /səwə/ similarity pa, sapa
sinew, string siphxú /sɪɸχu/ sinew(s), (length of) string xju
faen pass hfaen, attr gwaen sing fàù sing fong /fɔŋ/ sing foŋ
níe attr díe sink hnyè sink nhí /n̥i/ sink hniH
sa pl swá sister, parallel cousin (female) sister sasa /səsə/ sister sa
attr glé sit
hngàù sit nghau /ŋ̊aʊ̯/ sit hŋaw
gyè té sit down
6 dlyă six sa /sə/ six ɬa, ɬja
la six times əla
zrou sgv źou size, quantity lĕdráú dlráú size lalau /ləlaʊ̯/ size
hnyèd hnyèd skeleton, collection of bones cundith /ʔʊndɪθ/ skeleton, set of bones ntit
faonc pl honc skin hfáb gráb skin fōm /fɔ̤m/ skin(s), bark (of a tree) fʀomp
jĕbĕpàù nyĕbĕpàù skull githpom /kɪθpʰɔm/ skull -pom
sky /kʰə̤/ sky gaʀ
Haifai /haɪ̯faɪ̯/ sky goddess
sky goddess
myòu (no sgv) sky, weather
fwei pass hfwei, attr guvwei slap, beat, hit dláí slap fai /faɪ̯/ slap fɬaj
hmàgh slaughter mhac /m̥əʔ/ slaughter hmaq
ĕráígh slay, kill in battle
yenc attr tśenc sleep yég sleep yeng /jɛŋ/ sleep jeŋk
nĕhnê hnê sleeve (of shirt), leg (of pants) mane /mənɛ/ sleeve, leg (of pants) ne-
hlyó hlyó slime tulú /tʰʊlu/ slime, any unpleasant, viscous substance -luH
wie attr kwie slide, slip slip, slide /wu/ slip, slide wuH
nggruc attr gunggruc slow down
ban /pən/ small
sĕlráú smell, odor sawau /səwaʊ̯/ smell saɬaw
gúb smell, emit odor (neutral tone) cuph /ʔʊɸ/ smell, emit odor gup
hlou pass huhlou, attr tlou smell, perceive a scent dláú smell, perceive a scent sau /saʊ̯/ smell, perceive a scent ɬaw
nenc pass nénc, attr denc smile at lyég smile leng /lɛŋ/ smile leŋk
nèan (no sgv) smoke nyàì smoke nangkda /nəŋkʰtə/ smoke nVŋ
kandaná /kʰəndəna/ smooth
lúc pl hlúc snail dlúb snail suphsíng /sʊɸsiŋ/ snail ɬup
hli pl fwá snake
snake, serpent hanō /hənɔ̤/ snake
tò kòun sneak t’ĕk’à sneak tʔo kʔam
dlràì snot, nasal mucous fóm /fom/ snot, nasal mucous
ndźìc sgv ndźèc snow hnyèd ĕjíd snow ganggith /kəŋgɪθ/ snow ŋkit
dyen so that
drenc so, therefore
soap
rumban /rʊmbən/ soap
san socially related to
ngha /ŋ̊ə/ soft
bsaumwi /psaʊ̯mwɪ/ solar eclipse
cră sole(s) (of feet), palm(s) (of hands) tánikh /tʰanɪx/ sole of the foot trja
/ʔi/ some, few
son fífí /fifi/ son
śin pl ndźin song sràù song sawong /səwɔŋ/ song perhaps of different origins
dat’ang /tət’əŋ/ soon
pĕzrég hsrég soul, spirit pdékh /pʰtex/ soul, spirit ptrek
hlíc (no sgv) soup, stew dlyíd soup, stew sith /sɪθ/ soup, stew, porridge, mush hɬit
dlyíd soup, stew
hfáí sréí source, origin safai /səfaɪ̯/ source, origin safaj, sfaj
nwen /nwɛn/ south
hlyíg hlyíg sow holéng /hɔleŋ/ sow (female pig; less marked) -leŋk
twí pl ndwí spear spear(s) p’andí /p'əndi/ spear twi
ārí /ə̤ri/ spearhead
nggráon attr ganggráon speed up
gwe pl dà spider spider khā /xə̤/ spider Ckeʀ
ngká pl nangká spider web
spider web
welā /wɛlə̤/ spider web
dlyéb spill seph /sɛɸ/ spill ɬep
cáí hsáí spine
tīk’ith /tʰɪ̤k’ɪθ/ spine, backbone, vertebrae
brec pl orà spirit, soul, personality
jĕrég dlyĕrég spleen híyakh /hijəx/ spleen gJirek
tr’ĕ split, divide t’é /t’e/ split, cleave, divide tʔre
kúd ĕtrúd spoils, booty, loot, plunder sacun /səʔʊn/ spoils, booty, loot, plunder kunt, sakunt
spouse, husband, wife
rúon pl koc spouse, partner, husband, wife
mbì (no sgv) spring (season) nĕp’ĭ spring (season) níp’i /nip’ɪ/ spring nJipʔi
zrou-mbì (no pl) spring equinox
vyei pl zwei spring, well
mun /mʊn/ spring, well
sĕtrí sĕdrí square (shape)
hmi pass fwí, attr gwi squeeze, pinch, be tight against
dĕtú squid
mwinc pl hmúnc squirrel mòg squirrel mummung /mʊmmʊŋ/ squirrel muŋk
tào zò zò stack, pile up tâu /tʰa̤ʊ̯/ stack, pile up dawʀ
ngāth /ŋə̤θ/ stain, blot, blemish, colored spot
dlyíd stalk, stem fíth /fiθ/ stalk, stem fɬit
tágh stallion tōc /tʰɔ̤ʔ/ stallion (male horse) tCaq
pùn attr gùn stand
gyè pùn stand up
hwŏ stand up (from sitting or lying) ndó /ndo/ stand up (from sitting or lying)
myéc (no sgv) star(s) hmèd star mhath /m̥əθ/ stars hmet
tou pass tóu, attr glou start, begin start, begin /tʰu/ start, begin duH
hsó ĕsró start, beginning
attr krè starve
q’àì stay, remain k’ang /k’əŋ/ stay, remain qʔaŋ
bra attr gabra stay, remain
brinc kóan tóc steal gĕnì steal
nou (no sgv) steam hnò hnò steam nanú /nənu/ steam now
dlae pass htlae, attr klae steer, navigate
ha pass hxa, attr ká step on step on xa /χə/ step on, step toward xa
dlĕhsrè stepchild fándîm /fandi̤m/ stepchild
fwanc-swín (no pl) stepchild, child-in-law
ngi-swín pl ngec-swín stepparent, parent-in-law nasîm /nəsi̤m/ stepparent
hwè hwè stepparent
byo pl mbyo stick, twig, shaft stick pgo /pʰkɔ/ stick pgo
ĕdlĕdrĕ ĕlĕdrĕ stickiness langga /ləŋgə/ stickiness
bĕgă ĕgă stingray
nggùc attr gunggùc stink gĕk’úb stink k'uph /k'ʊɸ/ stink kʔup
hxĭ hxĭ stomach xri /χrɪ/ stomach
vĕmê stomp on
ràìhmed stone tower for use in sky burials
màonc attr bàonc stop, cease
stop, halt, cease, come to an end, die bam /pəm/ stop, halt, cease, come to an end mam
sarāth /sərə̤θ/ storage, inventory
céd zréd storage, shed, inventory
ndè pass hindè, attr gindè store, keep, retain téd store, keep, retain thāth /θə̤θ/ store, keep, retain
rrĕfŭ storm rófu /rofʊ/ storm
táe pl twáe story, legend story, legend
zumbron pl dumbron storyteller
klúph /kʰluɸ/ straight
sīlúph /sɪ̤luɸ/ straight line
nrèn pl hnrèn stranger, foreigner ĕnràì stranger, foreigner ínggen /iŋgɛn/ stranger, foreigner
mao sgv myao strawberries
mèfai mèfed stream, brook, creek bambán /pəmban/ stream, brook, creek
wan sgv wìen strength, force, pressure
rudwó pass hrudwó, attr grudwó strengthen
ndà pass handà, attr gandà strike down, slay, kill
śu pl ndźu string, thread; sinew
thó /θo/ strong
kúng /kʰuŋ/ struggle, strive toward
tronc attr gronc struggle, toil, strain oneself
nggòun attr gunggòun stumble
ĕză succeed ndá /nda/ succeed at ndja
bwác attr gubwác suffer bwác /pwaʔ/ suffer (from an illness) bwaq
fĕhyĕ suffer a fit, convulsion, seizure, attack
/he/ suffer a seizure, stroke, or similar attack
ndàe (no sgv) summer hnò summer dandí /təndi/ summer
yenc-wie (no pl) summer solstice ĕrĕbí summer solstice ranggí /rəŋgi/ summer solstice
mbí (no pl) sun ĕpĭ ĕbĭ sun mwi /mwɪ/ sun mpi
nrènc (no sgv) sunrise, daybreak, early morning
ramamwi /rəməmwɪ/ sunset, sundown, late afternoon
ĕbĕdră sunset, sundown, late afternoon
(no sgv) sunset, sundown, late afternoon
byao pass hpyao, attr gibyao support, help
yèi sgv myèi surface, pattern, texture, rhythm, cycle
kúnc pass hkúnc, attr gyúnc surprise, catch sb. off guard
yec prei suspect, suppose
wòu pass fwòu, attr kwòu swallow áú swallow au /aʊ̯/ swallow aw
hxó sĕró swamp sasau /səsaʊ̯/ swamp Csjaw
zèn (no sgv) swarm of fish
dzèc sgv dréi swarm of insects
t’ándeph /t’andɛɸ/ swarm of insects, colony of insects <tʼeph
handā /həndə̤/ swarm of spiders, nest of spiders <hā
swarm of spiders, nest of spiders (collective plural)
attr kù swim, float dĕbŭ swim, tread water, keep afloat tambu /tʰəmbʊ/ swim, keep afloat dmbu
bath /pəθ/ switch with, be exchanged for
odzao pl nodzao sword
table /χo/ table xjo
pl mfwé tail hnyê tail nhe /n̥ɛ/ tail hne
tóc pass htóc, attr glóc take away, remove
lóc sruo take care of, look after (inanimate things)
fyao bwìn soc gónc take care of, raise (children)
yĕzrŏ take off (of clothing, armor)
guc attr kyuc take revenge
thac /θəʔ/ take, remove
tyuc pass tyúc, attr gidyuc talk about
tonc pass tónc, attr glonc talk to, chat with dágh talk to, chat with tang /tʰəŋ/ talk to, chat with daɴq
kén sgv kyén task, mission, quest, project
màg taste mang /məŋ/ taste, try (of food or drink) maŋk
tśic nyu taste, try (liquids)
tyòu nyu taste, try (solid food)
hnyàì teach (a skill or discipline)
tei zò teach (mental knowledge)
dán pass htán, attr ksán teach (practical skills)
sanān /sənə̤n/ teach (something)
hxàì teach, be a teacher sān /sə̤n/ teach, be a teacher
nac sgv nic teeth nèd teeth nath /nəθ/ teeth nat
me pass mé, attr be tell, say towards tell, say toward me /mɛ/ tell, say towards me
náo sgv nyáo temple
tsoc pl tsic tent zíb tent tiph /tʰɪɸ/ temporary shelter, tent(s) dip
ĕdă dlă termite lra /lrə/ termite lda
sĕzĭ testicles and scrotum
texture yîyē /ji̤jɛ̤/ texture jiʀ
bég thank peng /pʰɛŋ/ thank beŋk
hfég srég thanks safeng /səfɛŋ/ thanks safeŋk ~ sfeŋk
that
rrĕcrég the brightest visible planet, one of the titles of Ká
Jĕhnò the coastal region inhabited by the Té-Jĕhno
ngô the east
xòac the entirety of, all (of a collection) gréd the entire, all (of inanimates) wath /wəθ/ the entire ʀVt
rrĕdáú the mainland, Tuysáfa
the north
the other one hnu the other nhu /n̥ʊ/ the other hnu
Wég the physical universe, the animating force of the world
rrĕgód the royal couple (queen and king)
dzó the same one (animate)
hto the same one (inanimate)
źindlíc (no pl) the shaman's garden
nĕlréd the south
hnâ the three of them
hnyâ the three of us
nàd the two of us, us two
mèd the two of you, you two
dră dră the west twa /tʰwə/ west dra
grĕhnò the world (geographical), Akana
uwōndum /ʊwɔ̤ndʊm/ the world, Akana
tèin then (in the future) t’ang /t’əŋ/ then (in the future) tʔeŋ
yéi then (in the past) hai /haɪ̯/ then (past) haj
lóa there dláú there (at a distance from the speaker) /sɔ̤/ there ɬoʀ
lum /lʊm/ thick (in dimension)
káú thigh thóyâu /θoja̤ʊ̯/ thigh
siph /sɪɸ/ thin (in dimension), narrow
táo pl ndáo thing, item thing thú /θu/ thing(s), stuff tju, tVV
fwinc pass hfwinc, attr guvwinc think, reflect, consider, assume fwíng /fwiŋ/ think about, consider fwiŋk
yéd think, assume yeth /jɛθ/ think, reflect, consider, assume jet
ntòc third
ki this gi the (animate) ka /kʰə/ this, that (animate) gi
this (near me) tja
fi the (inanimate) fi /fɪ/ this, that (inanimate) fi
dlyè threat hing /hɪŋ/ threat giŋ
tlin pass tlín, attr glin threaten threaten hing /hɪŋ/ threaten ? tgiŋ
tòc 3 t’úgh three t’uc /t’ʊʔ/ three tʔuq
nòc three times dʔuq
yág throat yakh /jəx/ throat jak
rùc through, between, surrounded by
tào pass htào, attr glào throw
srundau /srʊndaʊ̯/ throw, shoot (of an arrow or similar projectile)
pl kwí thrush nyê thrush gilí /kɪli/ thrush gi
tèi pl twéi thumb c’é thumb t’í /t’i/ thumb tʔVi ~ tʔiV
kun sgv tśun thunder thunder hum /hʊm/ thunder gum
humrófu /hʊmrofʊ/ thunderstorm
fĕsrèrra fĕrèrra tide(s)
lulú pass hlulú, attr tlulú tie down sb.
ndra pl ntśwá tiger hnră nĕră tiger ndá /nda/ tiger ntra
lánc sgv línc time dlréd time, duration san /sən/ time, duration ɬant
ngù to the east of
tac to the left of
odzac to the north of
urìc to the right of
nrenc to the south of
tuo to the west of
ban today
luc pl hluc toe lúb toe luph /lʊɸ/ toe lup
sonc pl swónc tongue sób tongue, language som /sɔm/ tongue somp
tĕrà too much, excessively thuyam /θʊjəm/ too much, excessively turam
yao too, also, as well too, also, as well au /aʊ̯/ too, also, as well aw
yàe pl nyàe tool tool(s)
ekhdá /ɛxta/ tool
nèc pl ndèc torch
xúsalú /χusəlu/ torso, trunk of the body
hkwae pl fwáe totem animal
ko pass kó, attr gyo touch, get in contact with touch, get in contact with ho /hɔ/ touch, come in contact with go
bao towards, in the direction of; intended for
rómbāth /rombə̤θ/ town; large, permanent village
kào paec trade
xĕbá trade, trade in (a commodity)
lyéd train, practice, learn leth /lɛθ/ train, practice, learn let
traitor, criminal, trickster
mbíc kòu bí trap káú káú trap fgau /fkaʊ̯/ trap fgaw
ndzu kein tyòu yenc do travel (to)
yàe-kàc pl nyàe-kàc travois, sledge ĕghĕkh’ad travois, sledge ekhcath /ɛxʔəθ/ travois, sledge to carry goods eɢVqʔat
ĕcr’íg ĕzríg triangle (shape) t’ikhsau /t’ɪxsaʊ̯/ triangle (shape) Ctʔik
k’áú trick cau /ʔaʊ̯/ trick kʔaw
mpúo (no pl) trunk (of an elephant or anteater) trunk (of an elephant or anteater) phúngan /ɸuŋən/ trunk (of an elephant or anteater) puH
ságh truth sang /səŋ/ truth saɴq
pwì pass hpwì, attr gubwì try, attempt, strive dĕtrĕ try, strive
mbré pl nimbré tube; tunnel (of a cave); sleeve (of clothes)
mic attr bic turn around mèg turn around mikh /mɪx/ turn around mik
mimbíc attr bimbíc turn the tables; change a situation completely mĕhmèg turn, rotate, revert mamikh /məmɪx/ turn, rotate, revert mVCmik
mbíc pass himbíc, attr gimbíc turn, rotate, twist, knead, mold
sayā /səjə̤/ turnip(s)
sgv yí turnips dlĭ turnips
malā /mələ̤/ turtle
ĕdráí turtle
nggaon pl ngkwáon turtle
mamā /məmə̤/ turtle shell, armor
lác 12 dlád twelve sath /səθ/ twelve ɬat
tróun 24 crà twenty-four thám /θam/ twenty-four tram
hoc twice
hmào (no sgv) twilight, red sky (at dawn and dusk) xábe yábe twilight xāmbú /χə̤mbu/ twilight
kyòc sgv kàe twins k’ú twin cíwû /ʔiwṳ/ twins kʔVV
káe 2 two /hi/ two kVV
ric (no pl) type, kind, variety xíg type, kind, quality sikh /sɪx/ type, kind sik
bonc under the circumstance that
tra under, at the bottom of
dwá pass htwá, attr gudwá understand tĕrĕ understand tVrV
ĕrà undress, go naked rán /ran/ undress, go naked, denude ran
zò nàc tóc unload, take out
zimí pl dimí unmarried young adult
ngĕnge until
źi attr dźi urinate, pee urinate si /sɪ/ urinate si, zji
twou (no sgv) urine
sasi /səsɪ/ urine
tna /tʰn̥ə/ us (paucal)
use wo /wɔ/ use wo
ngyen /ŋjɛn/ vagina
kwè (no pl) vagina, vulva /ʔe/ vulva kʔwe
hmóc (no pl) valley hmòg valley mhokh /m̥ɔx/ valley hmok
wōc /wɔ̤ʔ/ value, price
zwà sgv zwìe vegetation, plants samba /səmbə/ vegetation, plant(s) smpa
ngòd vengeance, intense rage, vendetta, feud, revenge ngúth /ŋuθ/ vengeance, intense rage, vendetta, feud, blood feud, revenge ŋut
k’indó /k’ɪndo/ vetches, patch of vetches
ĕságh ĕrrágh victim, sacrificial animal
sĕlré vigil, patrol
sawú /səwu/ vigil, patrol, watch
màc sgv myèc village pád hmàd village bāth /pə̤θ/ village, collection of houses bCat
tyu sgv tśou villager(s), sedentary people
hmĕc’ó vinyard, patch of grape vines
dĕdlyŏ viper, venomous snake
dźi syu visit
ānggí /ə̤ŋgi/ vixen (female fox, less marked)
ĕrà vixen, fox (less marked)
jíg dlyíg voice (of a human) hikh /hɪx/ voice Cgik
dúgh vomit tung /tʰʊŋ/ vomit duɴq
srú ĕrrú vomit
yayílí /jəjili/ vomit
p’ú wage, conduct, venture, attempt p’í /p’i/ wage, conduct, venture, attempt pʔwi
waist súfōm /sufɔ̤m/ waist sju
ròun (no pl) waist, small of the back
sruo attr gruo wait syó /sjo/ wait for, await srVV
rinc pass rínc, attr trinc wake up, rouse; warn ĕnyúb wake up núm /num/ wake up Cnjump
k’à walk cam /ʔəm/ walk kʔam
zúc attr dzúc walk
ndòu (no sgv) wall(s) (of a house) wall (of a building) nhándú /n̥andu/ wall(s) (of a house) ntuw
ao pass hao, attr kao want á want ai /aɪ̯/ want aw, aH, aj
sen sgv śen war sinden /sɪndɛn/ war(s) sin
xíb war sip
fĕzréd ĕzréd warband, militia, gang (collective plural)
q’ĭ warn k’i /k’ɪ/ warn kʔi
rrĕqĭ warning sanggi /səŋgɪ/ warning(s)
fec pl fwéc warrior féd warrior feth /fɛθ/ warrior, soldier fet
fyao bwìn wash
pan /pʰən/ wash, clean
hmè wash, clean, clean up
fyei pl hsèi wasp ĕyé wasp fjaj
wait’ā /waɪ̯t’ə̤/ wasp
drég waste
léc pass hléc, attr tléc waste, squander lec /lɛʔ/ waste, squander leq
tòc attr glòc watch out, be vigilant
láo pass hláo, attr tláo watch, look at dlré watch, look at /su/ watch, look at ɬrVV
ó water ú /u/ water uH
sun sgv mou water
flaló /fləlo/ water pot (for scoring clay)
cég waterfall thakh /θəx/ waterfall tek
fáí wave xai /χaɪ̯/ wave (of water), splash χaj
ngwou sgv nyou waves (of water)
nac we (dual)
dźé we (paucal)
hei we háí we, us, our hai /haɪ̯/ we, us haj
ndáph /ndaɸ/ weak
koun pl nggoun weapon
xamen /χəmɛn/ weapon, sword
yo pass yó, attr tśo wear (clothes) wear (of clothing, armor) yo /jɔ/ wear (of clothing, armor) jo
bráú màù weather baulā /paʊ̯lə̤/ weather bəwlaw?
ĕgă màù weather
brò well, spring, watering hole
dlyé wet snow, sleet saurai /saʊ̯raɪ̯/ wet snow ɬəwraj
yàì whale
mwei sgv myei wheat wáí wheat wai /waɪ̯/ wheat, grain in general mwai
hpan when (during the day)
htrenc when (during the night)
htèin when (in the future)
htséi when (in the past)
htlinc when finally; as soon as
tyaen where (dynamic)
saen where (stative)
tróu which? (interrogative animate)
trén which? (interrogative inanimate)
hpi while, during (a longer timeframe)
htlanc while, during (a short timeframe)
twic pass twíc, attr gudwic whisper dĕwíg whisper dVwik
k’imāth /k’ɪmə̤θ/ white color, white pigment
k’im /k’ɪm/ white, light (in color)
haon pl hxon widow, widower xĕgràù yĕgràù widow, widower xíwūn /χiwʊ̤n/ widow, widower χiʀawn
kícókh /kʰiʔox/ wife
dźea (no sgv) willow trees síyala /sijələ/ willow tree, grove of willows
nyac attr dźac win, be victorious; very (when used in a SVC with a positive quality verb) nyègh win, be victorious nec /nɛʔ/ win, be victorious neq
wind fu /fʊ/ wind fu
źiźenc (no pl) wind burial platform
pl hú wind, storm əwu < ə + fu
gzòu pl nggzòu window
sĕbŏ window sawó /səwo/ window sabo
t’auwe /t’aʊ̯wɛ/ wine
rec pl hroac wing rrág wing rakh /rəx/ wing rak
ntronc (no sgv) winter nĕrú winter nílom /nilɔm/ winter
man-honc (no pl) winter solstice hngób winter solstice manggom /məŋgɔm/ winter solstice
nyèg wish, wish for nakh /nəx/ wish
nyèg wish nakh /nəx/ wish(es)
ràe pass hràe, attr kràe wish, hope
zea with the goal that
grac with the result that
fa with, accompanied by
wo with, by, using
re without
zac pl hsac wolf srég srég wolf asakh /əsəx/ wolf ssek
kwac pl ngwèi woman grég dlrég woman hókh /hox/ woman ʀVk
nyê womb, uterus di /tɪ/ womb, uterus di
nggren (no pl) womb, uterus
salî /səli̤/ wonder
ĕkú wonder (emotional state)
gĕkú wonder about, imagine
toc sgv tsoc wood (material) dóg wood (material) tokh /tʰɔx/ wood (material) dok
tsìn sgv tsèn wool c’è wool t’in /t’ɪn/ wool tʔin
sei sgv śei words, statement, utterance sáí word, utterance sai /saɪ̯/ word(s), utterance(s), question(s) saj
tsa attr gza work work /tʰa/ work dsa
udou (no sgv) world
hlin (no pl) worm dlyè ĕlrè worm síng /siŋ/ worm ɬiŋ
ú worry about
worry, anxiety súk’ā /suk’ə̤/ worry, anxiety suw
tuyan /tʰʊjən/ worthless or uncooperative person, traitor
saenc pl ndzaenc wound, injury sayāng /səjə̤ŋ/ wound(s) sVVŋk
wound, injury
fi pass hfi, attr gwi wrap, cover wrap around fi /fɪ/ wrap around fi
rrĕbú wrist rúmbú /rumbu/ wrist rumbuw
mbà pl nambà yard, enclosed area
yei attr kyei yawn ĕrí yawn, gape rai /raɪ̯/ yawn, gape rai
zàe pl syàe year
rrĕdó year róndí /rondi/ year
kambú /kʰəmbu/ yellow
yellow color, yellow pigment, yellow dye, urine (euphamistic) búyāth /pujə̤θ/ yellow color, yellow pigment
mun you you (singular), your mung /mʊŋ/ you muŋ
minc you (dual)
bún you (paucal) hmò you three tmung /tʰm̥ʊŋ/ you (paucal)
wae you (plural) you, your (plural) /wi/ you (plural)
la yé 36
nec pl mfwéc young animal