Ndak Ta: Lexicon


English Ndak Tanotes and additional meanings
air âka
animal engka(includes insects but excludes aquatic life, which is all referred to as "fish", mpaiswa)
arm itwam
ashes aindamass. remains, corpses
astronomy bwai iskaimelmass.
back bongga
bark mbâromass.
barley kilmass.
belly mbusmuany soft part of an animal
bird lai
birthright bwenggautsuinheritance
blood ntsemass.
bone langkwo
breast mpepm
brother merkàt
burn gempainsult
child dempiany immature animal
city mosany settlement larger than a village
cloud sim
coast sau
country latsnation, land, region
cow mâisâ
day airtimass. refers only to daytime. To measure a number of days, use "nights", iswau
craftsman arbwa
dog tsis
dust tsondomass.
ear okwa
earth/soil baulaimass.
east nasamass.
edge kakborder
egg ngkai
eye oldauany vulnerable spot
fat dimbaumass.
father mebwe
feast bwaikti
feather robm
finger dengi
fingernail kwi
fire alimass. heat, warmth
fish mpaiswaall aquatic life
flea titi
flower ailàu
fly ammi
fog arwa
foot nggolfoundation, basis
forest ntâugmass.
fruit apwi
grass empimass.
goat kwirborrowed from Faraghin
god naka
goddess dasi
guts guromass.
hair ainimass.
hand ton
head imuapex, point
heart maunde
heathen mpurniminfidel, philistine
herb wednany useful plant, including vegetables
herblore wedn iskaimelmass.
horn topai
horse nalaròrborrowed from Gezoro
human being maldo
husband aisab
ice mulâ
island pon
knee tsong
king diàkaany sort of ruler of either gender
knife gan
lake tau
leaf nenga
left saisung
leg baitrai
liver ingkwi
loot napngemass.
louse tsêtsi
man rud
meat samass.
mercy ndimumass.
metal ntindo
metallurgy isesìgenmass. borrowed from Gezoro
month/moon imbi
moon tsar
mother omo
Mother Goddess Ombàsi
mountain dainghill, incline, anything large with a notable slope
mouse susi
mouth mabm
mud wismamass.
music mbopmass.
name imaisymbol, sign
neck nganeanything narrow connecting two larger things
neighbor wimès
night iswau
noble idâu
north iblimass.
nose pungwa
ox baus
peasant aimbufarmer, beggar
poetry lewaitsâi
plain raung
plant ponîany form of vegetation
priest runnak(compound of rud (man) + naka (god))
rabbit gaido
rain mpêlomass.
right odam
river aunti
road gaupath, trail, street
root bâpuanchor
rope ulwovine, string, twine
salt odaimass.
sand pailbe
sculpture âukwai
sea indùng
seed mbontaisource, origin
semiarid land gauron
sheep gaibra
shield pap
sister omau
skin ngwau
sky rande
slave ngaktìscaptive, prisoner
smoke pumâmass. steam
snake aimwa
snow aise
soothsaying naka iskaimelmass.
south tammass.
spear tselô
star bwai
stick batsnbranch, twig
stone tingkàu
strength bambormass.
sun tollight or any source of it
swamp abâi
tail ntêwâpenis
teacher kenla scribe; anyone that's literate
throne ospàkby extension, any status symbol
toe ngembaany bits at the bottom of something
tongue komwa
tooth tsilâufang
tree ndaiby extension, anything tall (including people)
water saungwemass.
war angàibattles
west emwelmass.
wheat bormamass.
wife netrai
wind altòmass.
wing taindishield, shelter
woman asa
wood gatnmass.
word lewai
worm mombwai
year laid


English Ndak Tanotes and additional meanings
ask kenau
attack pastopick or provoke a fight
bite kwainchew
blame wuku
blow untsi
breathe ndenamerg. intr. metaphorically, to live
celebrate miaskointr. party, have a good time
come otointr. any motion toward 'here'
commit crime abâintr.
control tsobi
corruptsikîdainfluence (someone) to behave badly
count mondumeasure
cut narnospecifically means "to use a knife upon"
defeat sompìsconquer, pwn
destroy ebridelete, render nonexistent or nonrepairable
die notserg. intr.
dig wats
drink saberg. swallow
eat tuerg.
fall enduintr. erg.
farm ain
fear paingkwuerg.
feelispeintr. erg. physically experience
feelenàndaintr. erg. have emotion
fight das
float ntetsnintr.
flow lailintr. any continuous motion
fly alnia
forget oslòk
freeze aipierg.
fuck up penta(highly insulting when said of someone else)
give tsampi
grow muserg.
go nonintr. any motion toward somewhere other than 'here'
have bârepossess
hear ranto
hit wapa
hold mbunwe
honor bwenggorrespect
hurry randèlerg.
hunt desmog
insult tsurtorburn
joke untaiintr.
keep aitn
kill engku
know matnunderstand
laugh ngangointr. (laugh loudly)
laugh limuintr. (laugh quietly)
lie balerg. intr.
lift sâpabmerg.
like tsin
live wim
love raula
make alpaucreate
name papau
need âidai
play rowa to play a musical instrument
play unmaintr. any non-serious action
protest (against) mâukcomplain (about)
punish bespi
pull tengo
push mbwawe
remember wompo
repair kumâi
rest erbointr.
rise ulaintr.
rub bimbo
run orte
sacrifice ausa
say mbi
scratch egran
see inaerg.
send pilai
sew isma
shine eptàg
sing mbîbwe
sit mpeintr.
sleep ngataerg.
smell dumboerg.
spit aumu
split alenerg.
squeeze orngi
stab bontu
stand andeintr.
steal aulmo
study kaime
suck malwe
swell nambepmintr.
swim embur
take esul
think ngwâibelieve, have faith in
throw kek
tie kîbai
touch nde
turn em
use imbwaerg.
visit lolmau
vomit ngkwaimpaugng
walk kengintr.
wash tsaingerg.
wipe ngendescrape
worship banaierg.
write lewalpau


English Ndak Tanotes and additional meanings
ancient ngauroantique
angry gâgaviolent, bloodthirsty
awake molan"on the ball", "on top of things"
bad gibm
beautiful ilmo
big pai
black ilki
blue sai
brave perasvaliant, courageous
brown namowiorange
calm wawaik
chief aiomost important, most salient
clean elge
cold lêtsau
correct lonte
crooked ainggàuaskew, awry, amiss
cruel udu
cultured bad
dangerous kelki
deep ompu
difficult goso
dirty ndabwa
dry asnàn
dull gaut
early piwel
easy aubohappy
empty anaihungry
familiar langàng
far mpag
female sai
foreign saialien, inscrutable
full ngwolâi
funny kola
good aiwa
green auspi
guilty mbibo
hard gingko
heavy mwarwobm
high gom
holy dautin
hostile selkon
last pekwa
late mits
light epwaip(non-heavy)
long larmai
low pim
lucky sim
male dado
mystical dêkaspiritual
muddy aurnemurky, unclear, obscured
narrow mauro
near tsuts
necessary mbiski
new olto
old anto
ordered mbestaorganized
powerful kâtsum
pure ndaun
ready kweda
red napê
rotten simwai
rough bagng
round kwaim
secret palmambi
sharp ngimbu
short mbâur
sick nam
small nambam
smooth nuwe
soft tsâuki
stupid musmis(said of people)
stupid muspê(said of actions)
straight ikwa
thick ngabra
thin auntòn
ugly aklu
unusual mbwura
warm bubwits
wet wing
white dauwai
wide tento
wrong sumo
yellow ulmài

a little ladn
again bau
apart kwentu
backward ngwogng
because of mpau
downward aina
forward rolw
greatly ntsand
healthy lasti
in favor of intaing
incompetently râwebm
instead of rampen
last year kapm
leftward mbai
moderately ambwa
pointlessly naisngai
recently mbubwa
rightward bwut
somewhat taudu
soon ubwu
this year daid
today mâg
tomorrow tsuri
together taibm
upward nggai
very ngal
well iwen as in "did well"
yesterday auso
dynamic particle ta


Personal Pronouns

1st Person SUBJ OBJ DAT
singular i î im
dual ig is
plural/mass ik
2nd Person
SG do dong dom
DL dog dos
PL/M dok
3rd Person
SG a â am
DL ag as
PL/M ak
2nd Person Formal
SG laingko laingkong laingkom
DL laingkog laingkos
PL/M laingkok

Correlative Pronouns

iwa which
wai this
that (by you)
tsi that (far away)
namê some
ma no
gewa who/what
waige this
gâge that (by you)
tsige that (far away)
nambe someone/something
mage nobody/nothing
mala where
wailul here
gâlul there (by you)
tsilul there (over there)
namlul somewhere
malul nowhere
sola when
waitsau now
tsitsau then
nambau sometime
matsau never
ipa how
tsip thus
namip somehow
mip no way
ewipevery way / for every reason
nduwa why
tsindu this reason
nambu for some reason
mandu for no reason


Type 1: General conjunctions which can be used between most types of phrases and clauses.
Type 2: Object-gapping conjunctions, for use only between coordinate clauses. These are explained in the grammar.

Type 1 Type 2 English Notes
on ongwâ and ("I like him, *and* he seems trustworthy")
dal daldâ but ("I dislike him, *but* he seems trustworthy")
mi mit or ("You can buy it with cash *or* charge it to your credit card")
gunto gundâ so, thus ("He seems trustworthy, *so* I agreed to lend him the money")
nin nindâ therefore (takes the place of English if/then. Where English says "if X then Y", Ndak Ta says "X nin Y")
boda bodat "exclusive or" (takes the place of English either/or. Where English says "either X or Y", Ndak Ta says "X boda Y")
lik ligâ nor (takes the place of English neither/nor. Where English says "neither X nor Y", Ndak Ta says "X lik Y")


These come before all common nouns.

lu Definite
au Indefinite, discourse-oblique
ndo Indefinite, discourse-referential
wai Near-me
tsi Far-from-either
ngwa (a) few
namÉ some, more than one
omba many
ais a large number of
mi no, none of
ewe all, every
or each one of


Relational Prepositions
âk genitive (possessor, source), agentive (in passive constructions, like Eng. "by"), initiative ("since")
wau benefactive (purpose), "for", "concerning", "with respect to"
nte (manner, as in "he sent it *with love*")
um compositive (like 'a pile *of* bricks')
ngu appositive, essive ("as")
kwen comitative ("with")
al abessive ("without"), "besides", "except for"
puk "per", "for each"
Locative Prepositions
sa elative ("from out of")
nai inessive ("in")
anda illative ("into")
uwa ablative ("from", "from near", "after")
ob adessive ("at", "near to")
isla allative ("to", "towards", "before"/"by" for time)
nggairit terminative ("as far as", "as much as", "until")
rambe prolative, prosecutive ("along", "via", "during")
mbembu "between", "among"
lita "throughout"
ntatsn "surrounding", "all around"


This is an unforgivably terse description, but the system is fairly simple and hopefully can be worked out from this alone.

1 ke
2 ngi
3 wos
4 bu
5 dau
6 ets
7 mam
8 sudn
9 nil
10 ro
11 rolke
12 rolngi
20 ngiro
21 ngirolke
22 ngirolngi
100 imbi
101 imbike
102 imbingi
110 imbiro
121 imbingirolke