Báxbílâtáxa

From AkanaWiki
Jump to: navigation, search

Báxbílâtáxa is a Southern language spoken in the eponymous region of Peilaš.

Phonology

Consonants

Bilabial Alveolar Palatal Velar Glottal
Nasal m n
Stop p p’ b t t’ d k k’ g
Affricate ts ts’ dz tʃ tʃ’ dʒ
Lateral Affricate tɬ tɬ’ dɮ
Fricative s ʃ x h
Lateral Fricative ɬ
Resonant l j w
  • Gemination is contrastive: nína 'eat.subj' vs. ninna 'look for.subj'.
  • /tʃ tʃ’ dʒ/ are written tš tš' dž.
  • /tɬ tɬ’ dɮ/ are written tł tł' dḷ.
  • /ɬ ʃ/ are written ł š.
  • /j/ is written y.

Vowels

Front Central Back
High i u
Mid-high e o
Mid-low ɛ ɔ
Low a
  • There are three tones: High (written with an acute accent, as á), low (unmarked), and falling (denoted with a circumflex, as â).

Morphology

Nouns

Class I nouns, which are further split into two subclasses Ia and Ib, and Class II nouns have two stems: The isolation stem, abbreviated "I", and the conjunct stem, abbreviated "C". In the lexicon, nouns are given in the singular and the plural of the nominative (for those with them); these always use the isolation and conjunct forms, respectively, in Class Ia and Ib and use the conjunct and isolation forms, respectively, in Class II.

Class Ia nouns

SG PL
NOM I-Ø C-a
ACC I-Vł C-ła
DAT I-xi I-Vxmi
GEN C-Et C-(E)ti
INST I-Ø I-V̂
ABL I-En I-Én
LAT I-V̂ I-V̂
PART C-min C-mín

Class Ib nouns

SG PL
NOM I-Ø C-a
ACC I-Vn C-naⁱ
DAT I-V́ C-á
GEN I-Vn C-na
INST C-ál C-lí
ABL C-a C-á
LAT C+î² C+í²
PART C-ɛ C-ɛ́
  1. Where the isolation form ends in a nasal, this nasal is deleted and the s becomes ts’.
  2. Palatalizes preceding s, ts, ts’, z, and dz to š, , tš’, ž, and .

Class II nouns

SG PL
NOM C-î I-siⁱ
ACC C-ík C-í
DAT C-ɛ̂ C-ɛl
GEN I-mi C-ɔm
INST C-i C-í
ABL C-at C-át
LAT C-nâ C-nâ
PART C-u C-û
  1. Where the isolation form ends in a nasal, this nasal is deleted and the s becomes ts’.

Class III nouns

SG PL
NOM -ɔ̂
ACC -ɛ̂
DAT -ni -nɛ
GEN -siⁱ -síⁱ
INST -siⁱ -síⁱ
ABL -o
LAT -saⁱ -sáⁱ
PART -la² -lá²
  1. Where the isolation form ends in a nasal, this nasal is deleted and the s becomes ts’.
  2. Combines with a preceding t, t’, or d to make the affricates , tł’, and dḷ.

Class IV nouns

Class IV nouns are generally mass nouns with no plural and an invariant stem.

Ending
NOM -ots
ACC -oná
DAT -ołá
GEN
INST
ABL -al
LAT -tsoⁱ
PART -wan
  1. When the final consonant of the stem is a nasal, this nasal deletes and the ts becomes an ejective ts’'.

Class V nouns

SG PL
NOM
ACC
DAT
GEN
INST
ABL -ni -ní
LAT +osⁱ +ósⁱ
PART +iⁱ +íⁱ
  1. Palatalizes preceding s, ts, ts’, z, and dz to š, , tš’, ž, and .